Genetic localization and molecular characterization of the nonS gene required for macrotetrolide biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus DSM40695.
ABSTRACT: The macrotetrolides are a family of cyclic polyethers derived from tetramerization, in a stereospecific fashion, of the enantiomeric nonactic acid (NA) and its homologs. Isotope labeling experiments established that NA is of polyketide origin, and biochemical investigations demonstrated that 2-methyl-6,8-dihydroxynon-2E-enoic acid can be converted into NA by a cell-free preparation from Streptomyces lividans that expresses nonS. These results lead to the hypothesis that macrotetrolide biosynthesis involves a pair of enantiospecific polyketide pathways. In this work, a 55-kb contiguous DNA region was cloned from Streptomyces griseus DSM40695, a 6.3-kb fragment of which was sequenced to reveal five open reading frames, including the previously reported nonR and nonS genes. Inactivation of nonS in vivo completely abolished macrotetrolide production. Complementation of the nonS mutant by the expression of nonS in trans fully restored its macrotetrolide production ability, with a distribution of individual macrotetrolides similar to that for the wild-type producer. In contrast, fermentation of the nonS mutant in the presence of exogenous (+/-)-NA resulted in the production of nonactin, monactin, and dinactin but not in the production of trinactin and tetranactin. These results prove the direct involvement of nonS in macrotetrolide biosynthesis. The difference in macrotetrolide production between in vivo complementation of the nonS mutant by the plasmid-borne nonS gene and fermentation of the nonS mutant in the presence of exogenously added (+/-)-NA suggests that NonS catalyzes the formation of (-)-NA and its homologs, supporting the existence of a pair of enantiospecific polyketide pathways for macrotetrolide biosynthesis in S. griseus. The latter should provide a model that can be used to study the mechanism by which polyketide synthase controls stereochemistry during polyketide biosynthesis.
Project description:Nonactin is the parent compound of a group of ionophore antibiotics, known as the macrotetrolides, produced by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus ETH A7796. Nonactin is a significant compound because of its inhibitory effects on the P170 glycoprotein-mediated efflux of chemotherapeutic agents in multiple-drug-resistant cancer cells. Nonactin is also significant in that it is a highly atypical polyketide. Very little is presently known about the genes of the nonactin biosynthesis cluster. In this paper we describe our efforts to establish a connection between the product of a gene from the nonactin biosynthesis cluster and a known biochemical transformation in nonactin biosynthesis. Nonactate synthase is the enzyme which catalyzes the formation of nonactic acid from an acyclic precursor in nonactin biosynthesis. We have synthesized the substrate for this enzyme and have detected the in vitro cyclization activity of the substrate in cell-free preparations of S. griseus subsp. griseus ETH A7796. Previous studies by R. Plater and J. A. Robinson (Gene 112:117-122, 1992) had suggested, based on sequence homology, that the product of a partial open reading frame found close to the tetranactin resistance gene of S. griseus could be the nonactate synthase. We have therefore cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed this full gene (nonS), and we have shown that the gene product, NonS, does indeed catalyze the formation of the furan ring of nonactic acid as hypothesized.
Project description:Streptomyces griseus S4-7 was originally isolated from the strawberry rhizosphere as a microbial agent responsible for Fusarium wilt suppressive soils. S. griseus S4-7 shows specific and pronounced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae. In the Streptomyces genus, the whi transcription factors are regulators of sporulation, cell differentiation, septation, and secondary metabolites production. wblE2 function as a regulator has emerged as a new group in whi transcription factors. In this study, we reveal the involvement of the wblE2 transcription factor in the plant-protection by S. griseus S4-7. We generated ΔwblE, ΔwblE2, ΔwhiH, and ΔwhmD gene knock-out mutants, which showed less antifungal activity both in vitro and in planta. Among the mutants, wblE2 mutant failed to protect the strawberry against the Fusarium wilt pathogen. Transcriptome analyses revealed major differences in the regulation of phenylalanine metabolism, polyketide and siderophore biosynthesis between the S4-7 and the wblE2 mutant. The results contribute to our understanding of the role of streptomycetes wblE2 genes in a natural disease suppressing system.
Project description:Zincophorin is a polyketide antibiotic that possesses potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including human pathogens. While a number of total syntheses of this highly functionalized natural product were reported since its initial discovery, the genetic basis for the biosynthesis of zincophorin has remained unclear. In this study, the co-linearity inherent to polyketide pathways was used to identify the zincophorin biosynthesis gene cluster in the genome of the natural producer Streptomyces griseus HKI 0741. Interestingly, the same locus is fully conserved in the streptomycin-producing actinomycete S. griseus IFO 13350, suggesting that the latter bacterium is also capable of zincophorin biosynthesis. Biological profiling of zincophorin revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. The antibacterial effect, however, is accompanied by cytotoxicity. Antibiotic and cytotoxic activities were completely abolished upon esterification of the carboxylic acid group in zincophorin.
