Type II topoisomerase mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in 1998 and 1999: role of target enzyme in mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance.
ABSTRACT: The major mechanism of resistance to fluoroquinolones for Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the modification of type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV). We examined the mutations in quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of recent clinical isolates. There were 150 isolates with reduced susceptibilities to levofloxacin and 127 with reduced susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin among 513 isolates collected during 1998 and 1999 in Japan. Sequencing results predicted replacement of an amino acid in the QRDR of DNA gyrase (GyrA or GyrB) for 124 of the 150 strains (82.7%); among these, 89 isolates possessed mutations in parC or parE which lead to amino acid changes. Substitutions of both Ile for Thr-83 in GyrA and Leu for Ser-87 in ParC were the principal changes, being detected in 48 strains. These replacements were obviously associated with reduced susceptibilities to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin; however, sitafloxacin showed high activity against isolates with these replacements. We purified GyrA (The-83 to Ile) and ParC (Ser-87 to Leu) by site-directed mutagenesis and compared the inhibitory activities of the fluoroquinolones. Sitafloxacin showed the most potent inhibitory activities against both altered topoisomerases among the fluoroquinolones tested. These results indicated that, compared with other available quinolones, sitafloxacin maintained higher activity against recent clinical isolates with multiple mutations in gyrA and parC, which can be explained by the high inhibitory activities of sitafloxacin against both mutated enzymes.
Project description:A total of 88 salmonella isolates (72 clinical isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >0.06 microg/ml, 15 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was < or =0.06 microg/ml, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 13311) were studied for the presence of genetic alterations in four quinolone resistance genes, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, by multiplex PCR amplimer conformation analysis. The genetic alterations were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing. A considerable number of strains had a mutation in parC, the first to be reported in salmonellae. Seven of the isolates sensitive to 0.06 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml had a novel mutation at codon 57 of parC (Tyr57-->Ser) which was also found in 29 isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.06 micro g/ml. Thirty-two isolates had a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe, Ser83-->Tyr, Asp87-->Asn, Asp87-->Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly), 34 had both a gyrA mutation and a parC mutation (29 isolates with a parC mutation of Tyr57-->Ser and 5 isolates with a parC mutation of Ser80-->Arg). Six isolates which were isolated recently (from 1998 to 2001) were resistant to 4 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml. Two of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Asn) and a parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg) (MICs, 8 to 32 microg/ml), and four of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Gly), one parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg), and one parE mutation (Ser458-->Pro) (MICs, 16 to 64 micro g/ml). All six of these isolates and those with a Ser80-->Arg parC mutation were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. One S. enterica serotype Typhi isolate harbored a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe), and an S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A isolate harbored a gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Tyr) and a parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser); both of these isolates had decreased susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin were in general the lowest of those of the six fluoroquinolones tested. Isolates with a single gyrA mutation were less resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with an additional parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser or Ser80-->Arg), while those with double gyrA mutations were more resistant.
Project description:Background:Fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli isolates have become an important challenge in healthcare settings in Iran. In this study, we have determined Fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli isolates (from both outpatients and inpatients) and evaluated mutations of gyrA and parC within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of these clinical isolates. Materials and methods:Clinical isolates were recovered from the urine sample of patients with urinary tract infections admitted at Alzahra hospital, Iran, between September and February 2013. We assessed antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates and determined mutations in QRDR of gyrA and parC genes from 13 fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates by DNA sequencing. Results:A total of 135 E. coli strains were obtained from 135 patients (91 outpatients and 44 inpatients). The resistance rate of fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Ofloxacin) among our strains was 45.2%. Two E. coli isolates were shown just a single mutation, but other isolates possessed 2-5 mutations in gyrA and parC genes. Mutations in the QRDR regions of gyrA were at positions Ser83 and Asp87 and parC at positions Ser80, Glu84, Gly78. Conclusions:Ciprofloxacin is the most common antimicrobial agent used for treating urinary tract infections (UTIs) in healthcare settings in Iran. Accumulation of different substitutions in the QRDR regions of gyrA and parC confers high-level resistance of fluoroquinolones in clinical isolates.
