Exogenous H2S reverses high glucose-induced endothelial progenitor cells dysfunction via regulating autophagy
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the effect of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) under high glucose (HG)-induced injury in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers by density-gradient centrifugation and identified as late EPCs by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. EPCs were treated with high concentrations of glucose, H2S, Baf-A1, 3-MA or rapamycin. Cell proliferation, cell migration and tube formation were measured using cell counting kit-8, Transwell migration and tube formation assays, respectively. Cellular autophagy flux was detected by RFP-GFP-LC3, and Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression levels of LC3B, P62, and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) at Thr495 (p-eNOSThr495). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured using a DHE probe. H2S and rapamycin significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of HG on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of EPCs. Moreover, H2S and rapamycin led to an increase in the number of autophagosomes accompanied by a failure in lysosomal turnover of LC3-II or p62 and p-eNOSThr495 expression and ROS production under the HG condition. However, Baf-A1 and 3-MA reversed the effects of H2S on cell behavior. Collectively, exogenous H2S ameliorated HG-induced EPC dysfunction by promoting autophagic flux and decreasing ROS production by phosphorylating eNOSThr495.
Project description:EBV has been reported to impair monocyte in vitro differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs) and reduce cell survival. In this study, we added another layer of knowledge to this topic and showed that these effects correlated with macroautophagy/autophagy, ROS and mitochondrial biogenesis reduction. Of note, autophagy and ROS, although strongly interconnected, have been separately reported to be induced by CSF2/GM-CSF (colony stimulating factor 2) and required for CSF2-IL4-driven monocyte in vitro differentiation into DCs. We show that EBV infects monocytes and initiates a feedback loop in which, by inhibiting autophagy, reduces ROS and through ROS reduction negatively influences autophagy. Mechanistically, autophagy reduction correlated with the downregulation of RAB7 and ATG5 expression and STAT3 activation, leading to the accumulation of SQSTM1/p62. The latter activated the SQSTM1-KEAP1- NFE2L2 axis and upregulated the anti-oxidant response, reducing ROS and further inhibiting autophagy. ROS decrease correlated also with the reduction of mitochondria, the main source of intracellular ROS, achieved by the downregulation of NRF1 and TFAM, mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors. Interestingly, mitochondria supply membranes and ATP required for autophagy execution, thus their reduction may further reduce autophagy in EBV-infected monocytes. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that the interconnected reduction of autophagy, intracellular ROS and mitochondria mediated by EBV switches monocyte differentiation into apoptosis, giving new insights into the mechanisms through which this virus reduces immune surveillance. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; ATG5: autophagy related 5; BAF: bafilomycin A1; BECN1: beclin 1; CAT: catalase; CSF2: colony stimulating factor 2; CT: control; CYCS (cytochrome C: somatic); DCs: dendritic cells; EBV: Epstein-Barr virus; GSR: glutathione-disulfide reductase; KEAP1: kelch like ECH associated protein 1; IL4: interleukin 4; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MET: metformin; NAC: N-acetylcysteine; NFE2L2/NRF2 nuclear factor: erythroid 2 like 2; NRF1 (nuclear respiratory factor 1); clPARP1: cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; Rapa: Rapamycin; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TFAM: (transcription factor A: mitochondrial); TUBA1A: tubulin alpha 1a.
Project description:One of the major reasons for the delayed wound healing in diabetes is the dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) induced by hyperglycaemia. Improvement of EPC function may be a potential strategy for accelerating wound healing in diabetes. Procyanidin B2 (PCB2) is one of the major components of procyanidins, which exhibits a variety of potent pharmacological activities. However, the effects of PCB2 on EPC function and diabetic wound repair remain elusive. We evaluated the protective effects of PCB2 in EPCs with high glucose (HG) treatment and in a diabetic wound healing model. EPCs derived from human umbilical cord blood were treated with HG. The results showed that PCB2 significantly preserved the angiogenic function, survival and migration abilities of EPCs with HG treatment, and attenuated HG-induced oxidative stress of EPCs by scavenging excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). A mechanistic study found the protective role of PCB2 is dependent on activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). PCB2 increased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant genes to attenuate the oxidative stress induced by HG in EPCs, which were abolished by knockdown of Nrf2 expression. An in vivo study showed that intraperitoneal administration of PCB2 promoted wound healing and angiogenesis in diabetic mice, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in ROS level and an increase in circulating EPC number. Taken together, our results indicate that PCB2 treatment accelerates wound healing and increases angiogenesis in diabetic mice, which may be mediated by improving the mobilization and function of EPCs.
