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Toxicity, binding, and permeability analyses of four Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 delta-endotoxins using brush border membrane vesicles of Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda.

ABSTRACT: The binding and pore formation properties of four Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins were analyzed by using brush border membrane vesicles from Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda, and the results were compared to the results of toxicity bioassays. Cry1Fa was highly toxic and Cry1Ac was nontoxic to S. exigua and S. frugiperda larvae, while Cry1Ca was highly toxic to S. exigua and weakly toxic to S. frugiperda. In contrast, Cry1Bb was active against S. frugiperda but only marginally active against S. exigua. Bioassays performed with iodinated Cry1Bb, Cry1Fa, and Cry1Ca showed that the effects of iodination on toxin activity were different. The toxicities of I-labeled Cry1Bb and Cry1Fa against Spodoptera species were significantly less than the toxicities of the unlabeled toxins, while Cry1Ca retained its insecticidal activity when it was labeled with 125I. Binding assays showed that iodination prevented Cry1Fa from binding to Spodoptera brush border membrane vesicles. 125I-labeled Cry1Ac, Cry1Bb, and Cry1Ca bound with high-affinities to brush border membrane vesicles from S. exigua and S. frugiperda. Competition binding experiments performed with heterologous toxins revealed two major binding sites. Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa have a common binding site, and Cry1Bb, Cry1C, and Cry1Fa have a second common binding site. No obvious relationship between dissociation of bound toxins from brush border membrane vesicles and toxicity was detected. Cry1 toxins were also tested for the ability to alter the permeability of membrane vesicles, as measured by a light scattering assay. Cry1 proteins toxic to Spodoptera larvae permeabilized brush border membrane vesicles, but the extent of permeabilization did not necessarily correlate with in vivo toxicity.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC91047 | BioStudies | 1999-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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