Cloning and characterization of the polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase gene of Pseudomonas stutzeri and analysis of the function of substrate-binding domains.
ABSTRACT: The extracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase gene (phaZPst) of Pseudomonas stutzeri was cloned and sequenced. phaZPst was composed of 1,728 bp encoding a protein of 576 amino acids. Analyses of the N-terminal amino acid sequence and the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum of the purified enzyme showed that the mature enzyme consisted of 538 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 57,506 Da. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the protein revealed a domain structure containing a catalytic domain, putative linker region, and two putative substrate-binding domains (SBDI and SBDII). The putative linker region was similar to the repeating units of the cadherin-like domain of chitinase A from Vibrio harveyi and chitinase B from Clostridium paraputrificum. The binding characteristics of SBDs to poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and chitin granules were characterized by using fusion proteins of SBDs with glutathione S-transferase (GST). These GST fusion proteins with SBDII and SBDI showed binding activity toward P(3HB) granules but did not bind on chitin granules. It has been suggested that the SBDs of the depolymerase interact specifically with the surface of P(3HB). In addition, a kinetic analysis for the enzymatic hydrolysis of 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers of various sizes has suggested that the catalytic domain of the enzyme recognizes at least two monomeric units as substrates.
Project description:Ralstonia eutropha H16 degraded (mobilized) previously accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in the absence of an exogenous carbon source and used the degradation products for growth and survival. Isolated native PHB granules of mobilized R. eutropha cells released 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) at a threefold higher rate than did control granules of nonmobilized bacteria. No 3HB was released by native PHB granules of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the PHB biosynthetic genes. Native PHB granules isolated from chromosomal knockout mutants of an intracellular PHB (i-PHB) depolymerase gene of R. eutropha H16 and HF210 showed a reduced but not completely eliminated activity of 3HB release and indicated the presence of i-PHB depolymerase isoenzymes.
Project description:A novel intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase (PhaZd) of Wautersia eutropha (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) H16 which shows similarity with the catalytic domain of the extracellular PHB depolymerase in Ralstonia pickettii T1 was identified. The positions of the catalytic triad (Ser190-Asp266-His330) and oxyanion hole (His108) in the amino acid sequence of PhaZd deduced from the nucleotide sequence roughly accorded with those of the extracellular PHB depolymerase of R. pickettii T1, but a signal peptide, a linker domain, and a substrate binding domain were missing. The PhaZd gene was cloned and the gene product was purified from Escherichia coli. The specific activity of PhaZd toward artificial amorphous PHB granules was significantly greater than that of other known intracellular PHB depolymerase or 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) oligomer hydrolases of W. eutropha H16. The enzyme degraded artificial amorphous PHB granules and mainly released various 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers. PhaZd distributed nearly equally between PHB inclusion bodies and the cytosolic fraction. The amount of PHB was greater in phaZd deletion mutant cells than the wild-type cells under various culture conditions. These results indicate that PhaZd is a novel intracellular PHB depolymerase which participates in the mobilization of PHB in W. eutropha H16 along with other PHB depolymerases.
Project description:Comamonas acidovorans YM1609 secreted a polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase into the culture supernatant when it was cultivated on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] as the sole carbon source. The PHB depolymerase was purified from culture supernatant of C. acidovorans by two chromatographic methods, and its molecular mass was determined as 45,000 Da by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 37 degrees C and at pH values of 6 to 10, and its activity was inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphonate. The liquid chromatography analysis of water-soluble products revealed that the primary product of enzymatic hydrolysis of P(3HB) was a dimer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of P(3HB) film were studied. In addition, a gene encoding the PHB depolymerase was cloned from the C. acidovorans genomic library. The nucleotide sequence of this gene was found to encode a protein of 494 amino acids (M(r), 51,018 Da). Furthermore, by analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme, the molecular mass of the mature enzyme was calculated to be 48,628 Da. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggested a domain structure of the protein containing a catalytic domain, fibronectin type III module as linker, and a putative substrate-binding domain. Electron microscopic visualization of the mixture of P(3HB) single crystals and a fusion protein of putative substrate-binding domain with glutathione S-transferase demonstrated that the fusion protein adsorbed strongly and homogeneously to the surfaces of P(3HB) single crystals.
