MiR-320-3p Regulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Myogenic Progenitor Cells by Modulating Actin Remodeling.
ABSTRACT: Skeletal myogenesis is essential for the maintenance of muscle quality and quantity, and impaired myogenesis is intimately associated with muscle wasting diseases. Although microRNA (miRNA) plays a crucial role in myogenesis and relates to muscle wasting in obesity, the molecular targets and roles of miRNAs modulated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-320-3p on the differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells. Palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant dietary SFA, suppressed myogenic factors expression and impaired differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts, and these effects were accompanied by CFL2 downregulation and miR-320-3p upregulation. In particular, miR-320-3p appeared to target CFL2 mRNA directly and suppress the expression of CFL2, an essential factor for filamentous actin (F-actin) depolymerization. Transfection of myoblasts with miR-320-3p mimic increased F-actin formation and nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a key component of mechanotransduction. Furthermore, miR-320-3p mimic increased myoblast proliferation and markedly impeded the expression of MyoD and MyoG, consequently inhibiting myoblast differentiation. In conclusion, our current study highlights the role of miR-320-3p on CFL2 expression, YAP1 activation, and myoblast differentiation and suggests that PA-inducible miR-320-3p is a significant mediator of muscle wasting in obesity.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a multi-stage process that includes the cell cycle exit, myogenic transcriptional activation, and morphological changes to form multinucleated myofibers. Recent studies have shown that saturated fatty acids (SFA) and miRNAs play crucial roles in myogenesis and muscle homeostasis. Nevertheless, the target molecules and myogenic regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs are largely unknown, particularly when myogenesis is dysregulated by SFA deposition. This study investigated the critical role played by miR-96-5p on the myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Long-chain SFA palmitic acid (PA) significantly reduced FHL1 expression and inhibited the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts but induced miR-96-5p expression. The knockdown of FHL1 by siRNA stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited myogenic differentiation of myoblasts. Interestingly, miR-96-5p suppressed FHL1 expression by directly targeting the 3'UTR of <i>FHL1</i> mRNA. The transfection of an miR-96-5p mimic upregulated the expressions of cell cycle-related genes, such as PCNA, CCNB1, and CCND1, and increased myoblast proliferation. Moreover, the miR-96-5p mimic inhibited the expressions of myogenic factors, such as myoblast determination protein (MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), and dramatically impeded differentiation and fusion of myoblasts. Overall, this study highlights the role of miR-96-5p in myogenesis via FHL1 suppression and suggests a novel regulatory mechanism for myogenesis mediated by miRNA in a background of obesity.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small noncoding RNAs and play critical roles in the regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression. Our previous study uncovered that chi-miR-487b-3p is widespread in different goat tissues, which is significantly higher in muscle, especially in lamb. Here, we demonstrate the role of chi-miR-487b-3p as a myogenic miRNA that regulates skeletal muscle development. chi-miR-487b-3p overexpression was demonstrated to significantly inhibit goat myoblast proliferation and differentiation, whereas chi-miR-487b-3p inhibition resulted in the opposite effects. Next, chi-miR-487b-3p was predicted to target the 3'UTR of insulin receptor substrate 1 (<i>IRS1</i>) gene by Target-Scan and miRDB. The results of dual-luciferase assay, RT-qPCR, and western blot all confirmed that <i>IRS1</i> might be a direct target of chi-miR-487b-3p as its expression was negatively regulated by chi-miR-487b-3p. siRNA silencing of <i>IRS1</i> further demonstrated significant inhibition on goat myoblast proliferation and differentiation, confirming the effect of <i>IRS1</i> downregulation by chi-miR-487b-3p in myogenesis. In addition, chi-miR-487b-3p knockout goat myoblast clones were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and we further illustrated that chi-miR-487b-3p regulates goat myoblast growth through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by targeting <i>IRS1</i>. Collectively, our work demonstrated that chi-miR-487b-3p is a potent inhibitor of skeletal myogenesis and provided new insights into the mechanisms of miRNA on the regulation of goat growth.
