Prevalence and mechanisms of macrolide resistance in invasive and noninvasive group B streptococcus isolates from Ontario, Canada.
ABSTRACT: Macrolide resistance has been demonstrated in group B streptococcus (GBS), but there is limited information regarding mechanisms of resistance and their prevalence. We determined these in GBS obtained from neonatal blood cultures and vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Of 178 isolates from cases of neonatal GBS sepsis collected from 1995 to 1998, 8 and 4.5% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively, and one isolate showed intermediate penicillin resistance (MIC, 0.25 microg/ml). Of 101 consecutive vaginal or rectal/vaginal isolates collected in 1999, 18 and 8% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Tetracycline resistance was high (>80%) among both groups of isolates. Of 32 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 28 possessed the erm methylase gene (7 ermB and 21 ermTR/ermA) and 4 harbored the mefA gene; one isolate harbored both genes. One isolate which was susceptible to erythromycin but resistant to clindamycin (MIC, 4 microg/ml) was found to have the linB gene, previously identified only in Enterococcus faecium. The mreA gene was found in all the erythromycin-resistant strains as well as in 10 erythromycin-susceptible strains. The rate of erythromycin resistance increased from 5% in 1995-96 to 13% in 1998-99, which coincided with an increase in macrolide usage during that time.
Project description:Active macrolide efflux is a major mechanism of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in many parts of the world, especially North America. In Canada, this active macrolide efflux in S. pneumoniae is predominantly due to acquisition of the mef(E) gene. In the present study, we assessed the mef(E) gene sequence as well as mef(E) expression in variety of low- and high-level macrolide-resistant, clindamycin-susceptible (M-phenotype) S. pneumoniae isolates (erythromycin MICs, 1 to 32 microg/ml; clindamycin MICs, < or = 0.25 microg/ml). Southern blot hybridization with mef(E) probe and EcoRI digestion and relative real-time reverse transcription-PCR were performed to study the mef(E) gene copy number and expression. Induction of mef(E) expression was analyzed by Etest susceptibility testing pre- and postincubation with subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, and clindamycin. The macrolide efflux gene, mef(E), was shown to be a single-copy gene in all 23 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates tested, and expression post-macrolide induction increased 4-, 6-, 20-, and 200-fold in isolates with increasing macrolide resistance (erythromycin MICs 2, 4, 8, and 32 microg/ml, respectively). Sequencing analysis of the macrolide efflux genetic assembly (mega) revealed that mef(E) had a 16-bp deletion 153 bp upstream of the putative start codon in all 23 isolates. A 119-bp intergenic region between mef(E) and mel was sequenced, and a 99-bp deletion was found in 11 of the 23 M-phenotype S. pneumoniae isolates compared to the published mega sequence. However, the mef(E) gene was fully conserved among both high- and low-level macrolide-resistant isolates. In conclusion, increased expression of mef(E) is associated with higher levels of macrolide resistance in macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococci (GBS) have the ability to access various host sites, which reflects its adaptability to different environments during the course of infection. This adaptation is due to the expression of virulence factors that are involved with survival, invasion and bacterial persistence in the host. This study aimed to characterize GBS isolates from women of reproductive age seen at University Hospital of Londrina, according to capsular typing, genetic relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and occurrence of virulence determinants. RESULTS: A total of 83 GBS isolates were enrolled in this study. Capsular types Ia (42.2%), II (10.8%), III (14.5%) and V (30.1%) were identified in most GBS. One isolate each was classified as type IX and non-typeable.A total of 15 multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) types were identified among the isolates, seven were singletons and eight were represented by more than four isolates. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefepime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 19.3 and 13.3% of isolates, respectively. All isolates resistant to clindamycin were simultaneously resistant to erythromycin and were distributed in the capsular types III and V. One isolate showed the constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLS(B)) phenotype and ten showed the inducible MLS(B) (iMLS(B)) phenotype. The mechanism of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin more prevalent among these isolates was mediated by the gene ermA, alone or in combination with the gene ermB. The isolates displaying resistance only to erythromycin belonged to capsular type Ia, and showed the M phenotype, which was mediated by the mefA/E gene. All isolates harbored the gene hylB and at least one pilus variant, PI-1, PI-2a or PI-2b. Although cylE was observed in all GBS, four isolates were classified as gamma-hemolytic and carotenoid pigment non-producers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the potential virulence of commensal GBS isolates, reinforcing the need for continued screening for this bacterium to prevent infections. The distribution of capsular and pili antigens, and MLVA profiles was also identified, which may contribute to the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of GBS infection.