Project description:The key enzymes and pathways involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis in haloarchaea have been identified in recent years, but the haloarchaeal enzymes for PHA degradation remain unknown. In this study, a patatin-like PHA depolymerase, PhaZh1, was determined to be located on the PHA granules in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. PhaZh1 hydrolyzed the native PHA (nPHA) [including native polyhydroxybutyrate (nPHB) and native poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (nPHBV) in this study] granules in vitro with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) monomer as the primary product. The site-directed mutagenesis of PhaZh1 indicated that Gly16, Ser47 (in a classical lipase box, G-X-S47-X-G), and Asp195 of this depolymerase were essential for its activity in nPHA granule hydrolysis. Notably, phaZh1 and bdhA (encoding putative 3HB dehydrogenase) form a gene cluster (HFX_6463 to _6464) in H. mediterranei. The 3HB monomer generated from nPHA degradation by PhaZh1 could be further converted into acetoacetate by BdhA, indicating that PhaZh1-BdhA may constitute the first part of a PHA degradation pathway in vivo. Interestingly, although PhaZh1 showed efficient activity and was most likely the key enzyme in nPHA granule hydrolysis in vitro, the knockout of phaZh1 had no significant effect on the intracellular PHA mobilization, implying the existence of an alternative PHA mobilization pathway(s) that functions effectively within the cells of H. mediterranei. Therefore, identification of this patatin-like depolymerase of haloarchaea may provide a new strategy for producing the high-value-added chiral compound (R)-3HB and may also shed light on the PHA mobilization in haloarchaea.
Project description:A gene that codes for a novel intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase, designated PhaZ1, has been identified in the genome of Bacillus megaterium. A native PHB (nPHB) granule-binding assay showed that purified soluble PhaZ1 had strong affinity for nPHB granules. Turbidimetric analyses revealed that PhaZ1 could rapidly degrade nPHB granules in vitro without the need for protease pretreatment of the granules to remove surface proteins. Notably, almost all the final hydrolytic products produced from the in vitro degradation of nPHB granules by PhaZ1 were 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) monomers. Unexpectedly, PhaZ1 could also hydrolyze denatured semicrystalline PHB, with the generation of 3HB monomers. The disruption of the phaZ1 gene significantly affected intracellular PHB mobilization during the PHB-degrading stage in B. megaterium, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and the measurement of the PHB content. These results indicate that PhaZ1 is functional in intracellular PHB mobilization in vivo. Some of these features, which are in striking contrast with those of other known nPHB granule-degrading PhaZs, may provide an advantage for B. megaterium PhaZ1 in fermentative production of the biotechnologically valuable chiral compound (R)-3HB.
Project description:An intracellular poly[D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) depolymerase gene (phaZ) has been cloned from Ralstonia eutropha H16 by the shotgun method, sequenced, and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 2.3-kbp DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame of 1,260 bp, encoding a protein of 419 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47,316 Da. The crude extract of Escherichia coli containing the PHB depolymerase gene digested artificial amorphous PHB granules and released mainly oligomeric D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, with some monomer. The gene product did not hydrolyze crystalline PHB or freeze-dried artificial amorphous PHB granules. The deduced amino acid sequence lacked sequence corresponding to a classical lipase box, Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly. The gene product was expressed in R. eutropha cells concomitant with the synthesis of PHB and localized in PHB granules. Although a mutant of R. eutropha whose phaZ gene was disrupted showed a higher PHB content compared to the wild type in a nutrient-rich medium, it accumulated PHB as much as the wild type did in a nitrogen-free, carbon-rich medium. These results indicate that the cloned phaZ gene encodes an intracellular PHB depolymerase in R. eutropha.
Project description:The gene (chi92) encoding the extracellular chitinase of Aeromonas hydrophila JP101 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The mature form of Chi92 is an 842-amino-acid (89.830-kDa) modular enzyme comprised of a family 18 catalytic domain, an unknown-function region (the A region), and three chitin-binding domains (ChBDs; Chi92-N, ChBD(CI), and ChBD(CII)). The C-terminally repeated ChBDs, ChBD(CI) and ChBD(CII), were grouped into family V of cellulose-binding domains on the basis of sequence homology. Chitin binding and enzyme activity studies with C-terminally truncated Chi92 derivatives lacking ChBDs demonstrated that the ChBDs are responsible for its adhesion to unprocessed and colloidal chitins. Further adsorption experiments with glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins (GST-CI and GST-CICII) demonstrated that a single ChBD (ChBD(CI)) could promote efficient chitin and cellulose binding. In contrast to the two C-terminal ChBDs, the Chi92-N domain is similar to ChiN of Serratia marcescens ChiA, which has been proposed to participate in chitin binding. A truncated derivative of Chi92 that contained only a catalytic domain and Chi92-N still exhibited insoluble-chitin-binding and hydrolytic activities. Thus, it appears that Chi92 contains Chi92-N as the third ChBD in addition to two ChBDs (ChBD(CI) and ChBD(CII)).
