MarY1, a member of the gypsy group of long terminal repeat retroelements from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake.
ABSTRACT: We cloned an intact copy of a long terminal repeat retroelement designated marY1 from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake. The reverse transcriptase domain is found in T. matsutake and Tricholoma magnivelare worldwide. This finding suggests that retroelements associate with ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes and may be useful as genetic markers for identification, phylogenetic analysis, and mutagenesis of this fungal group.
Project description:The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake produces commercially valuable fruit bodies, matsutake, in forests. Here we report a PCR system targeting retroelement integration sites to differentiate among individual Asian isolates of T. matsutake based on their geographical origins, such as Japan, the area of South Korea through North Korea, the northeastern provinces of China, and the area of the southwestern provinces of China through Bhutan. The overall misjudgment rate of the analytical system was approximately 5% based on 95 samples of T. matsutake examined including those from cultures and from commodities. We also provide evidence that T. matsutake isolates grown throughout the Far East, including the northeastern provinces of China, are closely related to each other while distinct from those in the area of the southwestern provinces of China through Bhutan. The method allows us to trace back geographical origins of Asian matsutake, thus contributing to food safety, appropriate tariffs, and proper price setting.
Project description:Pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) is one of the most valued ectomycorrhizal fungi in Asia because of its unique pine-like aroma; however, due to exceptionally slow growth of its mycelia in artificial conditions, its cultivation has been largely deemed as not possible. Previous studies have shown that some bacteria and a few Trichoderma species associated with pine mushroom promoted the growth of T. matsutake isolate, but this effect is relatively unexplored. In this study, we investigated the diversity of microfungi in the fairy ring of T. matsutake and their effect on the growth of T. matsutake isolate. From 184 fungal isolates, 28 species were identified based on suitable molecular markers. Penicillium was most frequently observed (16 species), followed by Trichoderma (4 species). Five Zygomycota species showed a high promoting effect on the growth of T. matsutake while the effects of ascomycetes were mixed. The microfungi that promote the growth of T. matsutake can be useful for forest nursery and artificial cultivation of T. matsutake.
Project description:Effective conservation and utilization strategies for natural biological resources require a clear understanding of the geographic distribution of the target species. Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom with high ecological and economic value. In this study, the potential geographic distribution of T. matsutake under current conditions in China was simulated using MaxEnt software based on species presence data and 24 environmental variables. The future distributions of T. matsutake in the 2050s and 2070s were also projected under the RCP 8.5, RCP 6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 2.6 climate change emission scenarios described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The areas of marginally suitable, suitable and highly suitable habitats for T. matsutake in China were approximately 0.22?×?106?km2, 0.14?×?106?km2, and 0.11?×?106?km2, respectively. The model simulations indicated that the area of marginally suitable habitats would undergo a relatively small change under all four climate change scenarios; however, suitable habitats would significantly decrease, and highly suitable habitat would nearly disappear. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of T. matsutake and can be used as a reference for studies on other ectomycorrhizal mushroom species.
Project description:Genome sequencing of Tricholoma matsutake revealed its unusually large size as 189.0 Mbp, which is a consequence of extraordinarily high transposable element (TE) content. We identified that 702 genes were surrounded by TEs, and 83.2% of these genes were not transcribed at any developmental stage. This observation indicated that the insertion of TEs alters the transcription of the genes neighboring these TEs. Repeat-induced point mutation, such as C to T hypermutation with a bias over "CpG" dinucleotides, was also recognized in this genome, representing a typical defense mechanism against TEs during evolution. Many transcription factor genes were activated in both the primordia and fruiting body stages, which indicates that many regulatory processes are shared during the developmental stages. Small secreted protein genes (<300 aa) were dominantly transcribed in the hyphae, where symbiotic interactions occur with the hosts. Comparative analysis with 37 Agaricomycetes genomes revealed that IstB-like domains (PF01695) were conserved across taxonomically diverse mycorrhizal genomes, where the T. matsutake genome contained four copies of this domain. Three of the IstB-like genes were overexpressed in the hyphae. Similar to other ectomycorrhizal genomes, the CAZyme gene set was reduced in T. matsutake, including losses in the glycoside hydrolase genes. The T. matsutake genome sequence provides insight into the causes and consequences of genome size inflation.
