Chronic wound isolates and their minimum inhibitory concentrations against third generation cephalosporins at a tertiary hospital in Uganda.
ABSTRACT: Globally, the burden of chronic wound infections is likely to increase due to the rising levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In the United States of America alone, more than 6.5 million chronic wounds with evidence of bacterial infection are diagnosed every year. In addition, the polymicrobial environment in chronic wound infections has been observed from several studies as a risk factor for development of resistance to many antibiotics including the third generation cephalosporins currently used in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital for treatment of chronic wound infections. Therefore the main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic wound isolates and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against third generation cephalosporins. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical survey of bacterial isolates from chronic wound infection among 75 study participants admitted in the surgical ward of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH), a tertiary Hospital in Western Uganda. Standard laboratory bacterial culture and identification techniques as well as broth microdilution method were used to isolate, identify pathogens and test for MIC respectively. We found that 69/75 study participants had samples with bacterial growth and the most prevalent pathogens isolated were staphylococcus aureus (40.6%) and Klebsiella spp. (29%). Generally, most isolates were susceptible to cefoperazone + sulbactum 2 g (Sulcef) and ceftriaxone 1 g (Epicephin). The overall prevalence of isolates in chronic wound infection among patients admitted in the surgical ward of MRRH was 92% and the most prevalent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species and proteus species respectively. The observed MIC values were higher than the CLSI clinical breakpoint, implying a decreasing trend in susceptibility of chronic wound isolates to third generation cephalosporins.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The objectives of this study were; (I) to determine the proportion of pathogens isolated from patients with infected chronic wounds in the surgical ward of MRRH that are resistant to the third-generation cephalosporins and (II) to determine the factors associated with resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in the surgical ward of MRRH.<h4>Method(s)</h4>This study was a descriptive analytical survey of bacterial isolates from infected chronic wounds among patients admitted in the surgical ward of MRRH, Uganda. Seventy five (75) study participants were recruited in the study using convenient sampling technique. Bacterial culture and identification was performed using standard microbiology laboratory procedures whereas broth microdilution method was used to establish the susceptibility of the identified pathogens. Data for objective one (1) was summarized as proportions while the categorized variables were analyzed using logistic regression to determine whether they were associated with the resistance patterns. The level of significance was preset at 5% and p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.<h4>Results</h4>Generally, all isolates had complete susceptibility (100%) to Cefoperazone+Sulbactam 2g except 7.1% of proteus spp that were resistant. Of all the bacterial isolates studied, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter agglomerans, providencia spp and pseudomonas earuginosa had complete resistance (100%) to Cefopodoxime 200mg while providencia spp and pseudomomas earuginosa had complete resistance (100%) to Cefixime 400mg and cefotaxime 1g. Finally, higher odds of bacterial resistance to more 2 brands of the third generation cephalosporins were observed among participants who had prior exposure to the third generation cephalosporins (OR, 2.22, 95% CI, 0.80-6.14), comorbidities (OR, 1.76, 95% CI, 0.62-4.96) and those who had more than two hospitalizations in a year (OR, 1.39, 95% CI 0.46-4.25). However, multivariate logistic regression was not performed since no factor was significantly associated with resistance to more than two brands of third generation cephalosporins (p >0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study found that cefixime and cefpodoixme had high rates of resistance and should not be used in routine management of infected chronic wounds. In addition, the factors investigated in this study were not significantly associated with bacterial resistance to more than two brands of third generation cephalosporins.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Medical-incident reporting (MIR) ensures patient safety and delivery of quality of care by minimizing unintentional harm among health care providers. We explored medical-incident reporting practices, perceived barriers and motivating factors among health care providers at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on 158 health provider at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH), Western Uganda. Data was gathered using a structured questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS. The chi-square was used to determine factors associated with MIR at MRRH. RESULTS:The results showed that there was no formal incident reporting structure. However the medical-incidences identified were: medication errors (89.9%), diagnostic errors (71.5%), surgical errors (52.5%) and preventive error (47.7%). The motivating factors of MIR were: establishment of a good communication system, instituting corrective action on the reported incidents and reinforcing health workers knowledge on MIR (p-value 0.004); presence of effective organizational systems like: written guidelines, practices of open door policy, no blame approach, and team work were significantly associated with MIR (p-value 0.000). On the other hand, perceived barriers to MIR were: lack of knowledge on incidents and their reporting, non-existence of an incident reporting team and fear of being punished (p- value 0.669). CONCLUSION:Medical Incident Reporting at MRRH was sub-optimal. Therefore setting up an incident management team and conducting routine training MIR among health care workers will increase patient safety.
