Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the DNA gyrase (gyrA) gene from Mycoplasma hominis and characterization of quinolone-resistant mutants selected in vitro with trovafloxacin.
ABSTRACT: We report the cloning and characterization of the gyrA gene of the Mycoplasma hominis DNA gyrase, which was previously shown to be associated with quinolone resistance in this organism. The 2,733-bp gyrA gene encodes a protein of 911 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 102.5 kDa. As expected, M. hominis GyrA exhibits higher homology with the GyrA subunits of the gram-positive bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus than with its Escherichia coli counterpart. Knowing the entire sequence of the gyrA gene of M. hominis could be very useful for confirming the role of the GyrA subunit in fluoroquinolone resistance. Twenty-nine mutants of M. hominis were selected stepwise for resistance to trovafloxacin, a new potent fluoroquinolone, and their gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions were characterized. Three rounds of selection yielded 3 first-step, 12 second-step, and 14 third-step mutants. The first-step mutants harbored a single substitution, Glu460-->Lys (E. coli coordinates), in ParE. GyrA changes, Ser83-->Leu, Glu87-->Lys, and Ala119-->Glu or Val, were found only in the second round of selection. At the third step, additional substitutions, at ParC Ser80, Ser81, and Glu84 and ParE Leu440, associated with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones, appeared. Thus, high-level resistance to trovafloxacin required three steps and was associated with alterations in both fluoroquinolone targets. According to these genetic data, in M. hominis, as in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, topoisomerase IV seems to be the primary target of trovafloxacin.
Project description:Mycoplasma hominis mutants were selected stepwise for resistance to ofloxacin and sparfloxacin, and their gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions were characterized. For ofloxacin, four rounds of selection yielded six first-, six second-, five third-, and two fourth-step mutants. The first-step mutants harbored a single Asp426-->Asn substitution in ParE. GyrA changes (Ser83-->Leu or Trp) were found only from the third round of selection. With sparfloxacin, three rounds of selection generated 4 first-, 7 second-, and 10 third-step mutants. In contrast to ofloxacin resistance, GyrA mutations (Ser83-->Leu or Ser84-->Trp) were detected in the first-step mutants prior to ParC changes (Glu84-->Lys), which appeared only after the second round of selection. Further analysis of eight multistep-selected mutants of M. hominis that were previously described (2) revealed that they carried mutations in ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParC (Ser80-->Ile), or ParC (Ser80-->Ile) alone, depending on the fluoroquinolone used for selection, i.e., ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, or pefloxacin, respectively. These data indicate that in M. hominis DNA gyrase is the primary target of sparfloxacin whereas topoisomerase IV is the primary target of pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.
Project description:Resistance to fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been attributed primarily to specific mutations in the genes for DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE). Resistance to some FQs can result from a single mutation in one or more of the genes encoding these essential enzymes. A group of 160 clinical isolates of pneumococci was examined in this study, including 36 ofloxacin-resistant isolates (MICs, > or = 8 micrograms/ml) recovered from patients in North America, France, and Belgium. The susceptibilities of all isolates to clinafloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin were examined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility testing methods. Among the ofloxacin-resistant strains, 32 of 36 were also categorized as resistant to levofloxacin, 35 were resistant to sparfloxacin, 29 were resistant to grepafloxacin, and 19 were resistant to trovafloxacin. In vitro susceptibility to clinafloxacin appeared to be least affected by resistance to the other FQs. Eight isolates with high- and low-level resistance to the newer FQs were selected for DNA sequence analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. The DNA and the inferred amino acid sequences of the resistant strains were compared with the analogous sequences of reference strain S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and FQ-susceptible laboratory strain R6. Reduced susceptibilities to grepafloxacin and sparfloxacin (MICs, 1 to 2 micrograms/ml) and trovafloxacin (MICs, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml) were associated with either a mutation in parC that led to a single amino acid substitution (Ser-79 to Phe or Tyr) or double mutations that involved the genes for both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParE (Asp-435 to Asn). High-level resistance to all of the compounds except clinafloxacin was associated with two or more amino acid substitutions involving both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParC (Ser-79 to Phe or Ser-80 to Pro and Asp-83 to Tyr). No mutations were observed in the gyrB sequences of resistant strains. These data indicate that mutations in pneumococcal gyrA, parC, and parE genes all contribute to decreased susceptibility to the newer FQs, and genetic analysis of the QRDR of a single gene, either gyrA or parC, is not predictive of pneumococcal resistance to these agents.