Project description:The development of skeletal muscle is a highly ordered and complex biological process. Increasing evidence has shown that noncoding RNAs, especially long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs, play a vital role in the development of myogenic processes. In this study, we observed that lncMyoD regulates myogenesis and changes myofiber-type composition. miR-370-3p, which is directly targeted by lncMyoD, promoted myoblast proliferation and inhibited myoblast differentiation in the C2C12 cell line, which serves as a valuable model for studying muscle development. In addition, the inhibition of miR-370-3p promoted fast-twitch fiber transition. Further analysis indicated that acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, short/branched chain (ACADSB) is a target gene of miR-370-3p, which is also involved in myoblast differentiation and fiber-type transition. Furthermore, our data suggested that miR-370-3p was sponged by lncMyoD. In contrast with miR-370-3p, lncMyoD promoted fast-twitch fiber transition. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-370-3p regulates myoblast differentiation and muscle fiber transition and is sponged by lncMyoD.
Project description:Circular RNAs and microRNAs widely exist in various species and play crucial roles in multiple biological processes. It is essential to study their roles in myogenesis. In our previous sequencing data, both miR-30a-3p and circular HIPK3 (circHIPK3) RNA, which are produced by the third exon of the HIPK3 gene, were differentially expressed among chicken skeletal muscles at 11 embryo age (E11), 16 embryo age (E16), and 1-day post-hatch (P1). Here, we investigated their potential roles in myogenesis. Proliferation experiment showed that miR-30a-3p could inhibit the proliferation of myoblast. Through dual-luciferase assay and Myosin heavy chain (MYHC) immunofluorescence, we found that miR-30a-3p could inhibit the differentiation of myoblast by binding to Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 C (MEF2C), which could promote the differentiation of myoblast. Then, we found that circHIPK3 could act as a sponge of miR-30a-3p and exerted a counteractive effect of miR-30a-3p by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Taking together, our data suggested that circHIPK3 could promote the chicken embryonic skeletal muscle development by sponging miR-30a-3p.
Project description:Accumulating studies report that microRNAs (miRNAs) are actively involved in skeletal myogenesis. Previously, our study revealed that miR-146b-3p was related to the growth of skeletal muscle. Here, we further report that miR-146b-3p is essential for the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of chicken myoblast. Elevated expression of miR-146b-3p can dramatically suppress proliferation and differentiation, and facilitate apoptosis of chicken myoblast. Besides, we identified two target genes of miR-146b-3p, AKT1 and MDFIC, and found that miR-146b-3p can inhibit the PI3K/AKT pathway. Our study also showed that both AKT1 and MDFIC can promote the proliferation and differentiation while inhibit the apoptosis of myoblast in chicken. Overall, our results demonstrate that miR-146b-3p, directly suppressing PI3K/AKT pathway and MDFIC, acts in the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of myoblast in chicken.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that critically regulate gene expression. Their abundance and function have been linked to a range of physiologic and pathologic processes. In aged monkey muscle, miR-451a and miR-144-3p were far more abundant than in young monkey muscle. This observation led us to hypothesize that miR-451a and miR-144-3p may influence muscle homeostasis. To test if these conserved microRNAs were implicated in myogenesis, we investigated their function in the mouse myoblast line C2C12. The levels of both microRNAs declined with myogenesis; however, only overexpression of miR-451a, but not miR-144-3p, robustly impeded C2C12 differentiation, suggesting an inhibitory role for miR-451a in myogenesis. Further investigation of the regulatory influence of miR-451a identified as one of the major targets Sparc mRNA, which encodes a secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) that functions in wound healing and cellular differentiation. In mouse myoblasts, miR-451a suppressed Sparc mRNA translation. Together, our findings indicate that miR-451a is downregulated in differentiated myoblasts and suggest that it decreases C2C12 differentiation at least in part by suppressing SPARC biosynthesis.
Project description:MicroRNAs constitute a class of ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs. They modulate gene expression by associating with the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Although multiple miRNAs are known to be regulated during myoblast differentiation, their individual roles in muscle development are still not fully understood. In this study, we showed that miR-199a-3p was highly expressed in skeletal muscle and was induced during C2C12 myoblasts differentiation. We also identified and confirmed several genes of the IGF-1/AKT/mTOR signal pathway, including IGF-1, mTOR, and RPS6KA6, as important cellular targets of miR-199a-3p in myoblasts. Overexpression of miR-199a-3p partially blocked C2C12 myoblast differentiation and the activation of AKT/mTOR signal pathway, while interference of miR-199a-3p by antisense oligonucleotides promoted C2C12 differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Thus, our studies have established miR-199a-3p as a potential regulator of myogenesis through the suppression of IGF-1/AKT/mTOR signal pathway.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a complex process that is finely regulated by myogenic transcription factors. Recent studies have shown that saturated fatty acids (SFA) can suppress the activation of myogenic transcription factors and impair the myogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. Despite the increasing evidence of the roles of miRNAs in myogenesis, the targets and myogenic regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs are largely unknown, particularly when myogenesis is dysregulated by SFA deposition. This study examined the implications of SFA-induced miR-183-5p on the myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Long-chain SFA palmitic acid (PA) drastically reduced myogenic transcription factors, such as myoblast determination protein (MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), and inhibited FHL1 expression and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, accompanied by the induction of miR-183-5p. The knockdown of FHL1 by siRNA inhibited myogenic differentiation of myoblasts. Interestingly, miR-183-5p inversely regulated the expression of FHL1, a crucial regulator of skeletal myogenesis, by targeting the 3'UTR of FHL1 mRNA. Furthermore, the transfection of miR-183-5p mimic suppressed the expression of MyoD, MyoG, MEF2C, and MyHC, and impaired the differentiation and myotube formation of myoblasts. Overall, this study highlights the role of miR-183-5p in myogenic differentiation through FHL1 repression and suggests a novel miRNA-mediated mechanism for myogenesis in a background of obesity. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(11): 605-610].
