Typing of Histoplasma capsulatum isolates based on nucleotide sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes.
ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes of 24 isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were examined. The results indicate that the sequences of ITS regions in different isolates are not identical. Sequence variations were found at 20 positions in the 496 bp that were sequenced. Ten different sequence patterns, designated types A through H, were observed when the sequences from the 24 isolates were aligned. Twelve isolates from Indianapolis were classified into four different types. Two isolates from New York belonged to type G. Three isolates from different cities were type F. The remaining six isolates were of different types.
Project description:A sample of 30 clinical isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum was analyzed to determine (i) whether genetic exchange is important in the life cycle of this fungus and (ii) whether distinct subpopulations which correlate with disease severity or host immune status exist. Eleven biallelic molecular markers were developed, with the frequency of the least common allele at each molecular locus ranging from 10 to 50%. Every isolate had a different, unique multilocus genotype. Data analysis indicated that frequent recombination occurs within the Indianapolis, Ind., population. There were no associations between isolates from the immunocompromised population or from those with different clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis.
Project description:Histoplasma capsulatum is very prevalent in the environment and is one of the most common causes of mycoses in humans and diverse animals in Brazil. Multiple typing methods have been developed to study H. capsulatum epidemiology; however, there is limited information concerning comparisons of results obtained with different methods using the same set of isolates. To explore the diversity of H. capsulatum in Brazil and to determine correlations between the results of three different molecular typing techniques, we examined 51 environmental, animal, and human isolates by M13 PCR fingerprinting, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed region 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA locus, and DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of parts of four protein-encoding genes, the Arf (ADP ribosylation factor), H-anti (H antigen precursor), Ole (delta-9 fatty acid desaturase), and Tub1 (alpha-tubulin) genes. Each method identified three major genetic clusters, and there was a high level of concordance between the results of the typing techniques. The M13 PCR fingerprinting and PCR-RFLP analyses produced very similar results and separated the H. capsulatum isolates included in this study into three major groups. An additional approach used was comparison of our Brazilian ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences with the sequences deposited previously in NCBI data banks. Our analyses suggest that H. capsulatum can be divided into different molecular types that are dispersed around the world. Our results indicate that the three methods used in this study are reliable and reproducible and that they have similar sensitivities. However, M13 PCR fingerprinting has some advantages over the other two methods as it is faster, cheaper, and more user friendly, which especially increases its utility for molecular typing of Histoplasma in situations where laboratory facilities are relatively limited.
Project description:Mixed infection by Histoplasma capsulatum isolates with different mating types, in AIDS-patients are described in this study. Morphological, mating type-specific PCR assay and multilocus sequencing type analysis of H. capsulatum isolates recovered from two Brazilian AIDS-patients were performed. Five H. capsulatum isolates were recovered at different times from the two patients. Three isolates were obtained from bone marrow (day 1 - CE0411) and buffy coat cultures (day 1 - CE0311; day 2 - CE0511) of patient 1, and two isolates were isolated from buffy coat cultures (day 3 - CE2813; day 12 - CE2513) of patient 2. The mycelial colonies depicted different textures and pigmentation features. Dimorphic conversion to the yeast-phase in ML-Gema medium was achieved in all isolates. MAT1-1 idiomorph was identified in CE0311, CE0411 and CE2813 isolates; MAT1-2 idiomorph was found in CE0511 and CE2513 isolates. These H. capsulatum isolates were grouped within LAm A clade, highlighting that CE0311 and CE0411 isolates formed a subgroup supported by a high bootstrap value. The CE0511, CE2513, and CE2813 isolates clustered together with a Brazilian H151 isolate. This research reports mixed infections caused by H. capsulatum isolates with different mating types in Brazilian AIDS-patients for the first time in the literature.
Project description:Histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic fungus that causes life-threatening lung infections. About 500,000 people are exposed to H. capsulatum each year in the United States, and over 60% of the U.S. population has been exposed to the fungus at some point in their life. We performed genome-wide population genetics and phylogenetic analyses with 30 Histoplasma isolates representing four recognized areas where histoplasmosis is endemic and show that the Histoplasma genus is composed of at least four species that are genetically isolated and rarely interbreed. Therefore, we propose a taxonomic rearrangement of the genus.IMPORTANCE The evolutionary processes that give rise to new pathogen lineages are critical to our understanding of how they adapt to new environments and how frequently they exchange genes with each other. The fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum provides opportunities to precisely test hypotheses about the origin of new genetic variation. We find that H. capsulatum is composed of at least four different cryptic species that differ genetically and also in virulence. These results have implications for the epidemiology of histoplasmosis because not all Histoplasma species are equivalent in their geographic range and ability to cause disease.
Project description:We designed and tested a real-time LightCycler PCR assay for Histoplasma capsulatum that correctly identified the 34 H. capsulatum isolates in a battery of 107 fungal isolates tested and also detected H. capsulatum in clinical specimens from three patients that were culture positive for this organism.
Project description:Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a heterothallic ascomycete. The sexual reproduction of this fungus is regulated by the mating type (MAT1) locus that contains MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs, which were identified by uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study aimed to optimise single-step multiplex PCR for the accurate detection of the distinct mating types of H. capsulatum. Among the 26 isolates tested, 20 had MAT1-1 genotype, while six showed MAT1-2 genotype, in agreement with the uniplex PCR results. These results suggest that multiplex PCR is a fast and specific tool for screening H. capsulatum mating types.
