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Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum in Colombia: Histopathology and mediators in placental processes.


ABSTRACT: Knowledge about the relation of histopathological characteristics and mediators of physiological processes in the placenta malaria (PM) is poor, and that PM caused by Plasmodium vivax is almost null. The objective was to compare histopathological characteristics, cytokines and mediators of physiological processes in PM depending on the parasitic species, through a cross-sectional study in three groups: negative-PM, vivax-PM, falciparum-PM from Northwestern Colombia. The diagnosis of PM was made with thick blood smear, qPCR, and histopathology. Immuno-histochemical was made with EnVision system (Dako) and Zeiss Axio Imager M2 with light microscope. Cells in apoptosis were studied with the TUNEL technique. To measure the expression level of cytokines and mediators qRT-PCR was used. We included 179 placentas without PM and 87 with PM (53% P. vivax and 47% P. falciparum). At delivery, anemia was 25% in negative-PM, 60% in vivax-PM, and 44% in falciparum-PM group. The neonatal weight had an intense difference between groups with 3292±394g in negative-PM, 2,841±239 in vivax-PM, and 2,957±352 in falciparum-PM. The histopathological characteristics and CD+ cells in placenta with statistical differences (Dunn´s test) between negative-PM vs vivax-PM (P. falciparum was similar to P. vivax) were infarction, fibrinoid deposits, calcification, cells in apoptosis, immune infiltrates in decidua and intervillous space, CD4+, CD8+, CD14+, CD56+, CD68+. The expression levels of mediators in the placenta with statistical differences (Dunn´s test) between negative-PM vs vivax-PM (P. falciparum was similar to P. vivax) were Fas, FasL, HIF1α, Cox1, Cox2, VEGF, IL4, IL10, IFNγ, TNF, TGFβ, FOXP3, and CTLA4. PM with P. falciparum and P. vivax, damages this organ and causes significant alteration of various physiological processes, which cause maternal anemia and a reduction in neonatal weight in degrees that are statistically and clinically significant. It is necessary that the search for plasmodial infection in pregnant and placenta goes from passive to active surveillance with adequate diagnostic capacity.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC8789140 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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