Assessing the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model to Predict Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Among Black Men Who have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in a Community Setting in New York City.
ABSTRACT: The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model has been used to understand adherence to medications and intentions to uptake pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection. In the current study, the IMB Model was used to understand factors that predict adherence to PrEP among a community-based cohort of 204 Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) using structural equation modeling. PrEP motivation was directly associated with PrEP behavioral skills (β = 0.320, p = 0.009), and PrEP behavioral skills were directly associated with PrEP adherence (β = 0.416, p = 0.001). PrEP knowledge and PrEP motivation were not associated with PrEP adherence, directly or indirectly. The analysis identified intervenable factors that predicted PrEP adherence. Screening for motivation and behavioral skills could be used to identify where additional support to improve PrEP adherence is needed, or whether to offer alternative PrEP modalities or delivery strategies.
Project description:Research is needed to determine targets for interventions to increase pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model has not been tested for PrEP use among men who have sex with men (MSM). Men and transgender women and men were surveyed at a community event in the Midwest in 2016 (N?=?476, 60% White, Mage?=?35). New measures assessed PrEP knowledge, attitudes, stigma, descriptive and subjective norms, and intentions, and participants reported on PrEP use. We tested the IMB model for a subsample of HIV-negative MSM and transgender individuals (N?=?357) using structural equation modeling. Only 12% of participants used PrEP. New measures performed well and were reliable (?s?=?0.83-0.94). Structural models generally supported the IMB model: knowledge, stigma, and self-efficacy were directly associated with use, and attitudes, stigma, and descriptive norms had indirect effects on use via self-efficacy. The IMB model may be useful when developing PrEP interventions for MSM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the United States, young minority men who have sex with men (MSM) are most likely to become infected with HIV. The use of antiretroviral medications to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis, PrEP) is an efficacious and promising prevention strategy. There have been significant advances regarding PrEP, including the definitive demonstration that PrEP reduces HIV acquisition and the development of clinical prescribing guidelines. Despite these promising events, the practical implementation of PrEP can be challenging. Data show that PrEP's safety and effectiveness could be greatly compromised by suboptimal adherence to treatment, and there is concern about the potential for an increase in HIV risk behavior among PrEP users. Due to these challenges, the prescribing of PrEP should be accompanied by behavioral interventions to promote adherence. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to develop an immersive, action-oriented iPhone gaming intervention to improve motivation for adherence to PrEP. METHODS:Game development was guided by social learning theory, taking into consideration the perspectives of young adult MSM who are taking PrEP. A total of 20 young men who have sex with men (YMSM; aged 18-35 years) were recruited from a sexually transmitted infection (STI), HIV testing, and PrEP care clinic in Jackson, Mississippi, between October 2016 and June 2017. They participated in qualitative interviews guided by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of behavior change. The mean age of participants was 26 years, and all the participants identified as male. Acceptability of the game was assessed with the Client Service Questionnaire and session evaluation form. RESULTS:A number of themes emerged that informed game development. YMSM taking PrEP desired informational game content that included new and comprehensive details about the effectiveness of PrEP, details about PrEP as it relates to doctors' visits, and general information about STIs other than HIV. Motivational themes that emerged were the desire for enhancement of future orientation; reinforcement of positive influences from partners, parents, and friends; collaboration with health care providers; decreasing stigma; and a focus on personal relevance of PrEP-related medical care. Behavioral skills themes centered around self-efficacy and strategies for adherence to PrEP and self-care. CONCLUSIONS:We utilized youth feedback, IMB, and agile software development to create a multilevel, immersive, action-oriented iPhone gaming intervention to improve motivation for adherence to PrEP. There is a dearth of gaming interventions for persons on PrEP. This study is a significant step in working toward the development and testing of an iPhone gaming intervention to decrease HIV risk and promote adherence to PrEP for YMSM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. Correct and consistent condom use is one of the most effective strategies for preventing the spread of HIV. This study developed a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model to predict condom use behavior among Chinese MSM. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data using self-administered electronic questionnaire. Participants were recruited from HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing clinics in six district Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Guangzhou and two community-based HIV service centers (Lingnan Partners and Zhitong Charity) from May to September 2017. Structural equation modeling was performed to develop the modified IMB model with extended multilevel factors. RESULTS:Among the 976 MSM included, 52.05% had engaged in anal intercourse with a condom every time. The final modified IMB model fitted the data more ideally than the conventional model. The final modified IMB model revealed that behavioral skills positively contributed directly to condom use (β = 0.385, p < 0.001) and partially mediated the associations between information (β = 0.106, p = 0.005) and motivation (β = 0.390, p < 0.001) and condom use. Regarding the extended multilevel factors, education, income, receiving HIV prevention services, sexual partner seeking behavior, depression, intimate partner violence, and child sexual abuse had indirect impacts on condom use that were mediated by information, motivation, and/or behavioral skills (p < 0.05). All paths from the latent variable to the corresponding observed variables were statistically significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:The modified IMB model with extended multilevel factors could serve as a theoretical framework for behavioral interventions for condom use among Chinese MSM. Further prospective studies are needed to examine the predictive power of the modified IMB model.
