Isolation and characterization of Streptomyces bacteriophages and Streptomyces strains encoding biosynthetic arsenals.
ABSTRACT: The threat to public health posed by drug-resistant bacteria is rapidly increasing, as some of healthcare's most potent antibiotics are becoming obsolete. Approximately two-thirds of the world's antibiotics are derived from natural products produced by Streptomyces encoded biosynthetic gene clusters. Thus, to identify novel gene clusters, we sequenced the genomes of four bioactive Streptomyces strains isolated from the soil in San Diego County and used Bacterial Cytological Profiling adapted for agar plate culturing in order to examine the mechanisms of bacterial inhibition exhibited by these strains. In the four strains, we identified 104 biosynthetic gene clusters. Some of these clusters were predicted to produce previously studied antibiotics; however, the known mechanisms of these molecules could not fully account for the antibacterial activity exhibited by the strains, suggesting that novel clusters might encode antibiotics. When assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of clinically isolated pathogens, three Streptomyces strains demonstrated activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, due to the utility of bacteriophages for genetically manipulating bacterial strains via transduction, we also isolated four new phages (BartholomewSD, IceWarrior, Shawty, and TrvxScott) against S. platensis. A genomic analysis of our phages revealed nearly 200 uncharacterized proteins, including a new site-specific serine integrase that could prove to be a useful genetic tool. Sequence analysis of the Streptomyces strains identified CRISPR-Cas systems and specific spacer sequences that allowed us to predict phage host ranges. Ultimately, this study identified Streptomyces strains with the potential to produce novel chemical matter as well as integrase-encoding phages that could potentially be used to manipulate these strains.
Project description:Several strategies have been used to clone large DNA fragments directly from bacterial genome. Most of these approaches are based on different site-specific recombination systems consisting of a specialized recombinase and its target sites. In this study, a novel strategy based on phage ?BT1 integrase-mediated site-specific recombination was developed, and used for simultaneous Streptomyces genome engineering and cloning of antibiotic gene clusters. This method has been proved successful for the cloning of actinorhodin gene cluster from Streptomyces coelicolor M145, napsamycin gene cluster and daptomycin gene cluster from Streptomyces roseosporus NRRL 15998 at a frequency higher than 80%. Furthermore, the system could be used to increase the titer of antibiotics as we demonstrated with actinorhodin and daptomycin, and it will be broadly applicable in many Streptomyces.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Streptomyces species are a major source of antibiotics. They usually grow slowly at their optimal temperature and fermentation of industrial strains in a large scale often takes a long time, consuming more energy and materials than some other bacterial industrial strains (e.g., E. coli and Bacillus). Most thermophilic Streptomyces species grow fast, but no gene cloning systems have been developed in such strains. RESULTS: We report here the isolation of 41 fast-growing (about twice the rate of S. coelicolor), moderately thermophilic (growing at both 30°C and 50°C) Streptomyces strains, detection of one linear and three circular plasmids in them, and sequencing of a 6996-bp plasmid, pTSC1, from one of them. pTSC1-derived pCWH1 could replicate in both thermophilic and mesophilic Streptomyces strains. On the other hand, several Streptomyces replicons function in thermophilic Streptomyces species. By examining ten well-sporulating strains, we found two promising cloning hosts, 2C and 4F. A gene cloning system was established by using the two strains. The actinorhodin and anthramycin biosynthetic gene clusters from mesophilic S. coelicolor A3(2) and thermophilic S. refuineus were heterologously expressed in one of the hosts. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a gene cloning and expression system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species. Although just a few plasmids and one antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster from mesophilic Streptomyces were successfully expressed in thermophilic Streptomyces species, we expect that by utilizing thermophilic Streptomyces-specific promoters, more genes and especially antibiotic genes clusters of mesophilic Streptomyces should be heterologously expressed.