Project description:Growth factors, such as myostatin (Mstn), play an important role in regulating post-natal myogenesis. In fact, loss of Mstn has been shown to result in increased post-natal muscle growth through enhanced satellite cell functionality; while elevated levels of Mstn result in dramatic skeletal muscle wasting through a mechanism involving reduced protein synthesis and increased ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Here we show that miR-27a/b plays an important role in feed back auto-regulation of Mstn and thus regulation of post-natal myogenesis. Sequence analysis of Mstn 3' UTR showed a single highly conserved miR-27a/b binding site and increased expression of miR-27a/b was correlated with decreased expression of Mstn and vice versa both in vitro and in mice in vivo. Moreover, we also show that Mstn gene expression was regulated by miR-27a/b. Treatment with miR-27a/b-specific AntagomiRs resulted in increased Mstn expression, reduced myoblast proliferation, impaired satellite cell activation and induction of skeletal muscle atrophy that was rescued upon either blockade of, or complete absence of, Mstn. Consistent with this, miR-27a over expression resulted in reduced Mstn expression, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and an increase in the number of activated satellite cells, all features consistent with impaired Mstn function. Loss of Smad3 was associated with increased levels of Mstn, concomitant with decreased miR-27a/b expression, which is consistent with impaired satellite cell function and muscular atrophy previously reported in Smad3-null mice. Interestingly, treatment with Mstn resulted in increased miR-27a/b expression, which was shown to be dependent on the activity of Smad3. These data highlight a novel auto-regulatory mechanism in which Mstn, via Smad3 signaling, regulates miR-27a/b and in turn its own expression. In support, Mstn-mediated inhibition of Mstn 3' UTR reporter activity was reversed upon miR-27a/b-specific AntagomiR transfection. Therefore, miR-27a/b, through negatively regulating Mstn, plays a role in promoting satellite cell activation, myoblast proliferation and preventing muscle wasting.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is one of the most important organs of the animal body. Long noncoding RNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of skeletal muscle development via several mechanisms. We recently identified obesity-related lncRNA (lnc-ORA) in a search for long noncoding RNAs that influence adipogenesis, finding it impacted adipocyte differentiation by regulating the PI3K/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. However, whether lnc-ORA has additional roles, specifically in skeletal muscle myogenesis, is not known. Here, we found that lnc-ORA was significantly differentially expressed with age in mouse skeletal muscle tissue and predominantly located in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of lnc-ORA promoted C2C12 myoblast proliferation and inhibited myoblast differentiation. In contrast, lnc-ORA knockdown repressed myoblast proliferation and facilitated myoblast differentiation. Interestingly, silencing of lnc-ORA rescued dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in vitro. Furthermore, adeno-associated virus 9-mediated overexpression of lnc-ORA decreased muscle mass and the cross-sectional area of muscle fiber by upregulating the levels of muscle atrophy-related genes and downregulating the levels of myogenic differentiation-related genes in vivo. Mechanistically, lnc-ORA inhibited skeletal muscle myogenesis by acting as a sponge of miR-532-3p, which targets the phosphatase and tensin homolog gene; the resultant changes in phosphatase and tensin homolog suppressed the PI3K/protein kinase B signaling pathway. In addition, lnc-ORA interacted with insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 and reduced the stability of myogenesis genes, such as myogenic differentiation 1 and myosin heavy chain. Collectively, these findings indicate that lnc-ORA could be a novel underlying regulator of skeletal muscle development.