Project description:The two major intracellular protein degradation systems, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, work collaboratively in many biological processes including development, apoptosis, aging, and countering oxidative injuries. We report here that, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), ARPE-19 cells, proteasome inhibitors, clasto-lactacystin?-lactone (LA) or epoxomicin (Epo), at non-lethal doses, increased the protein levels of autophagy-specific genes Atg5 and Atg7 and enhanced the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3) from LC3-I to its lipidative form, LC3-II, which was enhanced by co-addition of the saturated concentration of Bafilomycin A1 (Baf). Detection of co-localization for LC3 staining and labeled-lysosome further confirmed autophagic flux induced by LA or Epo. LA or Epo reduced the phosphorylation of the protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in ARPE-19 cells; by contrast, the induced changes of autophagy substrate, p62, showed biphasic pattern. The autophagy inhibitor, Baf, attenuated the reduction in oxidative injury conferred by treatment with low doses of LA and Epo in ARPE-19 cells exposed to menadione (VK3) or 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Knockdown of Atg7 with siRNA in ARPE-19 cells reduced the protective effects of LA or Epo against VK3. Overall, our results suggest that treatment with low levels of proteasome inhibitors confers resistance to oxidative injury by a pathway involving inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and activation of autophagy.
Project description:We characterized the dynamics of autophagy in vitro using four different cell systems and analyzing markers widely used in this field, i.e. LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; protein recruited from the cytosol (LC3-I) to the autophagosomal membrane where it is lipidated (LC3-II)) and p62/SQSTM1 (adaptor protein that serves as a link between LC3 and ubiquitinated substrates), (Klionsky et al., 2016) . Data provided include analyses of protein levels of LC3 and p62 by Western-blotting and endogenous immunofluorescence experiments, but also p62 mRNA levels obtained by quantitative PCR (qPCR). To monitor the turnover of these autophagy markers and, thus, measure the flux of this pathway, cells were under starvation conditions and/or treated with bafilomycin A1 (Baf. A1) to block fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes.
Project description:Wound healing is delayed in diabetic patients. Increased apoptosis and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction are implicated in delayed diabetic wound healing. Melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, promotes diabetic wound healing; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, EPCs were isolated from the bone marrow of mice. Treatment of EPCs with melatonin alleviated advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced apoptosis and cellular dysfunction. We further examined autophagy flux after melatonin treatment and found increased light chain 3 (LC3) and p62 protein levels in AGE-treated EPCs. However, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 expression was decreased, indicating that autophagy flux was impaired in EPCs treated with AGEs. We then evaluated autophagy flux after melatonin treatment and found that melatonin increased the LC3 levels, but attenuated the accumulation of p62, suggesting a stimulatory effect of melatonin on autophagy flux. Blockage of autophagy flux by chloroquine partially abolished the protective effects of melatonin, indicating that autophagy flux is involved in the protective effects of melatonin. Furthermore, we found that the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway is involved in autophagy flux stimulation by melatonin. An in vivo study also illustrated that melatonin treatment ameliorated impaired wound healing in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic wound healing model. Thus, our study shows that melatonin protects EPCs against apoptosis and dysfunction via autophagy flux stimulation and ameliorates impaired wound healing in vivo, providing insight into its mechanism of action in diabetic wound healing.