Project description:The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) uses cephalothin as the class representative for testing veterinary isolates for susceptibility to other first-generation cephalosporins, including cephalexin. We examined replacing cephalothin with cephalexin because cephalexin is used more often clinically. Bacterial isolates were obtained from dogs and cats from a national surveillance program. CLSI testing methods were used to determine the MIC for 4 cephalosporins used in veterinary medicine. Cephalexin clinical breakpoints for canine isolates were established by using published pharmacokinetic data and Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the probability of target attainment (PTA). For 1,112 Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates, the mode, MIC<sub>50</sub>, and MIC<sub>90</sub> were 1, 2, and 64 µg/mL, respectively, for cephalexin, and ?0.06, 0.12, and 2 µg/mL for cephalothin. Susceptibility of S. pseudintermedius from 2011 to 2014 did not change for the 4 cephalosporins tested. Only 4.3% of the penicillin-binding protein 2a-positive S. pseudintermedius isolates had MIC values ?2 µg/mL for cephalexin, but 66.3% of these isolates had MIC values ?2 µg/mL for cephalothin. There were also discrepancies between cephalexin and cephalothin for other bacteria tested, but the largest difference was for S. pseudintermedius, with a MIC difference of 4 doubling dilutions. Cephalexin interpretive categories (breakpoints) of ?2 ?g/mL (susceptible), 4 ?g/mL (intermediate), and ?8 ?g/mL (resistant) were established for isolates obtained from dogs. Cephalothin should not be used for susceptibility testing of cephalexin for veterinary bacterial pathogens, and canine-specific breakpoints should be used for testing susceptibility. Breakpoints determined using the methods described herein for the interpretive categories will be added to future CLSI tables to reflect this recommendation.
Project description:The emergence of <i>AmpC</i> (<i>pAmpC</i>) <i>β</i>-lactamases conferring resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins has become a major clinical concern worldwide. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of <i>AmpC β</i>-lactamase encoding gene among the pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative resistant bacteria screened from clinical samples of Egyptian patients enrolled into El-Qasr El-Ainy Tertiary Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. A total of 153 bacterial isolates of the species <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae,</i> and <i>Enterococcus faecium</i> were isolated from patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI), respiratory tract infection (RTI), and wound infections. The total number of <i>E. faecium</i> isolates was 53, comprising 29 urine isolates, 5 sputum isolates, and 19 wound swab isolates, whereas the total number of <i>P. aeruginosa</i> isolates was 49, comprising 27 urine isolates, 7 sputum isolates, and 15 wound swab isolates, and that of the <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates was 51, comprising 20 urine isolates, 25 sputum isolates, and 6 wound swab isolates. Our results indicated that there is no significant difference in the expression of <i>AmpC β</i>-lactamase gene among the tested bacterial species with respect to the type of infection and/or clinical specimen. However, the expression patterns of <i>AmpC β</i>-lactamase gene markedly differed according to the antibacterial resistance characteristics of the tested isolates.
Project description:Strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with mosaic penA genes bearing novel point mutations in penA have been isolated from ceftriaxone treatment failures. Such isolates exhibit significantly higher MIC values to third-generation cephalosporins. Here we report the in vitro isolation of two mutants with elevated MICs to cephalosporins. The first possesses a point mutation in the transpeptidase region of the mosaic penA gene, and the second contains an insertion mutation in pilQ.
Project description:There is a global increase in infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-borne ?-lactamases that confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The epidemiology of these bacteria is not well understood, and was, therefore, investigated in a selection of 636 clinical Enterobacteriaceae with a minimal inhibitory concentration >1 mg/L for ceftazidime/ceftriaxone from a national survey (75% E. coli, 11% E. cloacae, 11% K. pneumoniae, 2% K. oxytoca, 2% P. mirabilis). Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and ampC genes using microarray, PCR, gene sequencing and molecular straintyping (Diversilab and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)). ESBL genes were demonstrated in 512 isolates (81%); of which 446 (87%) belonged to the CTX-M family. Among 314 randomly selected and sequenced isolates, bla(CTX-M-15) was most prevalent (n?=?124, 39%), followed by bla(CTX-M-1) (n?=?47, 15%), bla(CTX-M-14) (n?=?15, 5%), bla(SHV-12) (n?=?24, 8%) and bla(TEM-52) (n?=?13, 4%). Among 181 isolates with MIC ?16 mg/L for cefoxitin plasmid encoded AmpCs were detected in 32 and 27 were of the CMY-2 group. Among 102 E. coli isolates with MIC ?16 mg/L for cefoxitin ampC promoter mutations were identified in 29 (28%). Based on Diversilab genotyping of 608 isolates (similarity cut-off >98%) discriminatory indices of bacteria with ESBL and/or ampC genes were 0.994, 0.985 and 0.994 for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae, respectively. Based on similarity cut-off >95% two large clusters of E. coli were apparent (of 43 and 30 isolates) and 21 of 21 that were typed by belonged to ST131 of which 13 contained bla(CTX-M-15). Our findings demonstrate that bla(CTX-M-15) is the most prevalent ESBL and we report a larger than previously reported prevalence of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae responsible for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins.