Project description:Mycobacterium abscessus infections tend to respond poorly to macrolide-based chemotherapy, even though the organisms appear to be susceptible to clarithromycin. Circumstantial evidence suggested that at least some M. abscessus isolates might be inducibly resistant to macrolides. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the macrolide phenotype of M. abscessus clinical isolates. Inducible resistance to clarithromycin (MIC > 32 microg/ml) was found for 7 of 10 clinical isolates of M. abscessus previously considered susceptible; the remaining 3 isolates were deemed to be susceptible (MIC <or= 0.5 microg/ml). Inducible resistance was conferred by a novel erm gene, erm(41), which was present in all 10 isolates and in an isolate of Mycobacterium bolletii (M. abscessus type II). However, the erm(41) alleles were nonfunctional in the three susceptible M. abscessus isolates. No evidence of erm(41) was found in Mycobacterium chelonae, and an isolate of Mycobacterium massiliense appeared to be an erm(41) deletion mutant. Expression of erm(41) in M. abscessus conferred resistance to clarithromycin and erythromycin and the ketolide HMR3004. However, this species was found to be intrinsically resistant, independent of erm(41), to clindamycin, quinupristin (streptogramin B), and telithromycin. The ability to confer resistance to clindamycin and telithromycin, but not quinupristin, was demonstrated by expressing erm(41) in Maycobacterium smegmatis. Exposure of M. abscessus to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B-ketolide agents increased the levels of erm(41) mRNA 23- to 250-fold within 24 h. The inducible macrolide resistance phenotype of some M. abscessus isolates may explain the lack of efficacy of macrolide-based chemotherapy against this organism.
Project description:Using serotyping, multilocus sequence typing, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of selected strains, we studied the population structure of 102 group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates prospectively sampled in 2014 from vaginal/rectal swabs of healthy pregnant women in metropolitan Toronto, Canada. We also determined the susceptibilities of each of the colonizing isolates to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and other antimicrobial agents. Overall, we observed a high rate of tetracycline resistance (89%) among colonizing GBS isolates. We found resistance to erythromycin in 36% of the strains, and 33% were constitutively or inducibly resistant to clindamycin. The most frequently identified serotypes were III (25%), Ia (23%), and V (19%). Serotype IV accounted for 6% of the colonizing isolates, a rate consistent with that observed among patients with invasive GBS infections in metropolitan Toronto. The majority of serotype IV isolates belonged to sequence type (ST)459, a tetracycline-, erythromycin-, and clindamycin-resistant ST first identified in Minnesota, which is considered to be the main driver of serotype IV GBS expansion in North America. WGS revealed that ST459 isolates from Canada are clonally related to colonizing and invasive ST459 organisms circulating in regions of the United States. We also used WGS to study recombination in selected colonizing strains from metropolitan Toronto, which revealed multiple episodes of capsular switching. Present and future circulating GBS organisms and their genetic diversity may influence GBS vaccine development.
Project description:Macrolide (including erythromycin and azithromycin) and lincosamide (including clindamycin) antibiotics are recommended for treatment of penicillin-allergic patients with Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis. Resistance to erythromycin in S. pyogenes can be as high as 48% in specific populations in the United States. Macrolide and lincosamide resistance in S. pyogenes is mediated by several different genes. Expression of the erm(A) or erm(B) genes causes resistance to erythromycin and inducible or constitutive resistance to clindamycin, respectively, whereas expression of the mef(A) gene leads to resistance to erythromycin but not clindamycin. We studied the resistance of S. pyogenes to erythromycin and clindamycin at an urban tertiary-care hospital. Of 196 sequential isolates from throat cultures, 15 (7.7%) were resistant to erythromycin. Three of these were also constitutively resistant to clindamycin and had the erm(B) gene. Five of the erythromycin-resistant isolates were resistant to clindamycin upon induction with erythromycin and had the erm(A) gene. The remaining seven erythromycin-resistant isolates were susceptible to clindamycin even upon induction with erythromycin and had the mef(A) gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and emm typing demonstrated that the erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes comprised multiple strains. These results demonstrate that multiple mechanisms of resistance to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics are present in S. pyogenes strains in the United States.
Project description:Streptococcus pyogenes isolates (group A streptococcus) of different erythromycin resistance phenotypes were collected from all over Finland in 1994 and 1995 and studied; they were evaluated for their susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial agents (396 isolates) and the presence of different erythromycin resistance genes (45 isolates). The erythromycin-resistant isolates with the macrolide-resistant but lincosamide- and streptogramin B-susceptible phenotype (M phenotype) were further studied for their plasmid contents and the transferability of resistance genes. Resistance to antimicrobial agents other than macrolides, clindamycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol was not found. When compared to our previous study performed in 1990, the rate of resistance to tetracycline increased from 10 to 93% among isolates with the inducible resistance (IR) phenotype of macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance. Tetracycline resistance was also found among 75% of the MLSB-resistant isolates with the constitutive resistance (CR) phenotype. Resistance to chloramphenicol was found for the first time in S. pyogenes in Finland; 3% of the isolates with the IR phenotype were resistant. All the chloramphenicol-resistant isolates were also resistant to tetracycline. Detection of erythromycin resistance genes by PCR indicated that, with the exception of one isolate with the CR phenotype, all M-phenotype isolates had the macrolide efflux (mefA) gene and all the MLSB-resistant isolates had the erythromycin resistance methylase (ermTR) gene; the isolate with the CR phenotype contained the ermB gene. No plasmid DNA could be isolated from the M-phenotype isolates, but the mefA gene was transferred by conjugation.