Project description:Streptomyces sp. NP10 was previously shown to synthesize large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs). In this work, we report the first insights into the biosynthesis of these fatty acids (FAs) gained after genome sequencing and identification of the genes involved. Analysis of the Streptomyces sp. NP10 draft genome revealed that it is closely related to several strains of Streptomyces griseus. Comparative analyses of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, as well as those presumably involved in FA biosynthesis, allowed identification of an unusual cluster C12-2, which could be identified in only one other S. griseus-related streptomycete. To prove the involvement of identified cluster in FFA biosynthesis, one of its three ketosynthase genes was insertionally inactivated to generate mutant strain mNP10. Accumulation of FFAs in mNP10 was almost completely abolished, reaching less than 0.01% compared to the wild-type strain. Cloning and transfer of the C12-2 cluster to the mNP10 mutant partially restored FFA production, albeit to a low level. The discovery of this rare FFA biosynthesis cluster opens possibilities for detailed characterization of the roles of individual genes and their products in the biosynthesis of FFAs in NP10.
Project description:The fredericamycin (FDM) A biosynthetic gene cluster, cloned previously from Streptomyces griseus ATCC 49344, contains three putative regulatory genes, fdmR, fdmR1, and fdmR2. Their deduced gene products show high similarity to members of the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family (FdmR1) or to MarR-like regulators (FdmR and FdmR2). Here we provide experimental data supporting FdmR1 as a SARP-type activator. Inactivation of fdmR1 abolished FDM biosynthesis, and FDM production could be restored to the fdmR1::aac(3)IV mutant by expressing fdmR1 in trans. Reverse transcription-PCR transcriptional analyses revealed that up to 26 of the 28 genes within the fdm gene cluster, with the exception of fdmR and fdmT2, were under the positive control of FdmR1, directly or indirectly. Overexpression of fdmR1 in S. griseus improved the FDM titer 5.6-fold (to about 1.36 g/liter) relative to that of wild-type S. griseus. Cloning of the complete fdm cluster into an integrative plasmid and subsequent expression in heterologous hosts revealed that considerable amounts of FDMs could be produced in Streptomyces albus but not in Streptomyces lividans. However, the S. lividans host could be engineered to produce FDMs via constitutive expression of fdmR1; FDM production in S. lividans could be enhanced further by overexpressing fdmC, encoding a putative ketoreductase, concomitantly with fdmR1. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the viability of engineering FDM biosynthesis and improving FDM titers in both the native producer S. griseus and heterologous hosts, such as S. albus and S. lividans. The approach taken capitalizes on FdmR1, a key activator of the FDM biosynthetic machinery.
Project description:The gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of two antitumor antibiotics, ravidomycin and chrysomycin, have been cloned from Streptomyces ravidus and Streptomyces albaduncus, respectively. Sequencing of the 33.28 kb DNA region of the cosmid cosRav32 and the 34.65 kb DNA region of cosChry1-1 and cosChryF2 revealed 36 and 35 open reading frames (ORFs), respectively, harboring tandem sets of type II polyketide synthase (PKS) genes, D-ravidosamine and D-virenose biosynthetic genes, post-PKS tailoring genes, regulatory genes, and genes of unknown function. The isolated ravidomycin gene cluster was confirmed to be involved in ravidomycin biosynthesis through the production of a new analogue of ravidomycin along with anticipated pathway intermediates and biosynthetic shunt products upon heterologous expression of the cosmid, cosRav32, in Streptomyces lividans TK24. The identity of the cluster was further verified through cross complementation of gilvocarcin V (GV) mutants. Similarly, the chrysomycin gene cluster was demonstrated to be indirectly involved in chrysomycin biosynthesis through cross-complementation of gilvocarcin mutants deficient in the oxygenases GilOII, GilOIII, and GilOIV with the respective chrysomycin monooxygenase homologues. The ravidomycin glycosyltransferase (RavGT) appears to be able to transfer both amino- and neutral sugars, exemplified through the structurally distinct 6-membered D-ravidosamine and 5-membered D-fucofuranose, to the coumarin-based polyketide derived backbone. These results expand the library of biosynthetic genes involved in the biosyntheses of gilvocarcin class compounds that can be used to generate novel analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis.