Project description:The genus Streptomyces produces secondary metabolic compounds that are rich in biological activity. Many of these compounds are genetically encoded by large secondary metabolism biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs) such as polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) which are modular and can be highly repetitive. Due to the repeats, these gene clusters can be difficult to resolve using short read next generation datasets and are often quite poorly predicted using standard approaches. We have sequenced the genomes of 13 Streptomyces spp. strains isolated from shallow water and deep-sea sponges that display antimicrobial activities against a number of clinically relevant bacterial and yeast species. Draft genomes have been assembled and smBGCs have been identified using the antiSMASH (antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell) web platform. We have compared the smBGCs amongst strains in the search for novel sequences conferring the potential to produce novel bioactive secondary metabolites. The strains in this study recruit to four distinct clades within the genus Streptomyces. The marine strains host abundant smBGCs which encode polyketides, NRPS, siderophores, bacteriocins and lantipeptides. The deep-sea strains appear to be enriched with gene clusters encoding NRPS. Marine adaptations are evident in the sponge-derived strains which are enriched for genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of compatible solutes and for heat-shock proteins. Streptomyces spp. from marine environments are a promising source of novel bioactive secondary metabolites as the abundance and diversity of smBGCs show high degrees of novelty. Sponge derived Streptomyces spp. isolates appear to display genomic adaptations to marine living when compared to terrestrial strains.
Project description:A method was developed for the heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in different Streptomyces strains and for the modification of these clusters by single or multiple gene replacements or gene deletions with unprecedented speed and versatility. Lambda-Red-mediated homologous recombination was used for genetic modification of the gene clusters, and the attachment site and integrase of phage phiC31 were employed for the integration of these clusters into the heterologous hosts. This method was used to express the gene clusters of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin and clorobiocin in the well-studied strains Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, which, in contrast to the natural producers, can be easily genetically manipulated. S. coelicolor M512 derivatives produced the respective antibiotic in yields comparable to those of natural producer strains, whereas S. lividans TK24 derivatives were at least five times less productive. This method could also be used to carry out functional investigations. Shortening of the cosmids' inserts showed which genes are essential for antibiotic production.
Project description:Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty.
Project description:Streptomyces is taken as an important resource for producing the most abundant antibiotics and other bio-active natural products, which have been widely used in pharmaceutical and agricultural areas. Usually they are biosynthesized through secondary metabolic pathways encoded by cluster situated genes. And these gene clusters are stringently regulated by interweaved transcriptional regulatory cascades. In the past decades, great advances have been made to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms involved in antibiotic production in Streptomyces. In this review, we summarized the recent advances on the regulatory cascades of antibiotic production in Streptomyces from the following four levels: the signals triggering the biosynthesis, the global regulators, the pathway-specific regulators and the feedback regulation. The production of antibiotic can be largely enhanced by rewiring the regulatory networks, such as overexpression of positive regulators, inactivation of repressors, fine-tuning of the feedback and ribosomal engineering in Streptomyces. The enormous amount of genomic sequencing data implies that the Streptomyces has potential to produce much more antibiotics for the great diversities and wide distributions of biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces genomes. Most of these gene clusters are defined cryptic for unknown or undetectable natural products. In the synthetic biology era, activation of the cryptic gene clusters has been successfully achieved by manipulation of the regulatory genes. Chemical elicitors, rewiring regulatory gene and ribosomal engineering have been employed to crack the potential of cryptic gene clusters. These have been proposed as the most promising strategy to discover new antibiotics. For the complex of regulatory network in Streptomyces, we proposed that the discovery of new antibiotics and the optimization of industrial strains would be greatly promoted by further understanding the regulatory mechanism of antibiotic production.