Project description:Mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were determined by genetic analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. This study included the P. mirabilis type strain ATCC 29906 and 29 clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility (MIC, 0.5 to 2 microg/ml) or resistance (MIC, > or =4 microg/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles for ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin were correlated with amino acid changes in the QRDRs. Decreased susceptibility and resistance were associated with double mutations involving both gyrA (S83R or -I) and parC (S80R or -I). Among these double mutants, MICs of ciprofloxacin varied from 1 to 16 microg/ml, indicating that additional factors, such as drug efflux or porin changes, also contribute to the level of resistance. For ParE, a single conservative change of V364I was detected in seven strains. An unexpected result was the association of gyrB mutations with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in 12 of 20 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Changes in GyrB included S464Y (six isolates), S464F (three isolates), and E466D (two isolates). A three-nucleotide insertion, resulting in an additional lysine residue between K455 and A456, was detected in gyrB of one strain. Unlike any other bacterial species analyzed to date, mutation of gyrB appears to be a frequent event in the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of P. mirabilis.
Project description:The mutations that are responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and serovar Paratyphi A were investigated. The sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene in clinical isolates which showed decreased susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones had a single mutation at either the Ser-83 or the Asp-87 codon, and no mutations were found in the gyrB, parC, and parE genes.
Project description:The topoisomerase IV parC and parE genes from the wall-less organism Mycoplasma hominis PG21 were cloned and sequenced. The coupled genes are located far from the DNA gyrase genes gyrA and gyrB. They encode proteins of 639 and 866 amino acids, respectively. As expected, the encoded ParE and ParC proteins exhibit higher homologies with the topoisomerase IV subunits of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae than with their Escherichia coli counterparts. The conserved regions include the Tyr residue of the active site and the region involved in quinolone resistance (quinolone resistance-determining region [QRDR]) in ParC and the ATP-binding site and the QRDR in ParE.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is a global concern; however, data on antibiotic-resistant Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis are limited in comparison to similar data on other microbes. A total of 492 Ureaplasma spp. and 13 M. hominis strains obtained in Hangzhou, China, in 2018 were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and doxycycline using the broth microdilution method. The mechanisms underlying quinolone and macrolide resistance were determined. Meanwhile, a model of the topoisomerase IV complex bound to levofloxacin in wild-type Ureaplasma spp. was built to study the quinolone resistance mutations. For Ureaplasma spp., the levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and erythromycin resistance rates were 84.69%, 51.44%, and 3.59% in U. parvum and 82.43%, 62.16%, and 5.40% in U. urealyticum, respectively. Of the 13 M. hominis strains, 11 were resistant to both levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, and five strains showed clindamycin resistance. ParC S83L was the most prevalent mutation in levofloxacin-resistant Ureaplasma strains, followed by ParE R448K. The two mutations GyrA S153L and ParC S91I were commonly identified in quinolone-resistant M. hominis A molecular dynamics-refined structure revealed that quinolone resistance-associated mutations inhibited the interaction and reduced affinity with gyrase or topoisomerase IV and quinolones. The novel mutations S21A in the L4 protein and G2654T and T2245C in 23S rRNA and the ermB gene were identified in erythromycin-resistant Ureaplasma spp. As fluoroquinolone resistance in Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis remains high in China, the rational use of antibiotics needs to be further enhanced.
Project description:A total of 46 ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cip(r)) Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from 1991 to 2001 at the Hospital of Bellvitge. Five of these strains showed unexpectedly high rates of nucleotide variations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of their parC, parE, and gyrA genes. The nucleotide sequence of the full-length parC, parE, and gyrA genes of one of these isolates revealed a mosaic structure compatible with an interspecific recombination origin. Southern blot analysis and nucleotide sequence determinations showed the presence of an ant-like gene in the intergenic parE-parC regions of the S. pneumoniae Cip(r) isolates with high rates of variations in their parE and parC QRDRs. The ant-like gene was absent from typical S. pneumoniae strains, whereas it was present in the intergenic parE-parC regions of the viridans group streptococci (Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis). These results suggest that the viridans group streptococci are acting as donors in the horizontal transfer of fluoroquinolone resistance genes to S. pneumoniae.