Project description:The main siderophores produced by streptomycetes are desferrioxamines. Here we show that Streptomyces sp. ATCC 700974 and several Streptomyces griseus strains, in addition, synthesize a hitherto unknown siderophore with a catechol-peptide structure, named griseobactin. The production is repressed by iron. We sequenced a 26-kb DNA region comprising a siderophore biosynthetic gene cluster encoding proteins similar to DhbABCEFG, which are involved in the biosynthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (DHBA) and in the incorporation of DHBA into siderophores via a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Adjacent to the biosynthesis genes are genes that encode proteins for the secretion, uptake, and degradation of siderophores. To correlate the gene cluster with griseobactin synthesis, the dhb genes in ATCC 700974 were disrupted. The resulting mutants no longer synthesized DHBA and griseobactin; production of both was restored by complementation with the dhb genes. Heterologous expression of the dhb genes or of the entire griseobactin biosynthesis gene cluster in the catechol-negative strain Streptomyces lividans TK23 resulted in the synthesis and secretion of DHBA or griseobactin, respectively, suggesting that these genes are sufficient for DHBA and griseobactin biosynthesis. Griseobactin was purified and characterized; its structure is consistent with a cyclic and, to a lesser extent, linear form of the trimeric ester of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-arginyl-threonine complexed with aluminum under iron-limiting conditions. This is the first report identifying the gene cluster for the biosynthesis of DHBA and a catechol siderophore in Streptomyces.
Project description:Polyene macrolides are important antibiotics used to treat fungal infections in humans. In this work, acyltransferase (AT) domain swaps, mutagenesis, and cross-complementation with heterologous polyketide synthase domain (PKS) loading modules were performed in order to facilitate production of new analogues of the polyene macrolide nystatin. Replacement of AT(0) in the nystatin PKS loading module NysA with the propionate-specific AT(1) from the nystatin PKS NysB, construction of hybrids between NysA and the loading module of rimocidin PKS RimA, and stepwise exchange of specific amino acids in the AT(0) domain by site-directed mutagenesis were accomplished. However, none of the NysA mutants constructed was able to initiate production of new nystatin analogues. Nevertheless, many NysA mutants and hybrids were functional, providing for different levels of nystatin biosynthesis. An interplay between certain residues in AT(0) and an active site residue in the ketosynthase (KS)-like domain of NysA in initiation of nystatin biosynthesis was revealed. Some hybrids between the NysA and RimA loading modules carrying the NysA AT(0) domain were able to prime rimocidin PKS with both acetate and butyrate units upon complementation of a rimA-deficient mutant of the rimocidin/CE-108 producer Streptomyces diastaticus. Expression of the PimS0 loading module from the pimaricin producer in the same host, however, resulted in production of CE-108 only. Taken together, these data indicate relaxed substrate specificity of NysA AT(0) domain, which is counteracted by a strict specificity of the first extender module KS domain in the nystatin PKS of Streptomyces noursei.
Project description:Streptomyces griseus DSM 2608 produces bafilomycin, an antifungal plecomacrolide antibiotic. We cloned and sequenced an 87.4-kb region, including a polyketide synthase (PKS) region, methoxymalonate genes, flavensomycinate genes, and other putative regulatory genes. The 58.5kb of PKS region consisting 12 PKS modules arranged in five different PKS genes, was assumed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of plecomacrolide backbone including 16-membered macrocyclic lactone. All the modules showed high similarities with typical type I PKS genes. However, the starting module of PKS gene was confirmed to be specific for isobutyrate by sequence comparison of an acyltransferase domain. In downstream of PKS region, the genes for methoxymalonate biosynthesis were located, among which a gene for FkbH-like protein was assumed to play an important role in the production of methoxymalonyl-CoA from glyceryl-CoA. Further the genes encoding flavensomycinyl-ACP biosynthesis for the post-PKS tailoring were also found in the upstream of PKS region. By gene disruption experiments of a dehydratase domain of module 12 and an FkbH-like protein, this gene cluster was confirmed to be involved in the biosynthesis of bafilomycin.
Project description:RppA, which belongs to the type III polyketide synthase family, catalyses the synthesis of 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (THN), which is the key intermediate of melanin biosynthesis in the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. The reaction of THN synthesis catalysed by RppA is unique in the type III polyketide synthase family, in that it selects malonyl-CoA as a starter substrate. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad is also present in RppA, as in plant chalcone synthases, as revealed by analyses of active-site mutants having amino acid replacements at Cys(138), His(270) and Asn(303) of RppA. Site-directed mutagenesis of the amino acid residues that are likely to form the active-site cavity revealed that the aromatic ring of Tyr(224) is essential for RppA to select malonyl-CoA as a starter substrate, since substitution of Tyr(224) by amino acids other than Phe and Trp abolished the ability of RppA to accept malonyl-CoA as a starter, whereas the mutant enzymes Y224F and Y224W were capable of synthesizing THN via the malonyl-CoA-primed reaction. Of the site-directed mutants generated, A305I was found to produce only a triketide pyrone from hexanoyl-CoA as starter substrate, although wild-type RppA synthesizes tetraketide and triketide pyrones in the hexanoyl-CoA-primed reaction. The kinetic parameters of Ala(305) mutants and identification of their products showed that the substitution of Ala(305) by bulky amino acid residues restricted the number of elongations of the growing polyketide chain. Both Tyr(224) (important for starter substrate selection) and Ala(305) (important for intermediate elongation) were found to be conserved in three other RppAs from Streptomyces antibioticus and Streptomyces lividans.