Two new point mutations at A2062 associated with resistance to 16-membered macrolide antibiotics in mutant strains of Mycoplasma hominis.
ABSTRACT: We describe two mutants of Mycoplasma hominis PG-21 which show resistance to 16-membered macrolides but susceptibility to lincosamides, obtained by in vitro exposure to increasing doses of josamycin. The 23S rRNA gene showed that each had a mutation (A2062G and A2062T) corresponding to nucleotide 2062 in Escherichia coli, which was associated with the acquired phenotype.
Project description:The mechanisms of intrinsic resistance of Mycoplasma hominis to 14- and 15-membered macrolides were investigated in comparison with those of M. pneumoniae, which is naturally susceptible to macrolides. Radiolabeled erythromycin was not accumulated by M. hominis PG21, but addition of an ABC transporter inhibitor increased the level of erythromycin uptake more than two times, suggesting the existence of an active efflux process. The affinity of [(14)C]erythromycin to ribosomes isolated from M. hominis was dramatically reduced relative to that to ribosomes isolated from M. pneumoniae. The nucleotide sequences of 23S rRNA of both ribosomal operons rrnA and rrnB and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 of M. hominis were obtained. Compared to the sequence of M. pneumoniae, M. hominis harbored a G2057A transition in its 23S rRNA sequence, as did M. fermentans, another mycoplasma that is erythromycin resistant. An additional C2610U change was also found in the sequence of M. hominis. Moreover, two M. hominis clinical isolates with acquired resistance to 16-membered macrolides were examined for mutations in domain II and domain V of 23S rRNA and in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22. Compared to the sequence of reference strain PG21, one isolate harbored a A2059G transition and a C2611U transition in one of the two rrn operons, while the other one was mutated only at position 2059, also on the same operon. No mutation was found in the two ribosomal protein sequences. Overall, the present study is an exhaustive characterization of the intrinsic resistance of M. hominis to 14- and 15-membered macrolides and the first description of mycoplasma clinical isolates resistant to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin antibiotics harboring a mutation at position 2611 in the 23S rRNA.
Project description:An international multilaboratory collaborative study was conducted to develop standard media and consensus methods for the performance and quality control of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum using broth microdilution and agar dilution techniques. A reference strain from the American Type Culture Collection was designated for each species, which was to be used for quality control purposes. Repeat testing of replicate samples of each reference strain by participating laboratories utilizing both methods and different lots of media enabled a 3- to 4-dilution MIC range to be established for drugs in several different classes, including tetracyclines, macrolides, ketolides, lincosamides, and fluoroquinolones. This represents the first multilaboratory collaboration to standardize susceptibility testing methods and to designate quality control parameters to ensure accurate and reliable assay results for mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas that infect humans.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolate BM4455 was resistant to 16-membered macrolides and to streptogramins. This unusual resistance phenotype was due to an A(2062)C (Escherichia coli numbering) mutation in domain V of the four copies of 23S rRNA.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3, isolated from a penicillin-allergic patient and initially susceptible to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, lincosamides, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and telithromycin, became resistant to all these drugs during treatment. Mutations in the parC and gyrA and in the 23S rRNA and the ribosomal protein L22 genes were detected in the resistant isolates.
Project description:Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species, commonly found in the lower urogenital tract, have been associated with various urogenital infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility trend of M. hominis and Ureaplasma sp. in female patients and to evaluate the risk factors for the acquisition of pristinamycin-resistant mycoplasma. Endocervical swab specimens obtained between March 2016 and December 2018 were analyzed using a Mycoplasma IST2 kit. Because pristinamycin and josamycin are not available in South Korea, we conducted an age- and date-matched case-control study to evaluate the risk factors for the acquisition of pristinamycin-resistant isolates. Among 4,035 specimens, 1,589 (39.4%) cases were positive for genital mycoplasma, which included 49 (3.1%) cases of M. hominis, 1,243 (78.2%) cases of Ureaplasma sp., and 297 (18.7%) cases of both M. hominis and Ureaplasma species. Based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests, the antibiotic susceptible rate of both M. hominis and Ureaplasma species to pristinamycin decreased annually during the study period (100%, 97.1%, and 87.3% for 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively, P?<?0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, josamycin resistance (odds ratio, 7.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 43.00; P?=?0.027) and coinfection (odds ratio, 145.38; 95% confidence interval, 21.80 to 3,017.23; P?<?0.001) with Candida species were independent risk factors for the acquisition of pristinamycin-resistant isolates. Antibiotic-resistant genital mycoplasmas have been gradually increasing annually. Nationwide surveillance, proper antibiotic stewardship, and appropriate culture-based treatment strategies are required to control this upcoming threat.