Project description:Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum urinary antigen (UAg) is important for the initial diagnosis of infection and for monitoring of patient responses to antifungal therapy. This study evaluated an analyte-specific reagent (ASR) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of H. capsulatum UAg from Immuno Mycologics, Inc. (IMMY) (Norman, OK) in comparison with routine testing with the MiraVista (MVista) H. capsulatum quantitative EIA (MiraVista Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Using prospectively collected urine specimens (n = 1,003), we observed an overall percent agreement between the two assays of 97.6% (979/1,003 samples). Compared with the MVista EIA, the sensitivity and specificity of the IMMY ASR EIA were 64.5% (40/62 samples) and 99.8% (939/941 samples), respectively, using a cutoff value of 0.5 ng/ml. Based on available clinical histories for 23/24 discordant samples, 5 IMMY assay-negative/MVista assay-positive samples were considered falsely positive. Furthermore, 10/23 discordant samples were positive by the MVista EIA but were below the limit of quantitation (<0.4 ng/ml). The clinical significance of these low positive results in the MVista EIA is unclear. In addition to the prospective study, we tested 11 urine specimens collected from patients with culture-confirmed Histoplasma infections, and 100% (11/11 samples) were positive by the IMMY ASR EIA. In conclusion, the IMMY ASR EIA may offer an alternative approach for the detection of Histoplasma UAg. Additional prospective studies are needed to better characterize the performance of the IMMY ASR EIA in conjunction with clinical and laboratory findings.
Project description:The MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs associated with the MAT1 locus of Histoplasma capsulatum were identified by PCR. A total of 28 fungal isolates, 6 isolates from human clinical samples and 22 isolates from environmental (infected bat and contaminated soil) samples, were studied. Among the 14 isolates from Mexico, 71.4% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 48.3% to 94.5%) were of the MAT1-2 genotype, whereas 100% of the isolates from Brazil were of the MAT1-1 genotype. Each MAT1 idiomorphic region was sequenced and aligned, using the sequences of the G-217B (+ mating type) and G-186AR (- mating type) strains as references. BLASTn analyses of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 sequences studied correlated with their respective + and - mating type genotypes. Trees were generated by the maximum likelihood (ML) method to search for similarity among isolates of each MAT1 idiomorph. All MAT1-1 isolates originated from Brazilian bats formed a well-defined group; three isolates from Mexico, the G-217B strain, and a subgroup encompassing all soil-derived isolates and two clinical isolates from Brazil formed a second group; last, one isolate (EH-696P) from a migratory bat captured in Mexico formed a third group of the MAT1-1 genotype. The MAT1-2 idiomorph formed two groups, one of which included two H. capsulatum isolates from infected bats that were closely related to the G-186AR strain. The other group was formed by two human isolates and six isolates from infected bats. Concatenated ML trees, with internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) -5.8S-ITS2 and MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 sequences, support the relatedness of MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 isolates. H. capsulatum mating types were associated with the geographical origin of the isolates, and all isolates from Brazil correlated with their environmental sources.
Project description:Recombination events associated with sexual replication in pathogens may generate new strains with altered virulence. Histoplasma capsulatum is a mating-competent, pathogenic fungus with two described phenotypic mating types, + and -. The mating (MAT) locus of H. capsulatum was identified to facilitate molecular studies of mating in this organism. Through syntenic analysis of the H. capsulatum genomic sequence databases, a MAT1-1 idiomorph region was identified in H. capsulatum strains G217B and WU24, and a MAT1-2 idiomorph region was identified in the strain G186AR. A mating type-specific PCR assay was developed, and two clinical isolates of opposite genotypic mating type, UH1 and VA1, were identified. A known--mating type strain, T-3-1 (ATCC 22635), was demonstrated to be of MAT1-2 genotypic mating type. The clinical isolates UH1 and VA1 were found to be mating compatible and also displayed mating-type-dependent regulation of the MAT transcription factors in response to extracts predicted to contain mating pheromones. These studies support a role for the identified MAT1 locus in determining mating type in H. capsulatum.
Project description:Detection of the Histoplasma capsulatum urinary antigen (UAg) is among the most sensitive and rapid means to diagnose histoplasmosis. Previously, we evaluated analyte-specific reagents (ASR) manufactured by IMMY (Norman, OK) for detection of Histoplasma galactomannan (GM) in urine using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and we showed low positive agreement (64.5%) with the MiraVista (MVista) Histoplasma antigen (Ag) quantitative EIA (MiraVista Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Here we reevaluated the IMMY GM ASR following modification of our original assay protocol and introduction of an indeterminate range. A total of 150 prospectively collected urine samples were tested with both the IMMY and MVista EIAs, and clinical histories were recorded for all study subjects. The IMMY GM ASR showed positive and negative agreements of 82.3% (14/17 samples) and 100% (121/121 samples), respectively (with exclusion of 12 indeterminate results), and overall agreement of 90% (135/150 samples) with respect to the MVista EIA. Of the three patients with negative IMMY GM ASR results and positive MVista EIA results, testing was performed for initial diagnostic purposes for one patient (<0.4 ng/ml by the MVista EIA) and UAg levels were being monitored for the remaining two patients (both<0.7 ng/ml by the MVista EIA). The MVista EIA results were positive for 6/12 samples that tested indeterminate by the IMMY GM ASR. We also show that the IMMY GM ASR can be used to serially monitor Histoplasma UAg levels. In conclusion, we demonstrate that, with modification, the IMMY GM ASR is a reliable rapid assay for detection of Histoplasma UAg.