Project description:Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a bacterial pathogen which is a leading cause of neonatal infection. Currently, there are limited GBS data available from the Indonesian population. In this study, GBS colonization, serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolates were investigated among pregnant women in Jakarta, Indonesia. Demographics data, clinical characteristics and vaginal swabs were collected from 177 pregnant women (mean aged: 28.7 years old) at 29-40 weeks of gestation. Bacterial culture identification tests and latex agglutination were performed for GBS. Serotyping was done by conventional multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. GBS colonization was found in 53 (30%) pregnant women. Serotype II was the most common serotype (30%) followed by serotype III (23%), Ia and IV (13% each), VI (8%), Ib and V (6% each), and one non-typeable strain. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, daptomycin and linezolid. The majority of GBS were resistant to tetracycline (89%) followed by clindamycin (21%), erythromycin (19%), and levofloxacin (6%). The serotype III was more resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin and these isolates were more likely to be multidrug resistant (6 out of 10) compared to other serotypes. This report provides demographics of GBS colonization and isolate characterization in pregnant women in Indonesia. The results may facilitate preventive strategies to reduce neonatal GBS infection and improve its treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is one of the major bacterial pathogens responsible for neonatal sepsis. Whole genome sequencing has, in recent years, emerged as a reliable tool for capsular typing and antimicrobial resistance prediction. This study characterized vaginal and rectal isolates of Group B Streptococcus obtained from pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria using a whole-genome sequence-based approach.<h4>Results</h4>Capsular types Ia, Ib, II, III, IV and V were detected among the 43 isolates sequenced. Twelve sequence types (STs) were identified, with ST19 (n = 9, 27.3 %) and ST486 (n = 5, 15.2 %) the most frequent among non-duplicated isolates. Of the alpha-like proteins (alp) identified, Alp1 was the most prevalent in 11 (33.3 %) isolates. Macrolide and lincosamide resistance determinants were present in 15 (45.5 %) isolates; ermB was detected in 1 (3 %), ermTR in 7 (21.2 %) isolates, lnu gene was detected in 6 (18.2 %) and mef was identified in 3 (9.1 %) isolates. Resistance of GBS to erythromycin and clindamycin (predicted from presence of erm or mef genes) was found to be 30.3 % and 24.2 %, respectively. All isolates were predicted resistant to tetracycline with only the tetM gene identified. Fluoroquinolone-resistance conferring substitutions in gyrA + parC were detected in 9 (27.3 %) isolates and chloramphenicol resistance was predicted from presence of aac6'-aph2 gene in 11 (33.3 %).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The data available from the whole genome sequencing of these isolates offers a small but insightful description of common serotypes and resistance features within colonizing GBS in Nigeria.
Project description:Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal sepsis. Penicillin is recommended for intrapartum prophylaxis, but erythromycin or clindamycin is used for penicillin-allergic carriers. Antibiotic resistance (AR) has increased recently and needs to be monitored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay to detect, simultaneously, seven genes encoding AR--erm(A/TR), erm(B), mef(A/E), tet(M), tet(O), aphA-3, and aad-6--and two AR-related genes, int-Tn and mreA. We tested 512 GBS isolates from Asia and Australasia and compared mPCR/RLB with antibiotic susceptibility phenotype or single-gene PCR. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline was identified in 450 (88%) isolates, of which 442 had tet(M) (93%) and/or tet(O) (6%). Of 67 (13%) erythromycin-resistant isolates, 18 were susceptible to clindamycin, i.e., had the M phenotype, encoded by mef(A/E); 39 had constitutive (cMLS(B)) and 10 inducible clindamycin resistance, and of these, 34 contained erm(B) and 12 erm(A/TR). Of four additional isolates with mef(A/E), three contained erm(B) with cMLS(B) and one was erythromycin susceptible. Of 61 (12%) clindamycin-resistant isolates, 20 were susceptible to erythromycin and two had intermediate resistance. Based on sequencing, 21 of 22 isolates with mef had mef(E), and 8 of 353 with int-Tn had an atypical sequence. Several AR genes, erm(B), tet(O), aphA-3, aad-6, and mef(A/E), were significantly more common among Asian than Australasian isolates, and there were significant differences in distribution of AR genes between GBS serotypes. Our mPCR/RLB assay is simple, rapid, and suitable for surveillance of antibiotic resistance in GBS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibilities and the presence of inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSB) resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of Jamaica as well as the relatedness using polymerase chain reaction-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and multiple-locus variable numbers of tandem repeat analyses (MLVAs).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of MLSB resistance, and SCCmec and MLVA patterns were assessed for 61 nonduplicate isolates of MRSA from hospitalized patients.<h4>Results</h4>While no isolate was resistant to vancomycin, 53 (86.9%) isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 52 (85.3%) to erythromycin, 49 (80%) to lincomycin, and 45 (74%) to clindamycin. Of the 52 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 48% exhibited constitutive resistance and 8% showed inducible MLSB (iMLSB) resistance. Most (85%) of typable isolates were SCCmec type IV, and among these, 16 MLVA patterns were identified.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Multidrug resistance continues to characterize MRSA. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, constitutive resistance and iMLSB resistance are common. These facts will complicate the treatment of MRSA infections and warrant continued surveillance and judicial use of antimicrobial agents.