The Environmental Pollutant Bromophenols Interfere With Sulfotransferase That Mediates Endocrine Hormones.
ABSTRACT: Bromophenols (BPs), known as an important environmental contaminant, can cause endocrine disruption and other chronic toxicity. The study aimed to investigate the potential inhibitory capability of BPs on four human sulfotransferase isoforms (SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1B1 and SULT1E1) and interpret how to interfere with endocrine hormone metabolism. P-nitrophenol(PNP) was utilized as a nonselective probe substrate, and recombinant SULT isoforms were utilized as the enzyme resources. PNP and its metabolite PNP-sulfate were analyzed using a UPLC-UV detecting system. SULT1A1 and SULT1B1 were demonstrated to be the most vulnerable SULT isoforms towards BPs' inhibition. To determine the inhibition kinetics, 2,4,6-TBP and SULT1A3 were selected as the representative BPs and SULT isoform respectively. The competitive inhibition of 2,4,6-TBP on SULT1A3. The fitting equation was y=90.065x+1466.7, and the inhibition kinetic parameter (Ki) was 16.28 µM. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) showed that the threshold concentration of 2,4,6-TBP to induce inhibition of SULT1A3 was 1.628 µM. In silico docking, the method utilized indicated that more hydrogen bonds formation contributed to the stronger inhibition of 3,5-DBP than 3-BP. In conclusion, our study gave the full description of the inhibition of BPs towards four SULT isoforms, which may provide a new perspective on the toxicity mechanism of BPs and further explain the interference of BPs on endocrine hormone metabolism.
Project description:Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), including SULT1A, SULT1B, SULT1E, and SULT2A isoforms, play noteworthy roles in xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. We quantified the protein abundances of SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1B1, and SULT2A1 in human liver cytosol samples (n = 194) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics. The data were analyzed for their associations by age, sex, genotype, and ethnicity of the donors. SULT1A1, SULT1B1, and SULT2A1 showed significant age-dependent protein abundance, whereas SULT1A3 was invariable across 0-70 years. The respective mean abundances of SULT1A1, SULT1B1, and SULT2A1 in neonatal samples was 24%, 19%, and 38% of the adult levels. Interestingly, unlike UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and cytochrome P450 enzymes, SULT1A1 and SULT2A1 showed the highest abundance during early childhood (1 to <6 years), which gradually decreased by approx. 40% in adolescents and adults. SULT1A3 and SULT1B1 abundances were significantly lower in African Americans compared with Caucasians. Multiple linear regression analysis further confirmed the association of SULT abundances by age, ethnicity, and genotype. To demonstrate clinical application of the characteristic SULT ontogeny profiles, we developed and validated a proteomics-informed physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of acetaminophen. The latter confirmed the higher fractional contribution of sulfation over glucuronidation in the metabolism of acetaminophen in children. The study thus highlights that the ontogeny-based age-dependent fractional contribution (fm) of individual drug-metabolizing enzymes has better potential in prediction of drug-drug interactions and the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the pediatric population.
Project description:This study aims to determine whether enzyme activities are correlated with protein amounts and mRNA expression levels of five major human sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes in 10 matched pericarcinomatous and hepatocellular carcinoma liver samples. The MRM UHPLC-MS/MS method, Western blot and RT-PCR were used along with SULT activity measurement using probe substrates. The LC-MS/MS method was specific for all five tested SULTs, whereas Western blot was specific for only two isoforms. The activities of SULT1A1, SULT1B1, SULT1E1 and SULT2A1 in 9 of 10 samples showed a significant decrease in tumor tissues relative to matched pericarcinomatous tissues, whereas the activities of SULT1A3 in 7 of 10 samples increased. The turnover numbers of SULTs did not change, except for SULT1A1. A generally high degree of correlations was observed between SULT activities and protein amounts (r<sup>2</sup>???0.59 except one), whereas a low degree of correlations was observed between SULT activities and mRNA expression levels (r<sup>2</sup>???0.48 except one). HCC reduced the SULT activities via impaired protein amounts. LC-MS/MS quantification of SULTs is highly reliable measurement of SULT activities, and may be adopted for implementing precision medicine with respect to drugs mainly metabolized by SULTs in healthy and HCC patients.
