Experimental Investigation of Polypropylene Composite Drawn Fibers with Talc, Wollastonite, Attapulgite and Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.
ABSTRACT: Isotactic polypropylene (PP) composite drawn fibers were prepared using melt extrusion and high-temperature solid-state drawing at a draw ratio of 7. Five different fillers were used as reinforcement agents (microtalc, ultrafine talc, wollastonite, attapulgite and single-wall carbon nanotubes). In all the prepared samples, antioxidant was added, while all samples were prepared with and without using PP grafted with maleic anhydride as compatibilizer. Material characterization was performed by tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Attapulgite composite fibers exhibited poor results in terms of tensile strength and thermal stability. The use of ultrafine talc particles yields better results, in terms of thermal stability and tensile strength, compared to microtalc. Better results were observed using needle-like fillers, such as wollastonite and single-wall carbon nanotubes, since, as was previously observed, high aspect ratio particles tend to align during the drawing process and, thus, contribute to a more symmetrical distribution of stresses. Competitive and synergistic effects were recognized to occur among the additives and fillers, such as the antioxidant effect being enhanced by the addition of the compatibilizer, while the antioxidant itself acts as a compatibilizing agent.
Project description:The study presents a comparative analysis for two types of polymer fillers used during the processing of polypropylene by the injection molding technique. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of buckwheat husk waste as an alternative to the widely used wood fiber fillers. For this purpose, we prepared composite samples containing 10, 30 and 50 wt % of the filler, which were subjected to mechanical tests, thermal analysis, and structural observations in order to evaluate and compare their properties. Additionally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the composite system's compatibility by using maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA). The results of mechanical tests confirmed a more effective reinforcement mechanism for wood fibers; however, with the addition of PP-g-MA compatibilizer, these differences were significantly reduced: we observed a 14% drop for tensile modulus and 5% for strength. This suggests high susceptibility to this type of adhesion promoter, also confirmed by SEM observations. The paper also discusses rheological measurements conducted on a rotational rheometer, which allowed to confirm more favorable flow characteristics for composites based on buckwheat husks.
Project description:Polypropylene (PP) is an attractive polymer for use in automotive parts due to its ease of processing, hydrophobic nature, chemical resistance and low density. The global shift towards eliminating non-renewable resource consumption has promoted research of sustainable biocarbon (BioC) filler in a PP matrix, but this material often leads to reduction in composite strength and requires additional fillers. Graphene nano-platelets (GnPs) have been the subject of considerable research as a nanofiller due to their strength, while maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MA-g-PP) is a commonly used compatibilizer for improvement of interfacial adhesion in composites. This study compared the thermo-mechanical properties of PP/BioC/MA-g-PP/GnP composites with varying wt.% of GnP. Morphological analysis revealed uniform dispersion of BioC, while significant agglomeration of GnPs limited their even dispersion throughout the PP matrix. In the optimal blend of 3 wt.% GnP and 17 wt.% BioC biocontent, tensile strength and modulus increased by ~19% and ~22% respectively, as compared to 20 wt.% BioC biocomposites. Thermal stability and performance enhancement occurred through incorporation of the fillers. Thus, hybridization of fillers in the compatibilized matrix presents a promising route to the enhancement of material properties, while reducing petroleum-based products through use of sustainable BioC filler in composite structures.
Project description:Hybrid basalt fiber (BF) and Talc filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and co-extruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs) with different BF/Talc/HDPE composition levels in the shell were prepared and their mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were characterized. Incorporating BFs into the HDPE-Talc composite substantially enhanced the thermal expansion property, flexural, tensile and dynamic modulus without causing a significant decrease in the tensile and impact strength of the composites. Strain energy estimation suggested positive and better interfacial interactions of HDPE with BFs than that with talc. The co-extruded structure design improved the mechanical properties of WPC due to the protective shell layer. The composite flexural and impact strength properties increased, and the thermal expansion decreased as BF content increased in the hybrid BF/Talc filled shells. The cone calorimetry data demonstrated that flame resistance of co-extruded WPCs was improved with the use of combined fillers in the shell layer, especially with increased loading of BFs. The combined shell filler system with BFs and Talc could offer a balance between cost and performance for co-extruded WPCs.
Project description:The main goal of this research is to study the development of crystalline morphology and compare it to various mechanical properties of microfibrillar composites (MFCs) based on polypropylene (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), by adding a functional compatibilizer and a non-functional rubber in two different steps in the processing sequence. The MFCs were prepared at a weight ratio of 80/20 PP/PET by twin screw extrusion followed by cold drawing and injection moulding. The non-functionalized polyolefin-based elastomer (POE) and the functional compatibilizer (i.e., POE grafted with maleic anhydride (POE-<i>g</i>-MA)) were added in a fixed weight percentage at two stages: during extrusion or during injection moulding. The morphology observations showed differences in crystalline structure, and the PP spherulite size was reduced in all MFCs due to the presence of PET fibrils. Their relationship with the mechanical performances of the composite was studied by tensile and impact tests. Adding the functional compatibilizer during extrusions showed better mechanical properties compared to MFCs. Overall, a clear relationship was identified between processing, structure and properties.