Project description:Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada was conducted from 1997 to 2005. Over the course of the study, 205 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were evaluated for ParC and GyrA quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) substitutions, substitutions in the full genes of ParC, ParE, and GyrA, reserpine sensitivity, and serotype and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Rates of ciprofloxacin resistance of S. pneumoniae increased significantly, from less than 1% in 1997 to 4.2% in 2005. Ciprofloxacin resistance was greatest in people >64 years of age and least in those <16 years of age. Significant increases were also noted in rates of resistance to gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin, to the current rates of 1.6%, 1.0%, 1.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The most common genotype observed consisted of QRDR substitutions in GyrA (Ser81Phe) and ParC (Ser79Phe). Substitutions outside the QRDR of GyrA, ParC, and ParE were not associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in this study. Overall, 21% of isolates were reserpine-sensitive and were thus assumed to be efflux positive. The ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates belonged to 35 different serotypes, but 10 (19F, 11A, 23F, 6B, 22F, 12F, 6A, 14, 9V, and 19A) accounted for 72% of all isolates. The majority of the isolates were found to be genetically unrelated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Within the observed clusters, there was considerable genetic heterogeneity with regard to fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms and serotypes. Continued surveillance and molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae in Canada are essential for appropriate empirical treatment of infections and early detection of novel resistance mechanisms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Riemerella anatipestifer is one of the most serious infectious disease-causing pathogens in the duck industry. Drug administration is an important method for prevention and treatment of infection in duck production, leading to widespread drug resistance in R. anatipestifer.<h4>Methods</h4>For a total of 162 isolates of R. anatipestifer, the MICs were determined for a quinolone antimicrobial agent, namely, nalidixic acid, and three fluoroquinolones, namely, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin. The gyrA, parC, and parE gene fragments were amplified by PCR to identify the mutation sites in these strains. Site-directed mutants with mutations that were detected at a high frequency in vivo were constructed (hereafter referred to as site-directed in vivo mutants), and the MICs of these four drugs for these strains were determined.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 100, 97.8, 99.3 and 97.8% of the 137 R. anatipestifer strains isolated between 2013 and 2018 showed resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ofloxacin, respectively. The high-frequency mutation sites were detected in a total of 162 R. anatipestifer strains, such as Ser83Ile and Ser83Arg, which are two types of substitution mutations of amino acid 83 in GyrA; Val799Ala and Ile811Val in ParC; and Val357Ile, His358Tyr, and Arg541Lys in ParE. MIC analysis results for the site-directed in vivo mutants showed that the strains with only the Ser83Ile mutation in GyrA exhibited an 8-16-fold increase in MIC values, and all mutants showed resistance to ampicillin and ceftiofur.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The resistance of R. anatipestifer to quinolone agents is a serious problem. Amino acid 83 in GyrA is the major target mutation site for the fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism of R. anatipestifer.
Project description:The L2 reference strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was exposed to subinhibitory concentrations of ofloxacin (0.5 microg/ml) and sparfloxacin (0.015 microg/ml) to select fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants. In this study, two resistant strains were isolated after four rounds of selection. The C. trachomatis mutants presented with high-level resistance to various fluoroquinolones, particularly to sparfloxacin, for which a 1,000-fold increase in the MICs for the mutant strains compared to the MIC for the susceptible strain was found. The MICs of unrelated antibiotics (doxycycline and erythromycin) for the mutant strains were identical to those for the reference strain. The gyrase (gyrA, gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC, parE) genes of the susceptible and resistant strains of C. trachomatis were partially sequenced. A point mutation was found in the gyrA quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of both resistant strains, leading to a Ser83-->Ile substitution (Escherichia coli numbering) in the corresponding protein. The gyrB, parC, and parE QRDRs of the resistant strains were identical to those of the reference strain. These results suggest that in C. trachomatis, DNA gyrase is the primary target of ofloxacin and sparfloxacin.