Project description:Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis through multiple mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of THs, such as sulfotransferases (SULTs). The placenta plays a critical role in helping to maintain TH levels during fetal development and expresses SULTs. This is concerning given that disruption of TH regulation within the placenta could potentially harm the developing fetus. In this study, we investigated the effects of two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two hydroxylated PBDEs, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) on TH SULT activity in a choriocarcinoma placenta cell line (BeWo). BeWo cells were exposed to BFR concentrations up to 1??M for 1-24?h to investigate changes in basal SULT activity and in mRNA expression of several TH regulating genes. 2,4,6-TBP was the most potent inhibitor of basal 3,3'-T2 SULT activity at all exposure durations, decreasing activity by as much as 86% after 24?h of exposure. BDE-99, 3-OH BDE-47, and 6-OH BDE-47 also decreased 3,3'-T2 SULT activity by 23-42% at concentrations of 0.5??M and 1.0??M following 24?h exposures. BDE-47 had no effect on SULT activity, and there was no observed effect of any BFR exposure on expression of SULT1A1, or thyroid nuclear receptors alpha or beta. This research demonstrates that total TH SULT activity in placental cells are sensitive to BFR exposure; however, the mechanisms and consequences have yet to be fully elucidated.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Aristolochic acids are potent human carcinogens; the role of phase II metabolism in their bioactivation is unclear. Accordingly, we tested the ability of the partially reduced metabolites, N-hydroxyaristolactams (AL-NOHs), and their N-O-sulfonated and N-O-acetylated derivatives to react with DNA to form aristolactam-DNA adducts. AL-NOHs displayed little or no activity in this regard while the sulfo- and acetyl compounds readily form DNA adducts, as detected by (32)P-post-labeling analysis. Mouse hepatic and renal cytosols stimulated binding of AL-NOHs to DNA in the presence of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) but not of acetyl-CoA. Using Time of Flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, N-hydroxyaristolactam I formed the sulfated compound in the presence of PAPS and certain human sulfotransferases, SULT1B1 >>> SULT1A2 > SULT1A1 >>> SULT1A3. The same pattern of SULT reactivity was observed when N-hydroxyaristolactam I was incubated with these enzymes and PAPS and the reaction was monitored by formation of aristolactam-DNA adducts. In the presence of human<h4>Nad(p)h</h4>quinone oxidoreductase, the ability of aristolochic acid I to bind DNA covalently was increased significantly by addition of PAPS and SULT1B1. We conclude from these studies that AL-NOHs, formed following partial nitroreduction of aristolochic acids, serve as substrates for SULT1B1, producing N-sulfated esters, which, in turn, are converted to highly active species that react with DNA and, potentially, cellular proteins, resulting in the genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity associated with ingestion of aristolochic acids by humans.
Project description:The presystemic sulfate conjugation of the stereoisomers of 4'-methoxyfenoterol, (R,R')-MF, (S,S')-MF, (R,S')-MF, and (S,R')-MF, was investigated using commercially available human intestinal S9 fractions, a mixture of sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. The results indicate that the sulfation was stereospecific and that an S-configuration at the ?-OH carbon of the MF molecule enhanced the maximal formation rates with (S,R')-MF??(S,S')-MF??(R,S')-MF???(R,R')-MF, and competition studies demonstrated that (S,R')-MF is an effective inhibitor of (R,R')-MF sulfation (IC(50) = 60 ?M). In addition, the results from a cDNA-expressed human SULT isoform screen indicated that SULT1A1, SULT1A3, and SULT1E1 can mediate the sulfation of all four MF stereoisomers. Previously published molecular models of SULT1A3 and SULT1A1 were used in docking simulations of the MF stereoisomers using Molegro Virtual Docker. The models of the MF-SULT1A3 and MF-SULT1A1 complexes indicate that each of the two chiral centers of MF molecule plays a role in the observed relative stabilities. The observed stereoselectivity is the result of multiple hydrogen bonding interactions and induced conformational changes within the substrate-enzyme complex. In conclusion, the results suggest that a formulation developed from a mixture of (R,R')-MF and (S,R')-MF may increase the oral bioavailability of (R,R')-MF.
Project description:Several cytosolic sulfotransferase enzyme isoforms are functional in placenta but there is limited information available on the utility of cultured trophoblast cells for studying sulfation. The trophoblast cell layer constitutes the rate-determining barrier for trans-placental transfer. The objective of this work was to examine the mRNA expression and enzyme activities of four sulfotransferase isoforms reported to be functional in human placenta (SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1E1, and SULT2A1) in primary cytotrophoblast cells and the trophoblast-like BeWo cell line. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine mRNA expression. Enzyme activities were assessed using the following substrates: 4-nitrophenol for SULT1A1, dopamine for SULT1A3, 17beta-estradiol for SULT1E1, and dehydroepiandrosterone for SULT2A1. For 4-nitrophenol and dopamine sulfation, apparent K(m) values, response to inhibitors (2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol and sodium chloride), and thermal stability profiles indicated that 4-nitrophenol and dopamine sulfation in BeWo cells were being mediated by SULT1A1 and SULT1A3, respectively. SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 were also functional in the cytotrophoblast cells. Both at the protein and at the mRNA levels, SULT1A1 was more abundant in BeWo cells in comparison to the primary cytotrophoblast cells. SULT1E1 and SULT2A1 mRNA were not detected in the cytotrophoblasts. SULT1E1 mRNA was weakly expressed in BeWo but there was negligible functional activity. Although SULT2A1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in BeWo, Western blot and enzyme activities revealed that the protein is not expressed in BeWo cells. The results suggest that the BeWo cells and the cytotrophoblast cells can be used to examine the roles of SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 in placental metabolism.