Project description:The preparation of composites of synthetic and natural polymers represent an interesting option to combine properties; in this manner, polypropylene and chitosan extruded films using a different proportion of components and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PPgMA) as compatibilizer were prepared. The effect of the content of the biopolymer in the polypropylene (PP) matrix, the addition of compatibilizer, and the particle size on the properties of the composites was analyzed using characterization by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength, and contact angle, finding that in general, the addition of the compatibilizer and reducing the particle size of the chitosan, favored the physicochemical and morphological properties of the films.
Project description:The effect of individual and combined talc and glass fibers (GFs) on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was studied. Several published models were adapted to fit the measured tensile modulus and strength of various composite systems. It was shown that the use of silane-modified GFs had a much larger effect in improving mechanical properties and in reducing linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) values of filled composites, compared with the use of un-modified talc particles due to enhanced bonding to the matrix, larger aspect ratio, and fiber alignment for GFs. Mechanical properties and LCTE values of composites with combined talc and GF fillers varied with talc and GF ratio at a given total filler loading level. The use of a larger portion of GFs in the mix can lead to better composite performance, while the use of talc can help lower the composite costs and increase its recyclability. The use of 30 wt % combined filler seems necessary to control LCTE values of filled HDPE in the data value range generally reported for commercial wood plastic composites. Tensile modulus for talc-filled composite can be predicted with rule of mixture, while a PPA-based model can be used to predict the modulus and strength of GF-filled composites.
Project description:Plastic recycling to make sustainable materials is considered one of the biggest initiatives toward a greener environment and socioeconomic development. This research aims to investigate the properties of a blend of recycled bale wrap linear low-density polyethylene (rLLDPE) and polypropylene (PP) (rLLDPE/PP 50:50 wt % matrix), which was further reinforced with 25 wt % agave fiber prepared by injection-molding. Different ratios of a combined industrial compatibilizer (maleic anhydride-grafted PP/PE) were used (1-3 wt %), which were compared with a synthesized compatibilizer made from maleic anhydride-PP/rLLDPE in terms of mechanical and thermomechanical properties of the biocomposites. Incorporation of the compatibilizer in the composite improved the interfacial adhesion between the hydrophobic matrix and the hydrophilic agave fiber, which further increased the mechanical properties and heat deflection temperature of the composite. Scanning electron microscopy showed enhanced compatibility and adhesion between the fiber and the matrix by inclusion of 2 wt % compatibilizer. The synthesized compatibilizer-blended composite showed better mechanical properties than the industrial one, which indicates the potential application of this composite (around 62% recycled material) in the manufacture of packaging materials and commodity products.
Project description:The incorporation of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as a partial biobased polymer substitute for polypropylene (PP) was investigated. The ternary blends were prepared through melt compounding extrusion followed by injection molding techniques with a constant biopolymer ratio of 30 wt %. Further addition of pyrolyzed miscanthus-based carbon was carried out to establish a contrast between talc-filled PP. When the morphology of the biopolymer minor phase was analyzed theoretically using contact angle for interfacial tension and spreading coefficient values along with solubility parameter calculations and via scanning electron microscopy imaging, the core-shell architecture was found with the PHBV encasing the PLA phase. Mechanical testing of the materials showed that only the tensile properties were reduced for all samples, whereas the impact strength was increased above the neat PP. With inclusion of the biobased carbon filler into the blend system, the thermomechanical properties were elevated above that of the PP matrix. The final properties of the multiphase polymeric composites are found to be related to the morphology obtained and inherent properties of the individual constituents.
Project description:Terminally hydroxylated polypropylene (PP) synthesized by a chain transfer method was grafted to graphene oxide (GO) at the chain end. Thus obtained PP-modified GO (PP-GO) was melt mixed with PP without the use of a compatibilizer to prepare PP/GO nanocomposites. Mechanical and electrical properties of the resultant nanocomposites and reference samples that contained graphite nanoplatelets, partially reduced GO, or fully reduced GO were examined. The best improvement in the tensile strength was obtained using PP-GO at 1.0 wt %. The inclusion of PP-GO also led to the highest electrical conductivity, in spite of the incomplete reduction. These observations pointed out that terminally hydroxylated PP covalently grafted to GO prevented GO layers from re-stacking and agglomeration during melt mixing, affording improved dispersion as well as stronger interfacial bonding between the matrix and GO.
Project description:In this work, composite nanoparticles containing polypyrrole, silver and attapulgite (PPy/Ag/ATP) were prepared via UV-induced dispersion polymerization of pyrrole using ATP clay as a templet and silver nitrate as photoinitiator. The effects of ATP concentration on morphology, structure and electrical conductivity were studied. The obtained composite nanoparticles with an interesting beads-on-a-string morphology can be obtained in a short time (10 min), which indicates the preparation method is facile and feasible. To explore the potential applications of the prepared PPy/Ag/ATP composite nanoparticles, they were served as multifunctional filler and blended with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) matrix to prepare biodegradable composite material. The distribution of fillers in polymer matrix and the interfacial interaction between fillers and PBS were confirmed by scanning electron microscope, elemental mapping and dynamic mechanical analysis. The well dispersed fillers in PBS matrix impart outstanding antibacterial property to the biodegradable composite material as well as enhanced storage modulus due to Ag nanoparticles and ATP clay. The biodegradable composite material also possesses modest surface resistivity (10(6)~ 10(9) Ω/◻).