Project description:A gene that codes for a novel intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) depolymerase has now been identified in the genome of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis ATCC 35646. This gene, previously annotated as a hypothetical 3-oxoadipate enol-lactonase (PcaD) gene and now designated phaZ, encodes a protein that shows no significant similarity with any known PHB depolymerase. Purified His-tagged PhaZ could efficiently degrade trypsin-activated native PHB granules as well as artificial amorphous PHB granules and release 3-hydroxybutyrate monomer as a hydrolytic product, but it could not hydrolyze denatured semicrystalline PHB. In contrast, purified His-tagged PcaD of Pseudomonas putida was unable to degrade trypsin-activated native PHB granules and artificial amorphous PHB granules. The B. thuringiensis PhaZ was inactive against p-nitrophenylpalmitate, tributyrin, and triolein. Sonication supernatants of the wild-type B. thuringiensis cells exhibited a PHB-hydrolyzing activity in vitro, whereas those prepared from a phaZ mutant lost this activity. The phaZ mutant showed a higher PHB content than the wild type at late stationary phase of growth in a nutrient-rich medium, indicating that this PhaZ can function as a PHB depolymerase in vivo. PhaZ contains a lipase box-like sequence (G-W-S(102)-M-G) but lacks a signal peptide. A purified His-tagged S102A variant had lost the PHB-hydrolyzing activity. Taken together, these results indicate that B. thuringiensis harbors a new type of intracellular PHB depolymerase.
Project description:The contribution of microbial depolymerase has received much attention because of its potential in biopolymer degradation. In this study, the P(3HB) depolymerase enzyme of a newly isolated Burkholderia cepacia DP1 from soil in Penang, Malaysia, was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The factors affecting P(3HB) depolymerase enzyme production were studied using one-variable-at-a-time approach prior to optimization. Preliminary experiments revealed that the concentration of nitrogen source, concentration of carbon source, initial pH and incubation time were among the main factors influencing the enzyme productivity. An increase of 9.4 folds in enzyme production with an activity of 5.66 U/mL was obtained using optimal medium containing 0.028% N of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate and 0.31% P(3HB-co-21%4HB) as carbon source at the initial pH of 6.8 for 38 h of incubation. Moreover, the RSM model showed great similarity between predicted and actual enzyme production indicating a successful model validation. This study warrants the ability of P(3HB) degradation by B. cepacia DP1 in producing higher enzyme activity as compared to other P(3HB) degraders being reported. Interestingly, the production of P(3HB) depolymerase was rarely reported within genus Burkholderia. Therefore, this is considered to be a new discovery in the field of P(3HB) depolymerase production.
Project description:Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a putative intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase system consisting of a soluble PHB depolymerase, a heat-stable activator, and a 3-hydroxybutyrate dimer hydrolase (J. M. Merrick and M. Doudoroff, J. Bacteriol. 88:60-71, 1964). In this study we reinvestigated the soluble R. rubrum PHB depolymerase (PhaZ1). It turned out that PhaZ1 is a novel type of PHB depolymerase with unique properties. Purified PhaZ1 was specific for amorphous short-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) such as native PHB, artificial PHB, and oligomer esters of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate with 3 or more 3-hydroxybutyrate units. Atactic PHB, (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers, medium-chain-length PHA, and lipase substrates (triolein, tributyrin) were not hydrolyzed. The PHB depolymerase structural gene (phaZ1) was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence (37,704 Da) had no significant similarity to those of intracellular PHB depolymerases of Wautersia eutropha or of other PHB-accumulating bacteria. PhaZ1 was found to have strong amino acid homology with type-II catalytic domains of extracellular PHB depolymerases, and Ser(42), Asp(138), and His(178) were identified as catalytic-triad amino acids, with Ser(42) as the putative active site. Surprisingly, the first 23 amino acids of the PHB depolymerase previously assumed to be intracellular revealed features of classical signal peptides, and Edman sequencing of purified PhaZ1 confirmed the functionality of the predicted cleavage site. Extracellular PHB depolymerase activity was absent, and analysis of cell fractions unequivocally showed that PhaZ1 is a periplasm-located enzyme. The previously assumed intracellular activator/depolymerase system is unlikely to have a physiological function in PHB mobilization in vivo. A second gene, encoding the putative true intracellular PHB depolymerase (PhaZ2), was identified in the genome sequence of R. rubrum.