Project description:<i>Streptomyces</i> are well-known antibiotic producers, also characterized by a complex morphological differentiation. <i>Streptomyces</i>, like all bacteria, are confronted with the constant threat of phage predation, which in turn shapes bacterial evolution. However, despite significant sequencing efforts recently, relatively few phages infecting <i>Streptomyces</i> have been characterized compared to other genera. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of five novel <i>Streptomyces</i> phages. All five phages belong to the <i>Siphoviridae</i> family, based on their morphology as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Genome sequencing and life style predictions suggested that four of them were temperate phages, while one had a lytic lifestyle. Moreover, one of the newly sequenced phages shows very little homology to already described phages, highlighting the still largely untapped viral diversity. Altogether, this study expands the number of characterized phages of <i>Streptomyces</i> and sheds light on phage evolution and phage-host dynamics in <i>Streptomyces</i>.
Project description:Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies provide exciting possibilities for whole genome sequencing of a plethora of organisms including bacterial strains and phages, with many possible applications in research and diagnostics. No Streptomyces flavovirens phages have been sequenced to date; there is therefore a lack in available information about S. flavovirens phage genomics. We report biological and physiochemical features and use NGS to provide the complete annotated genomes for two new strains (Sf1 and Sf3) of the virulent phage Streptomyces flavovirens, isolated from Egyptian soil samples.The S. flavovirens phages (Sf1 and Sf3) examined in this study show higher adsorption rates (82 and 85%, respectively) than other actinophages, indicating a strong specificity to their host, and latent periods (15 and 30 min.), followed by rise periods of 45 and 30 min. As expected for actinophages, their burst sizes were 1.95 and 2.49 virions per mL. Both phages were stable and, as reported in previous experiments, showed a significant increase in their activity after sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2.6H2O) treatments, whereas after zinc chloride (ZnCl2) application both phages showed a significant decrease in infection. The sequenced phage genomes are parts of a singleton cluster with sizes of 43,150 bp and 60,934 bp, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and functional characterizations enabled the assignment of possible functions to 19 and 28 putative identified ORFs, which included phage structural proteins, lysis components and metabolic proteins. Thirty phams were identified in both phages, 10 (33.3%) of them with known function, which can be used in cluster prediction. Comparative genomic analysis revealed significant homology between the two phages, showing the highest hits among Sf1, Sf3 and the closest Streptomyces phage (VWB phages) in a specific 13Kb region. However, the phylogenetic analysis using the Major Capsid Protein (MCP) sequences highlighted that the isolated phages belong to the BG Streptomyces phage group but are clearly separated, representing a novel sub-cluster.The results of this study provide the first physiological and genomic information for S. flavovirens phages and will be useful for pharmaceutical industries based on S. flavovirens and future phage evolution studies.
Project description:The genome sequences of eight Streptomyces phages are presented, four of which were isolated for this study. Phages R4, TG1, Hau3, and SV1 were isolated previously and have been exploited as tools for understanding and genetically manipulating Streptomyces spp. We also extracted five apparently intact prophages from recent Streptomyces spp. genome projects and, together with six phage genomes in the database, we analyzed all 19 Streptomyces phage genomes with a view to understanding their relationships to each other and to other actinophages, particularly the mycobacteriophages. Fifteen of the Streptomyces phages group into four clusters of related genomes. Although the R4-like phages do not share nucleotide sequence similarity with other phages, they clearly have common ancestry with cluster A mycobacteriophages, sharing many protein homologues, common gene syntenies, and similar repressor-stoperator regulatory systems. The R4-like phage Hau3 and the prophage StrepC.1 (from Streptomyces sp. strain C) appear to have hijacked a unique adaptation of the streptomycetes, i.e., use of the rare UUA codon, to control translation of the essential phage protein, the terminase. The Streptomyces venezuelae generalized transducing phage SV1 was used to predict the presence of other generalized transducing phages for different Streptomyces species.
Project description:The <i>Streptomyces</i> genus produces over two-thirds of clinically useful, natural antibiotics. Here, we describe the isolation and genome annotation of siphophage Sentinel, which utilizes <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. strain Mg1 as a host. It has a 50,272-bp genome and 83 protein-coding genes and shows similarity to other <i>Streptomyces</i> phages in the <i>Arequatrovirus</i> genus.