Project description:Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada was conducted from 1997 to 2005. Over the course of the study, 205 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were evaluated for ParC and GyrA quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) substitutions, substitutions in the full genes of ParC, ParE, and GyrA, reserpine sensitivity, and serotype and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Rates of ciprofloxacin resistance of S. pneumoniae increased significantly, from less than 1% in 1997 to 4.2% in 2005. Ciprofloxacin resistance was greatest in people >64 years of age and least in those <16 years of age. Significant increases were also noted in rates of resistance to gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin, to the current rates of 1.6%, 1.0%, 1.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The most common genotype observed consisted of QRDR substitutions in GyrA (Ser81Phe) and ParC (Ser79Phe). Substitutions outside the QRDR of GyrA, ParC, and ParE were not associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in this study. Overall, 21% of isolates were reserpine-sensitive and were thus assumed to be efflux positive. The ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates belonged to 35 different serotypes, but 10 (19F, 11A, 23F, 6B, 22F, 12F, 6A, 14, 9V, and 19A) accounted for 72% of all isolates. The majority of the isolates were found to be genetically unrelated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Within the observed clusters, there was considerable genetic heterogeneity with regard to fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms and serotypes. Continued surveillance and molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae in Canada are essential for appropriate empirical treatment of infections and early detection of novel resistance mechanisms.
Project description:Mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) in chromosomal gyrA and parC genes and fluoroquinolone susceptibility profiles were investigated in quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from community and hospitalized patients in the Brazilian Southeast region. A total of 112 nalidixic acid-resistant enterobacterial isolates collected from 2000 to 2005 were investigated for mutations in the topoisomerases genes gyrA and parC by amplifying and sequencing the QRDR regions. Susceptibility to fluoroquinolones was tested by the agar dilution method. Amongst the 112 enterobacterial isolates, 81 (72.3%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 5 (4.5%) showed reduced susceptibility. Twenty-six (23.2%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Several alterations were detected in gyrA and parC genes. Escherichia coli isolates (47.7%) showed double mutations in the gyrA gene and a single one in the parC gene. Two unusual aminoacid substitutions are reported, an Asp87-Asn in a Citrobacter freundii isolate with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and a Glu84-Ala in one E. coli isolate. Only a parC gene mutation was found in fluoroquinolone-susceptible Enterobacter aerogenes. None of the isolates susceptible to ciprofloxacin presented mutations in topoisomerase genes. This comprehensive analysis of QRDRs in gyrA and parC genes, covering commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil is the largest reported up to now.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (FRHI) has been reported worldwide but remain unclear in China. METHODS:A total of 402 H. influenzae isolates collected from 2016 to 2017 were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility on 10 antibiotics was performed, and minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin- and nalidixic acid-resistant strains were further determined by E-test strips, with risk factors also evaluated. Strains with resistance or reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were subjected to sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by sequencing, with multi-locus sequence typing. RESULTS:2.2% of H. influenzae strains were non-susceptible (7/402, 1.7%) or susceptible (2/402, 0.5%) to ciprofloxacin but NAL-resistant by E-test, and multidrug resistance was more common in fluoroquinolones non-susceptible H. influenzae group (p?=?0.000). Infection risk factors included invasive procedure (p?=?0.011), catching cold/previous contact with someone who had a cold (p?=?0.019), fluoroquinolones use during previous 3 months (p?=?0.003). With none of mutations obtained in gyrB, parE and other plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, 7 and 4 strains were found for Ser-84-Leu substitutions in gyrA and one amino acid substitution in the QRDR of gyrA linked with one amino acid substitution in the QRDR of parC, respectively. In addition, five sequence types (ST) were identified, with ST1719 firstly found. CONCLUSIONS:For the first time, this study has reported the incidence, risk factors, molecular determinants on fluoroquinolones resistance and ST of FRHI strains in mainland China, representing the first evidence of mutation of gyrA and parC in China and the new ST1719 worldwide.
Project description:The mutations that are responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and serovar Paratyphi A were investigated. The sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene in clinical isolates which showed decreased susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones had a single mutation at either the Ser-83 or the Asp-87 codon, and no mutations were found in the gyrB, parC, and parE genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common pathogen in postoperative endophthalmitis and causes various infectious eye diseases. However, there is very little information on fluoroquinolone antibiotic resistance to S. epidermidis identified in conjunctival microbe and analysis of related genes. Here, the authors investigated the rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from normal conjunctival microbes and mutations in the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDR). METHODS:377 eye samples from 187 patients who underwent intravitreal injection and cataract surgery were included. Specimens were taken from the bilateral lower conjunctival sacs using a cotton swab and cultured. The cultures were identified using MALDI-TOP MS and gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE gene mutations of QRDR were confirmed by DNA extraction from resistant strains of S. epidermidis with a micro-dilution method using ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. RESULTS:The culture positive rate was 61.8% (231) for 374 eye samples. Of the 303 total strains cultured, S. epidermidis was the most common with 33.7% (102). Ten types of gene mutations were observed in the resistant S. epidermidis of 21 strains. One-point mutation was observed mainly in gyrA and parC, and a small number of mutations were observed in parE in the form of a double point mutations. When there were multiple point mutations in both gyrA and parC, the highest minimum inhibitory concentration was observed. CONCLUSIONS:The quinolone resistance rate of S. epidermidis increased in comparison with previous studies, and resistant S. epidermidis showed mostly QRDR mutations, which were mainly found in gyrA and parC, and showed strong resistance when mutated in both genes.