Project description:Wound infections are an emerging medical problem worldwide, frequently neglected in under-resourced countries. Bacterial culture and antimicrobial drug resistance testing of infected wounds in patients in a rural hospital in Ghana identified no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae but identified high combined resistance of Enterobacteriaceae against third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>While congenital syphilis is a significant public health problem that can cause severe disabilities, little is known about the situation in Uganda. We describe prevalence, associated factors and clinical presentation of congenital syphilis in Mbarara, Uganda.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross sectional study was carried out among mother- newborn dyads from the postnatal ward of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). After obtaining informed consent, a structured questionnaire was used to capture data on risk factors for congenital syphilis. A finger prick was performed on the mothers for Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA). If TPHA was positive, a venous blood sample was collected from the mother to confirm active infection using Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR). Venous blood was drawn from a newborn if the mother tested positive by TPHA and RPR. A newborn with RPR titres 4 times higher than the mother was considered to have congenital syphilis. We fit logistic regression models to determine factors associated with congenital syphilis.<h4>Results</h4>Between June and September 2015, we enrolled 2500 mothers and 2502 newborns. Prevalence of syphilis was 3.8% (95% CI 3.1-4.6) among newborn infants and 4.1% (95% CI 3.4-5.0) among their mothers. Maternal age <25 years, past history of genital ulcer, a past history of abnormal vaginal discharge, and not receiving treatment of at least one of genital ulcer, genital itching, lower abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal discharge in the current pregnancy were the risk factors associated with congenital syphilis. The most common clinical feature was hepatosplenomegaly.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We found higher-than-expected syphilis sero-prevalence rates in a high risk population of postnatal mothers and their newborns in Uganda. Bridge populations for syphilis may include mothers not tested during pregnancy, who are usually married and not treated. In accordance with our results, the national policy for syphilis control in Uganda should be strengthened to include universal syphilis screening amongst mother-newborn pairs in postnatal clinics with subsequent partner notification.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Inappropriate Anti-diabetic Medication Therapy (IADT) refers to a drug-related problem and includes 'ineffective drug therapy', 'unnecessary drug therapy', 'dosage too high', and 'dosage too low'. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with IADT among T2DM patients at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda (MRRH).<h4>Method</h4>A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the medical and surgical wards of MRRH from November 2021 to January 2022. One hundred and thirty-eight adult patients aged 18 years and above, with T2DM, were recruited using consecutive sampling. Patient file reviews and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were entered into and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Descriptive analysis was employed to describe the population and determine the prevalence of IADT. Types of IADTs were identified using Cipolle's DRP classification tool. A univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors significantly associated with IADT. The P-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant at 95% confidence interval.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 138 hospitalized T2DM patients were studied. Eighty (58.0%) were females, and 70 (50.7%) were ≥ 60 years of age. Out of a total of 138 participants, 97 experienced at least one IADT, with an estimated prevalence of 70.3%. 'Dosage too high' (29.2%) and 'dosage too low' (27.9%) were the most common type of IADTs. Age ≥ 60 years (AOR, 8.44; 95% CI, 2.09-10.90; P-value = 0.003), T2DM duration of < 1 year (AOR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.11-0.35; P-value = 0.019), and HbA1c of < 7% (AOR, 9.97; 95% CI, 2.34-13.57; P-value = 0.002) were found to be factors significantly associated with the occurrence of IADTs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The overall prevalence of inappropriate anti-diabetic medication therapy among T2DM patients admitted to medical and surgical wards of MRRH was 70.3%. The most common type of IADT in this study was 'dosage too high', accounting for almost one-third followed by 'dosage too low' accounting for a quarter of total IADTs. Age greater or equal to 60 years, T2DM duration of < 1 year, and HbA1c of < 7% during the current admission were found to be factors significantly associated with the occurrence of IADTs in hospitalized T2DM patients.
Project description:Purpose:The morbidity and mortality due to typhoid fever can be significantly reduced with the use of effective antibiotics. At present, fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins, and azithromycin are widely used to treat typhoid fever. However, changing antibiotic susceptibility among Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi poses a particular challenge to the therapeutic management of enteric fever. The objective of this study was to assess the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella Typhi isolates. Patients and Methods:A total of 706 blood specimens were collected from febrile patients attending the outpatient department of Kathmandu Model Hospital during June to September, 2018. The antibiotic susceptibility testing for 11 different antibiotics (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, azithromycin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and amoxicillin) was performed by disk diffusion method. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and azithromycin were determined by agar dilution method. Mutation at gyrA ser83 associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones was determined by PCR-RFLP. Results:Out of 706 blood samples, 6.94% (n = 49) were culture positive for Salmonella enterica (S. Typhi, n = 46). It was revealed that 97.8% S. Typhi isolates were susceptible to conventional first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole), 97.3% to cephalosporins and 95.7% to azithromycin. S. Typhi were either resistant or intermediately susceptible to fluoroquinolones: 97.8% to ciprofloxacin, 91.3% to ofloxacin, and 89.1% to levofloxacin. The MIC of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and azithromycin for S. Typhi ranged from 0.008 to 32, 0.03 to 16, and 2 to 8 μg/mL, respectively. Out of 46 S. Typhi isolates, 44 (95.65%) had gyrA ser83 mutation. Conclusion:Fluoroquinolones have poor activity against Salmonella Typhi. The trends of increasing azithromycin MIC value among S. Typhi might limit its use for the treatment of typhoid fever. Effectiveness of conventional first-line antibiotics in vitro suggests considering their clinical use after large-scale studies.