Project description:While Haiti has scaled up use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), current studies suggest sub-optimal adherence threatens long-term viral suppression in this understudied setting. Patient-provider communication (PPC) and information, motivation, and behavioral skills (IMB) have been implicated in ART adherence globally. However, no studies have examined their relevance in Haiti. The present mixed-methods study utilized cross-sectional survey data from 128 ART-initiating patients at 2 large HIV treatment sites in Haiti, as well as observational data from 12 clinic visits, to document associations between adherence-related PPC and IMB. Multivariate regression analyses suggested that PPC is associated with IMB constructs. At the bivariate level, more effective PPC was associated with higher levels of adherence-related information and motivation, but not behavioral skills. Observational findings indicate infrequent and non-collaborative adherence support. Taken together, findings lay the groundwork for additional research in the area of PPC, IMB, and ART adherence in Haiti.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few primary HIV prevention strategies have successfully integrated both behavioral and biomedical components, with modest HIV risk reduction outcomes among opioid-dependent people who use drugs (PWUD). In response to this unmet need, we developed a brief, bio-behavioral intervention to simultaneously promote PrEP adherence and reduce HIV risk among opioid-dependent PWUD. METHODS:Using a Hybrid Type I implementation science design, we will examine the efficacy of the integrated bio-behavioral, Community-friendly Health Recovery Program (CHRP-BB) compared to a time-and-attention matched control condition among HIV-negative, opioid-dependent PWUD who are prescribed PrEP and enrolled in a methadone maintenance program (MMP) using a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants are assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention (8?weeks) and follow-ups at weeks 20, 32, and 44 post-intervention. The primary outcome is biomedical (PrEP adherence), with secondary outcomes including behavioral (self-reported drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors), ongoing drug use (confirmed with urine drug testing), and related domains of the theoretical information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of behavior change related to PrEP adherence and HIV-transmission-risk reduction. Additionally, we will conduct a process evaluation of delivery/implementation of the intervention to collect valuable information to be used in future implementation. CONCLUSIONS:This study will be among the first prospective trial to test an integrated bio-behavioral intervention to improve adherence to PrEP and HIV risk reduction among opioid-dependent PWUD.
Project description:AIMS:Medication nonadherence is a prevalent and costly problem among patients with type 2 diabetes. Applications of theory can inform and improve adherence promotion interventions. We used a new assessment based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model of adherence to assess patient-reported barriers and test the theoretical model. METHODS:Participants (N?=?237) completed a card sorting task to identify barriers to adherence, a survey, and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test. We identified the most commonly reported adherence barriers and examined associations between patient characteristics and barriers mapped onto each of the IMB constructs. We used structural equation modeling to test the IMB model and determine if barriers as reported on this measure predict patients' self-reported diabetes medication adherence and, in turn, HbA1c levels. RESULTS:The most frequently reported barriers were forgetting doses, thinking brand name medicine works better than generic medicine, not seeing immediate benefit, and feeling burned out with taking diabetes medicine. Younger age and lower health literacy were associated with higher barrier scores for all IMB model constructs. Information and social motivation barriers affected adherence via behavioral skills barriers (indirect effects -0.19, CI [-0.33, -0.09] and -0.24, CI [-0.37, -0.14], respectively). The IMB barrier constructs explained 44% of the variance in diabetes medication adherence which, in turn, was significantly associated with and explained 8% of the variance in HbA1c (both p?<?.001). CONCLUSIONS:Results suggest this assessment task can identify patient-specific barriers to diabetes medication adherence. Interventions targeting patient-specific barriers using this assessment could improve adherence and HbA1c.
Project description:Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are highly stigmatized and male-male sex is often criminalized in sub-Saharan Africa, impeding access to quality care for sexual health, HIV prevention, and treatment. To better understand HIV care engagement and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among GBMSM in this context, a conceptual model incorporating sociocultural factors is needed. We conducted a qualitative study of barriers to and facilitators of HIV care engagement and ART adherence among Kenyan GBMSM, informed by a conceptual model based on an access, information, motivation, and behavioral skills (access-IMB) model, with trust in providers and stigma and discrimination as a priori factors of interest. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with HIV-positive Kenyan GBMSM, of whom 20 were taking ART and 10 had not yet initiated treatment. A deductive approach was used to confirm the relevance of basic concepts of the access-IMB model, while an inductive approach was used to identify content that emerged from men's lived experiences. Access-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills appeared relevant to HIV care engagement and ART adherence, with stigma and discrimination appearing consistently across discourse exploring facilitators and barriers. Trusted providers and supportive family and friends helped many men, and resilience-related concepts such as selective disclosure of GBMSM status, connection to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) organizations, self-acceptance, goal-setting, social identity and altruism emerged as important facilitators. Findings suggest a need to increase support from providers and peers for Kenyan GBMSM living with HIV infection. In addition, they point toward the potential value of interventions that provide opportunities to build or enhance one's sense of community belonging in order to improve HIV care engagement and promote ART adherence for this vulnerable population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>HPTN 067 assessed the feasibility of daily and non-daily dosing of open-label emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).<h4>Methods</h4>Factors associated with sex-related PrEP adherence were assessed among men who have sex with men (MSM) randomized to one of 3 PrEP dosing arms in HPTN 067 in New York City. Sex-related PrEP adherence was defined per protocol as at least 1 PrEP tablet taken within 4 days pre-sex and at least 1 additional PrEP tablet taken within 24 hours post-sex, assessed via electronic drug monitoring and weekly interviews. Demographic data and behavioral measures were evaluated for association with sex-related PrEP adherence. Logistic regression for clustered data was used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios.<h4>Results</h4>Of 176 randomized MSM participants, 59% were Black, 10% White, 25% Hispanic, and 6% other; median age was 31 years. In the multivariable analyses, higher sex-related PrEP adherence was significantly associated with daily dosing arm, older age, employment, and higher PrEP adherence behavioral skills. Lower sex-related PrEP adherence was significantly associated with identifying as Black or Hispanic (compared with White), opiate use, and reporting "I forgot" as an adherence barrier.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This analysis identified populations of MSM who might benefit from additional support to optimize PrEP adherence, including those who are younger, unemployed, or opiate users. MSM with lower PrEP behavioral skills may benefit from targeted interventions. Further study is needed to assess racial and ethnic disparities in PrEP adherence, which may reflect broader social and economic inequalities not captured in this study.
