A New Oxygen Containing Pyclen-Type Ligand as a Manganese(II) Binder for MRI and 52Mn PET Applications: Equilibrium, Kinetic, Relaxometric, Structural and Radiochemical Studies.
ABSTRACT: A new pyclen-3,9-diacetate derivative ligand (H23,9-OPC2A) was synthesized possessing an etheric O-atom opposite to the pyridine ring, to improve the dissociation kinetics of its Mn(II) complex (pyclen = 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo(9.3.1)pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene). The new ligand is less basic than the N-containing analogue (H23,9-PC2A) due to the non-protonable O-atom. In spite of its lower basicity, the conditional stability of the [Mn(3,9-OPC2A)] (pMn = -log(Mn(II)), cL = cMn(II) = 0.01 mM. pH = 7.4) remains unaffected (pMn = 8.69), compared to the [Mn(3,9-PC2A)] (pMn = 8.64). The [Mn(3,9-OPC2A)] possesses one water molecule, having a lower exchange rate with bulk solvents (kex298 = 5.3 ± 0.4 × 107 s-1) than [Mn(3,9-PC2A)] (kex298 = 1.26 × 108 s-1). These mild differences are rationalized by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The acid assisted dissociation of [Mn(3,9-OPC2A)] is considerably slower (k1 = 2.81 ± 0.07 M-1 s-1) than that of the complexes of diacetates or bisamides of various 12-membered macrocycles and the parent H23,9-PC2A. The [Mn(3,9-OPC2A)] is inert in rat/human serum as confirmed by 52Mn labeling (nM range), as well as by relaxometry (mM range). However, a 600-fold excess of EDTA (pH = 7.4) or a mixture of essential metal ions, propagated some transchelation/transmetalation in 7 days. The H23,9-OPC2A is labeled efficiently with 52Mn at elevated temperatures, yet at 37 °C the parent H23,9-PC2A performs slightly better. Ultimately, the H23,9-OPC2A shows advantageous features for further ligand designs for bifunctional chelators.
Project description:During the past few years increasing attention has been devoted to Mn(II) complexes as possible substitutes for Gd(III) complexes as contrast agents in MRI. Equilibrium (log KMnL or pMn value), kinetic parameters (rates and half-lives of dissociation) and relaxivity of the Mn(II) complexes formed with 12-membered macrocyclic ligands were studied. The ligands were selected in a way to gain information on how the ligand rigidity, the nature of the donor atoms in the macrocycle (pyridine N, amine N, and etheric O atom), the nature of the pendant arms (carboxylates, phosphonates, primary, secondary and tertiary amides) affect the physicochemical parameters of the Mn(II) complexes. As expected, decreasing the denticity of DOTA (to afford DO3A) resulted in a drop in the stability and inertness of [Mn(DO3A)]- compared to [Mn(DOTA)]2-. This decrease can be compensated partially by incorporating the fourth nitrogen atom into a pyridine ring (e.g., PCTA) or by replacement with an etheric oxygen atom (ODO3A). Moreover, the substitution of primary amides for acetates resulted in a noticeable drop in the stability constant (PC3AMH), but it increased as the primary amides (PC3AMH) were replaced by secondary (PC3AMGly) or tertiary amide (PC3AMPip) pendants. The inertness of the Mn(II) complexes behaved alike as the rates of acid catalyzed dissociation increased going from DOTA (k1 = 0.040 M-1s-1) to DO3A (k1 = 0.45 M-1s-1). However, the rates of acid catalyzed dissociation decreased from 0.112 M-1s-1 observed for the anionic Mn(II) complex of PCTA to 0.0107 M-1s-1 and 0.00458 M-1s-1 for the cationic Mn(II) complexes of PC3AMH and PC3AMPip ligands, respectively. In spite of its lower denticity (as compared to DOTA) the sterically more hindered amide complex ([Mn(PC3AMPip)]2+) displays surprisingly high conditional stability (pMn = 8.86 vs. pMn = 9.74 for [Mn(PCTA)]-) and excellent kinetic inertness. The substitution of phosphonates for the acetate pendant arms (DOTP and DO3P), however, resulted in a noticeable drop in the conditional stability as well as dissociation kinetic parameters of the corresponding Mn(II) complexes ([Mn(DOTP)]6- and [Mn(DO3P)]4-) underlining that the phosphonate pedant should not be considered as a suitable building block for further ligand design while the tertiary amide moiety will likely have some implications in this respect in the future.
Project description:Two pentadentate ligands built on the 2-aminomethylpiperidine structure and bearing two tertiary amino and three oxygen donors (three carboxylates in the case of AMPTA and two carboxylates and one phenolate for AMPDA-HB) were developed for Mn(II) complexation. Equilibrium studies on the ligands and the Mn(II) complexes were carried out using pH potentiometry, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The Mn complexes that were formed by the two ligands were more stable than the Mn complexes of other pentadentate ligands but with a lower pMn than Mn(EDTA) and Mn(CDTA) (pMn for Mn(AMPTA) = 7.89 and for Mn(AMPDA-HB) = 7.07). <sup>1</sup>H and <sup>17</sup>O-NMR relaxometric studies showed that the two Mn-complexes were q = 1 with a relaxivity value of 3.3 mM<sup>-1</sup> s<sup>-1</sup> for Mn(AMPTA) and 3.4 mM<sup>-1</sup> s<sup>-1</sup> for Mn(AMPDA-HB) at 20 MHz and 298 K. Finally, the geometries of the two complexes were optimized at the DFT level, finding an octahedral coordination environment around the Mn<sup>2+</sup> ion, and MD simulations were performed to monitor the distance between the Mn<sup>2+</sup> ion and the oxygen of the coordinated water molecule to estimate its residence time, which was in good agreement with that determined using the <sup>17</sup>O NMR data.
Project description:Owing to the increasing importance of manganese(II) complexes in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), large efforts have been devoted to find an appropriate ligand for Mn(II) ion encapsulation by providing bal