Project description:B7H3 (also known as CD276) is a co-stimulator checkpoint protein of the cell surface B7 superfamily. Recently, the function beyond immune regulation of B7H3 has been widely studied. However, the expression preference and the regulation mechanism underlying B7H3 in different subtypes of gliomas is rarely understood. We show here that B7H3 expression is significantly decreased in IDH-mutated gliomas and in cultured IDH1-R132H glioma cells. Accumulation of 2-HG leads to a remarkable downregulation of B7H3 protein and the activity of IDH1-R132H mutant is responsible for B7H3 reduction in glioma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by inhibitors like leupeptin, chloroquine (CQ), and Bafilomycin A1 (Baf-A1) blocks the degradation of B7H3 in glioma cells. In the meantime, the autophagy flux is more active with higher LC3B-II and lower p62 in IDH1-R132H glioma cells than in IDH1-WT cells. Furthermore, sequence alignment analysis reveals potential LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs "F-V-S/N-I/V" in B7H3. Moreover, B7H3 interacts with p62 and CQ treatment significantly enhances this interaction. Additionally, we find that <i>B7H3</i> is positively correlated with <i>VEGFA</i> and <i>MMP2</i> by bioinformatics analysis in gliomas. B7H3 and VEGFA are decreased in IDH-mutated gliomas and further reduced in 2-HG<sup>high</sup> gliomas compared to 2-HG<sup>low</sup> glioma sections by IHC staining. Our study demonstrates that B7H3 is preferentially overexpressed in IDH wild-type gliomas and could serve as a potential theranostic target for the precise treatment of glioma patients with wild-type IDH.
Project description:B7H3 (also known as CD276) is a co-stimulator checkpoint protein of the cell surface B7 superfamily. Recently, the function beyond immune regulation of B7H3 has been widely studied. However, the expression preference and the regulation mechanism underlying B7H3 in different subtypes of gliomas is rarely understood. We show here that B7H3 expression is significantly decreased in IDH-mutated gliomas and in cultured IDH1-R132H glioma cells. Accumulation of 2-HG leads to a remarkable downregulation of B7H3 protein and the activity of IDH1-R132H mutant is responsible for B7H3 reduction in glioma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by inhibitors like leupeptin, chloroquine (CQ), and Bafilomycin A1 (Baf-A1) blocks the degradation of B7H3 in glioma cells. In the meantime, the autophagy flux is more active with higher LC3B-II and lower p62 in IDH1-R132H glioma cells than in IDH1-WT cells. Furthermore, sequence alignment analysis reveals potential LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs 'F-V-S/N-I/V' in B7H3. Moreover, B7H3 interacts with p62 and CQ treatment significantly enhances this interaction. Additionally, we find that <i>B7H3</i> is positively correlated with <i>VEGFA</i> and <i>MMP2</i> by bioinformatics analysis in gliomas. B7H3 and VEGFA are decreased in IDH-mutated gliomas and further reduced in 2-HG<sup>high</sup> gliomas compared to 2-HG<sup>low</sup> glioma sections by IHC staining. Our study demonstrates that B7H3 is preferentially overexpressed in IDH wild-type gliomas and could serve as a potential theranostic target for the precise treatment of glioma patients with wild-type IDH.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of death in males. Available treatments often lead to the appearance of chemoresistant foci and metastases, with mechanisms still partially unknown. Within tumour mass, autophagy may promote cell survival by enhancing cancer cells tolerability to different cell stresses, like hypoxia, starvation or those triggered by chemotherapic agents. Because of its connection with the apoptotic pathways, autophagy has been differentially implicated, either as prodeath or prosurvival factor, in the appearance of more aggressive tumours. Here, in three PC cells (LNCaP, PC3, and DU145), we tested how different autophagy inducers modulate docetaxel-induced apoptosis. We selected the mTOR-independent disaccharide trehalose and the mTOR-dependent macrolide lactone rapamycin autophagy inducers. In castration-resistant PC (CRPC) PC3 cells, trehalose specifically prevented intrinsic apoptosis in docetaxel-treated cells. Trehalose reduced the release of cytochrome c triggered by docetaxel and the formation of aberrant mitochondria, possibly by enhancing the turnover of damaged mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). In