Project description:BACKGROUND: High prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and lack of information, skills and preventive support mean that, adolescents face high risks of HIV/AIDS. This study applied the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to examine the predictors of consistent condom use among senior high school students from three coastal cities in China and clarify the relationships between the model constructs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess HIV/AIDS related information, motivation, behavioral skills and preventive behaviors among senior high school students in three coastal cities in China. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model. RESULTS: Of the 12313 participants, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.2-5.0) reported having had premarital sex and among them 25.0% (95% CI: 21.2-29.1) reported having used a condom in their sexual debut. Only about one-ninth of participants reported consistent condom use. The final IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (CFI = 0.981, RMSEA = 0.014). Consistent condom use was significantly predicted by motivation (? = 0.175, P < 0.01) and behavioral skills (? = 0.778, P < 0.01). Information indirectly predicted consistent condom use, and was mediated by behavioral skills (? = 0.269, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of conducting HIV/AIDS preventive health promotion among senior high school students in China. The IMB model could predict consistent condom use and suggests that future interventions should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Widespread smartphone use provides opportunities for mobile health HIV prevention strategies among at-risk populations.<h4>Objective</h4>This study aims to investigate engagement in a theory-based (information-motivation-behavioral skills model) mobile phone app developed to support HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence among Thai young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and young transgender women (YTGW) in Bangkok, Thailand.<h4>Methods</h4>A randomized controlled trial was conducted among HIV-negative YMSM and YTGW aged 15-19 years initiating daily oral PrEP. Participants were randomized to receive either youth-friendly PrEP services (YFS) for 6 months, including monthly contact with site staff (clinic visits or telephone follow-up) and staff consultation access, or YFS plus use of a PrEP adherence support app (YFS+APP). The target population focus group discussion findings and the information-motivation-behavioral skills model informed app development. App features were based on the 3Rs-risk assessment of self-HIV acquisition risk, reminders to take PrEP, and rewards as redeemable points. Dried blood spots quantifying of tenofovir diphosphate were collected at months 3 and 6 to assess PrEP adherence. Tenofovir diphosphate ≥350-699 fmol/punch was classified as fair adherence and ≥700 fmol/punch as good adherence. Data analysis on app use paradata and exit interviews were conducted on the YFS+APP arm after 6 months of follow-up.<h4>Results</h4>Between March 2018 and June 2019, 200 participants with a median age of 18 (IQR 17-19) years were enrolled. Overall, 74% (148/200) were YMSM; 87% (87/100) of participants who received YFS+APP logged in to the app and performed weekly HIV acquisition risk assessments (log-in and risk assessment [LRA]). The median duration between the first and last log-in was 3.5 (IQR 1.6-5.6) months, with a median frequency of 6 LRAs (IQR 2-10). Moreover, 22% (22/100) of the participants in the YFS+APP arm were frequent users (LRA≥10) during the 6-month follow-up period. YMSM were 9.3 (95% CI 1.2-74.3) times more likely to be frequent app users than YTGW (P=.04). Frequent app users had higher proportions (12%-16%) of PrEP adherence at both months 3 and 6 compared with infrequent users (LRA<10) and the YFS arm, although this did not reach statistical significance. Of the 100 participants in the YFS+APP arm, 23 (23%) were interviewed. The risk assessment function is perceived as the most useful app feature. Further aesthetic adaptations and a more comprehensive rewards system were suggested by the interviewees.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Higher rates of PrEP adherence among frequent app users were observed; however, this was not statistically significant. A short app use duration of 3 months suggests that they may be useful in establishing habits in taking daily PrEP, but not long-term adherence. Further studies on the specific mechanisms of mobile phone apps that influence health behaviors are needed.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03778892; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03778892.