Project description:Sulfotransferase (SULT) function has been well studied in healthy human subjects by quantifying mRNA and protein expression and determining enzyme activity with probe substrates. However, it is not well known if sulfotransferase activity changes in metabolic and liver disease, such as diabetes, steatosis, or cirrhosis. Sulfotransferases have significant roles in the regulation of hormones and excretion of xenobiotics. In the present study of normal subjects with nonfatty livers and patients with steatosis, diabetic cirrhosis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, we sought to determine SULT1A1, SULT2A1, SULT1E1, and SULT1A3 activity and mRNA and protein expression in human liver tissue. In general, sulfotransferase activity decreased significantly with severity of liver disease from steatosis to cirrhosis. Specifically, SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 activities were lower in disease states relative to nonfatty tissues. Alcoholic cirrhotic tissues further contained lower SULT1A1 and 1A3 activities than those affected by either of the two other disease states. SULT2A1, on the other hand, was only reduced in alcoholic cirrhotic tissues. SULT1E1 was reduced both in diabetic cirrhosis and in alcoholic cirrhosis tissues, relative to nonfatty liver tissues. In conclusion, the reduced levels of sulfotransferase expression and activity in diseased versus nondiseased liver tissue may alter the metabolism and disposition of xenobiotics and affect homeostasis of endobiotic sulfotransferase substrates.
Project description:Monoamine neurotransmitters are among the hundreds of signaling small molecules whose target interactions are switched "on" and "off" via transfer of the sulfuryl-moiety (-SO3) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the hydroxyls and amines of their scaffolds. These transfer reactions are catalyzed by a small family of broad-specificity enzymes-the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). The first structure of a SULT allosteric-binding site (that of SULT1A1) has recently come to light. The site is conserved among SULT1 family members and is promiscuous-it binds catechins, a naturally occurring family of flavanols. Here, the catechin-binding site of SULT1A3, which sulfonates monoamine neurotransmitters, is modeled on that of 1A1 and used to screen in silico for endogenous metabolite 1A3 allosteres. Screening predicted a single high-affinity allostere, tetrahydrobiopterin (THB), an essential cofactor in monoamine neurotransmitter biosynthesis. THB is shown to bind and inhibit SULT1A3 with high affinity, 23 (±2) nM, and to bind weakly, if at all, to the four other major SULTs found in brain and liver. The structure of the THB-bound binding site is determined and confirms that THB binds the catechin site. A structural comparison of SULT1A3 with SULT1A1 (its immediate evolutionary progenitor) reveals how SULT1A3 acquired high affinity for THB and that the majority of residue changes needed to transform 1A1 into 1A3 are clustered at the allosteric and active sites. Finally, sequence records reveal that the coevolution of these sites played an essential role in the evolution of simian neurotransmitter metabolism.
Project description:Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide-more than 111 million prescriptions were written in the United States in 2014. NSAIDs allosterically inhibit cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) with high specificity and therapeutically relevant affinities. This study focuses on the interactions of SULT1A1 and mefenamic acid (MEF)-a potent, highly specific NSAID inhibitor of 1A1. Here, the first structure of an NSAID allosteric site-the MEF-binding site of SULT1A1-is determined using spin-label triangulation NMR. The structure is confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and provides a molecular framework for understanding NSAID binding and isoform specificity. The mechanism of NSAID inhibition is explored using molecular dynamics and equilibrium and pre-steady-state ligand-binding studies. MEF inhibits SULT1A1 turnover through an indirect (helix-mediated) stabilization of the closed form of the active-site cap of the enzyme, which traps the nucleotide and slows its release. Using the NSAID-binding site structure of SULT1A1 as a comparative model, it appears that 11 of the 13 human SULT isoforms harbor an NSAID-binding site. We hypothesize that these sites evolved to enable SULT isoforms to respond to metabolites that lie within their metabolic domains. Finally, the NSAID-binding site structure offers a template for developing isozyme-specific allosteric inhibitors that can be used to regulate specific areas of sulfuryl-transfer metabolism.
Project description:The activities of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of metabolites are regulated by human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) - a 13-member family of disease relevant enzymes that catalyze transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfonate) to the hydroxyls and amines of acceptors. SULTs harbor two independent allosteric sites, one of which, the focus of this work, binds non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The structure of the first NSAID-binding site - that of SULT1A1 - was elucidated recently and homology modeling suggest that variants of the site are present in all SULT isoforms. The objective of the current study was to assess whether the NSAID-binding site can be used to regulate sulfuryl transfer in humans in an isoform specific manner. Mefenamic acid (Mef) is a potent (Ki 27?nM) NSAID-inhibitor of SULT1A1 - the predominant SULT isoform in small intestine and liver. Acetaminophen (APAP), a SULT1A1 specific substrate, is extensively sulfonated in humans. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is specific for SULT2A1, which we show here is insensitive to Mef inhibition. APAP and DHEA sulfonates are readily quantified in urine and thus the effects of Mef on APAP and DHEA sulfonation could be studied non-invasively. Compounds were given orally in a single therapeutic dose to a healthy, adult male human with a typical APAP-metabolite profile. Mef profoundly decreased APAP sulfonation during first pass metabolism and substantially decreased systemic APAP sulfonation without influencing DHEA sulfonation; thus, it appears the NSAID site can be used to control sulfonation in humans in a SULT-isoform specific manner.