Project description:Mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were determined by genetic analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. This study included the P. mirabilis type strain ATCC 29906 and 29 clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility (MIC, 0.5 to 2 microg/ml) or resistance (MIC, > or =4 microg/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles for ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin were correlated with amino acid changes in the QRDRs. Decreased susceptibility and resistance were associated with double mutations involving both gyrA (S83R or -I) and parC (S80R or -I). Among these double mutants, MICs of ciprofloxacin varied from 1 to 16 microg/ml, indicating that additional factors, such as drug efflux or porin changes, also contribute to the level of resistance. For ParE, a single conservative change of V364I was detected in seven strains. An unexpected result was the association of gyrB mutations with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in 12 of 20 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Changes in GyrB included S464Y (six isolates), S464F (three isolates), and E466D (two isolates). A three-nucleotide insertion, resulting in an additional lysine residue between K455 and A456, was detected in gyrB of one strain. Unlike any other bacterial species analyzed to date, mutation of gyrB appears to be a frequent event in the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of P. mirabilis.
Project description:AIM:The present study was undertaken to characterize the mutation in gyrA (DNA gyrase) and parC (topoisomerase IV) genes responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolates associated with the bovine mastitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 92 milk samples from bovine mastitis cases were sampled in and around Puducherry (Southern India). Among these samples, 30 isolates were bacteriologically characterized as E. coli. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fluoroquinolones of these 30 E. coli isolates were evaluated by resazurin microtiter assay. Then, the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) (gyrA and parC genes) of these E. coli isolates was genetically analyzed for determining the chromosomal mutation causing fluoroquinolone resistance. RESULTS:E. coli isolates showed a resistance rate of 63.33%, 23.33% and 30.03% to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively. Mutations were found at 83(rd) and 87(th) amino acid position of gyrA gene, and at 80(th) and 108(th) amino acid position of parC gene in our study isolates. Among these five isolates, one had a single mutation at 83 amino acid position of gyrA with reduced susceptibility (0.5 µg/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Then, in remaining four isolates, three isolates showed triple mutation (at gyrA: S83?L and D87?N; at parC: S80?I) and the fifth isolate showed an additional mutation at codon 108 of parC (A108?T) with the increased ciprofloxacin MIC of 16-128 µg/ml. The most common mutation noticed were at S83?L and D87?N of gyrA and S80?I of ParC. CONCLUSION:The study confirms the presence of mutation/s responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in QRDR of gyrA and parC genes of E. coli isolates of animal origin, and there is increased rate of fluoroquinolone resistance with high-level of MIC. The mutations observed in this study were similar to that of human isolates.
Project description:Often dismissed as a commensal, <i>Mycoplasma hominis</i> is an increasingly prominent target of research due to its role in septic arthritis and organ transplant failure in immunosuppressed patients, particularly lung transplantation. As a mollicute, its highly reductive genome and structure render it refractile to most forms of treatment and growing levels of resistance to the few sources of treatment left, such as fluoroquinolones. We examined antimicrobial susceptibility (AST) to fluoroquinolones on 72 isolates and observed resistance in three (4.1%), with corresponding mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of S83L or E87G in <i>gyrA</i> and S81I or E85V in <i>parC</i>. However, there were high levels of polymorphism identified between all isolates outside of the QRDR, indicating caution for a genomics-led approach for resistance screening, particularly as we observed a further two quinolone-susceptible isolates solely containing <i>gyrA</i> mutation S83L. However, both isolates spontaneously developed a second spontaneous E85K <i>parC</i> mutation and resistance following prolonged incubation in 4 mg/L levofloxacin for an extra 24-48 h. Continued AST surveillance and investigation is required to understand how <i>gyrA</i> QRDR mutations predispose <i>M. hominis</i> to rapid spontaneous mutation and fluoroquinolone resistance, absent from other susceptible isolates. The unusually high prevalence of polymorphisms in <i>M. hominis</i> also warrants increased genomics' surveillance.