Project description:Mycoplasma bovis is associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome (CPPS) in feedlot cattle. No efficacious vaccines for M. bovis exist; hence, macrolides are commonly used to control mycoplasmosis. Whole genome sequences of 126 M. bovis isolates, derived from 96 feedlot cattle over 12 production years, were determined. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of five macrolides (gamithromycin, tildipirosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin, tylosin) was conducted using a microbroth dilution method. The AST phenotypes were compared to the genotypes generated for 23S rRNA and the L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins. Mutations in domains II (nucleotide 748; E. coli numbering) and V (nucleotide 2059 and 2060) of the 23S rRNA (rrl) gene alleles were associated with resistance. All isolates with a single mutation at ?748 were susceptible to tulathromycin, but resistant to tilmicosin and tildipirosin. Isolates with mutations in both domain II and V (?748?2059 or ?748?2060) were resistant to all five macrolides. However, >99% of isolates were resistant to tildipirosin and tilmicosin, regardless of the number and positions of the mutations. Isolates with a ?748 mutation in the 23S rRNA gene and mutations in L4 and L22 were resistant to all macrolides except for tulathromycin.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In streptococci, three macrolide resistance determinants (erm(B), erm(TR) and mef(A)) have been found. In addition, certain mutations at the ribosomal 23S RNA can cause resistance to macrolides. Mutation at the position 2058 of the 23S rRNA of the Streptococcus pyogenes as a cause of macrolide resistance has not been described before. METHODS: Antibiotic resistance determinations for the clinical S. pyogenes strain ni4277 were done using the agar dilution technique. Macrolide resistance mechanisms were studied by PCR and sequencing. All six rRNA operons were amplified using operon-specific PCR. The PCR products were partially sequenced in order to resolve the sequences of different 23S rRNA genes. RESULTS: One clinical isolate of S. pyogenes carrying an adenine to guanine mutation at the position 2058 of the 23S rRNA in five of the six possible rRNA genes but having no other known macrolide resistance determinants is described. The strain was highly resistant to macrolides and azalides, having erythromycin and azithromycin MICs > 256 microgram/ml. It was resistant to lincosamides (clindamycin MIC 16 microgram/ml) and also MIC values for ketolides were clearly elevated. The MIC for telithromycin was 16 microgram/ml. CONCLUSION: In this clinical S. pyogenes strain, a mutation at the position 2058 was detected. No other macrolide resistance-causing determinants were detected. This mutation is known to cause macrolide resistance in other bacteria. We can conclude that this mutation was the most probable cause of macrolide, lincosamide and ketolide resistance in this strain.
Project description:Fifty clinical Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains were isolated from 370 children with respiratory tract infections. Four strains were susceptible to macrolides, while the other 46 (92%) were macrolide resistant. The molecular mechanism of resistance was shown to be associated with point mutations in 23S rRNA at positions 2063 and 2064.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The point mutations in 23S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) can lead to high-level resistance to macrolides. This study aimed to evaluate allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR) to detect the resistance-related mutations located at positions A2063G and A2064G of 23S rRNA gene. METHODS:We detected 178 pharyngeal swab specimens and calculated the proportions of resistant and sensitive quasispecies using ASPCR assays. ASPCR assays can detect down to 10 copies of 23S rRNA gene and achieved sensitivities of <?0.1% for A2063G and A2064G. We also compared the findings of ASPCR with the results of nested PCR with sequencing. RESULTS:Of 178 samples, 164 were found to have M. pneumoniae including 90.85% (149/164) samples with macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (MRMP) quasispecies by ASPCR, while 153 were found to be M. pneumoniae-positive including 71.90% (110/153) samples with MRMP quasispecies by nested PCR with sequencing. Of the 164?M. pneumoniae-positive samples, 61.59% (101/164) had the mixed population of wild-type and mutant M. pneumoniae, and 56.44% (57/101) of the latter contained the mutations at low frequency (?50%). CONCLUSION:ASPCR indicated that sensitive and resistant quasispecies coexisted in most of the M. pneumoniae positive samples. The ASPCR was a highly sensitive, accurate and rapid method for detecting the macrolide resistance-associated mutations and it could provide earlier and more drug-resistant information for M. pneumoniae research and the clinical therapy.
Project description:The features of Mycoplasma in human organ such lung and urinary tract are enigmatic. Here, the role of M. hominis in regard to biofilm formation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073 was investigated. Although M. hominis were inferred to not impact on UPEC bacterial fitness including growth and productions of signaling molecules as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and indole, we found that the presence of M. hominis dramatically decreased biofilm formation of UPEC CFT073 as well as slightly repressed attachment and cytotoxicity of that. Importantly, this activity was observed on UPEC strain specifically, not enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain that exists on intestine. Whole-transcriptome profiling and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed PhoPQ system and anti-termination protein (encoded by ybcQ) participates on the reduction of biofilm formation by M. hominis (corroborated by qRT-PCR). Furthermore, collaborating with previous report that toxin-antitoxin (TA) system involved in biofilm formation, M. hominis increased on the transcriptions of toxin genes including hha (toxin gene in Hha-TomB TA system) and pasT (toxin part in PasT-PasI TA system). Hence, we propose that one possible role of M. hominis is to influence bacterial biofilm formation in urinary tract. Only fourteen genes were induced (2.5-fold) by the presence of M. hominis in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) biofilm cells. Among upregulated genes, ybcQ (encodes anti-termination protein Q homolog) and phoP/phoQ (encode DNA-binding response regulators in two-component regulatory system), were induced by the presence of M. hominis. Two-condition experiment, UPEC CFT073 alone vs. UPEC CFT073 with Mycoplasma hominis PG21 (10^5 ccu/ml). For preparing the total RNA, UPEC CFT073 cells were grown at 37°C in biofilm cells on glass wool with or without M. hominis for 24 h.