fact, trehalose increased LC3 and p62 expression, LC3-II and p62 (p62 bodies) accumulation and the induction of LC3 puncta. In docetaxel-treated cells, trehalose, but not rapamycin, determined a perinuclear mitochondrial aggregation (mito-aggresomes), and mitochondria specifically colocalized with LC3 and p62-positive autophagosomes. In PC3 cells, rapamycin retained its ability to activate autophagy without evidences of mitophagy even in presence of docetaxel. Interestingly, these results were replicated in LNCaP cells, whereas trehalose and rapamycin did not modify the response to docetaxel in the ATG5-deficient (autophagy resistant) DU145 cells. Therefore, autophagy is involved to alter the response to chemotherapy in combination therapies and the response may be influenced by the different autophagic pathways utilized and by the type of cancer cells.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate whether exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could mitigate NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation through promoting autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway in L02 cells. L02 cells were stimulated with different concentrations of oleic acid (OA), then cell viability and the protein expression of NLRP3 and pro-caspase-1 were detected by MTT and western blot, respectively, to determine appropriate OA concentration in this study. The cells were divided into four groups: the cells in the control group were cultured with RPMI-1640 for 24.5?h; the cells in the OA group were cultured with RPMI-1640 for 0.5?h, then were stimulated with 1.2?mmol/l OA for 24?h; the cells in the NaHS+OA group were pretreated with sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S) for 0.5?h before exposure to OA for 24?h; and the cells in the NaHS group were treated with NaHS 0.5?h, then were cultured with RPMI-1640 for 24?h. Subsequently, the cells in every group were collected and the protein expression of NLRP3, procaspase-1, cleaved caspase-1, P62, LC3, Beclin1, T-AMPK, P-AMPK, T-mTOR, P-mTOR and the level of IL-1? were detected by western blot and ElISA, respectively. Exogenous H2S reduced the level of NLRP3, caspase-1, P62, IL-1? and the ratio of P-mTOR/T-mTOR induced by OA and increased the ratio of LC3 II/I and the protein expression of Beclin1 suppressed by OA. This study demonstrates for the first time that H2S might suppress NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation induced by OA through promoting autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway. It provides a theoretical basis for the further study of the anti-inflammatory mechanism of H2S.
Project description:Previously we have shown that homocysteine (Hcy) caused oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, in the present study we examined whether H2S ameliorates Hcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity which led to endothelial dysfunction in part, by epigenetic alterations in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to 100??M Hcy treatment in the presence or absence of 30??M NaHS (donor of H2S) for 24?h. Hcy-activate NMDA receptor and induced mitochondrial toxicity by increased levels of Ca(2+), NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and decreased the level of nitrate, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) expression, mitochondria membrane potentials, ATP production. To confirm the role of epigenetic, 5'-azacitidine (an epigenetic modulator) treatment was given to the cells. Pretreatment with NaHS (30??M) attenuated the Hcy-induced increased expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, Ca(2+), and decreased expression of DNMT3b in bEND3 cells. Furthermore, NaHS treatment also mitigated mitochondrial oxidative stress (NOX4, ROS, and NO) and restored ATP that indicates its protective effects against mitochondrial toxicity. Additional, NaHS significantly alleviated Hcy-induced LC3-I/II, CSE, Atg3/7, and low p62 expression which confirm its effect on mitophagy. Likewise, NaHS also restored level of eNOS, CD31, VE-cadherin and ET-1 and maintains endothelial function in Hcy treated cells. Molecular inhibition of NMDA receptor by using small interfering RNA showed protective effect whereas inhibition of H2S production by propargylglycine (PG) (inhibitor of enzyme CSE) showed mitotoxic effect. Taken together, results demonstrate that, administration of H2S protected the cells from HHcy-induced mitochondrial toxicity and endothelial dysfunction.