Project description:Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus capable of in vitro saprotrophic growth, but the sources of C and N used to generate sporocarps in vivo are not well understood. We examined natural abundance isotope data to investigate this phenomenon. For this purpose, C, N and their stable isotopes (13C, 15N) content of fungal sporocarps and their potential nutrient sources (i.e., foliage, litter, fine roots, wood, and soil) were investigated from two well-studied sites in Finland and Japan. Our results show that ?13C values of T. matsutake and other fungal groups are consistent with those of most studies, but a very high ?15N value (16.8‰?±?2.3) is observed in T. matsutake. Such isotopic pattern of fungal ?15N suggests that matsutake has a greater proteolytic potential to digest chemically complex 15N-enriched organic matter and hydrophobic hyphae. This assumption is further supported by a significant and positive correlation between ?13Ccap-stipe and ?15Ncap-stipe exclusively in T. matsutake, which suggests common C and N sources (protein) possible for isotopically enriched cap. The 13C increase of caps relative to stipe presumably reflects greater contents of 13C-enriched protein than 13C-depleted chitin. We conclude that T. matsutake is a typical ECM fungus which obtains for its sporocarp development for both C and N from a common protein source (vs. photosynthetic carbon) present in soil organic matter.
Project description:Tricholoma matsutake, the pine mushroom, is a valuable forest product with high economic value in Asia, and plays an important ecological role as an ectomycorrhizal fungus. Around the host tree, T. matsutake hyphae generate a distinctive soil aggregating environment called a fairy ring, where fruiting bodies form. Because T. matsutake hyphae dominate the soil near the fairy ring, this species has the potential to influence the microbial community. To explore the influence of T. matsutake on the microbial communities, we compared the microbial community and predicted bacterial function between two different soil types-T. matsutake dominant and T. matsutake minor. DNA sequence analyses showed that fungal and bacterial diversity were lower in the T. matsutake dominant soil compared to T. matsutake minor soil. Some microbial taxa were significantly more common in the T. matsutake dominant soil across geographic locations, many of which were previously identified as mycophillic or mycorrhiza helper bacteria. Between the two soil types, the predicted bacterial functional profiles (using PICRUSt) had significantly distinct KEGG modules. Modules for amino acid uptake, carbohydrate metabolism, and the type III secretion system were higher in the T. matsutake dominant soil than in the T. matsutake minor soil. Overall, similar microbial diversity, community structure, and bacterial functional profiles of the T. matsutake dominant soil across geographic locations suggest that T. matsutake may generate a dominance effect.
Project description:The pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake; Agaricales, Tricholomataceae) is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that produces a commercially valuable, edible mushrooms. Attempts to artificially cultivate T. matsutake has so far been unsuccessful. One method used to induce T. matsutake to produce fruiting bodies of in the wild is shiro (mycelial aggregations of T. matsutake) transplantation. In vitro ectomycorrhization of T. matsutake with seedlings of Pinus densiflora has been successful, but field trials showed limited production of fruiting bodies. Few studies have been done to test what happens after transplantation in the wild, whether T. matsutake persists on the pine seedling roots or gets replaced by other fungi. Here, we investigated the composition and the interaction of the root fungal microbiome of P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with T. matsutake over a 3 year period after field transplantation, using high-throughput sequencing. We found a decline of T. matsutake colonization on pine roots and succession of mycorrhizal fungi as P. densiflora seedlings grew. Early on, roots were colonized by fast-growing, saprotrophic Ascomycota, then later replaced by early stage ectomycorrhiza such as Wilcoxina. At the end, more competitive Suillus species dominated the host roots. Most of the major OTUs had negative or neutral correlation with T. matsutake, but several saprotrophic/plant pathogenic/mycoparasitic species in genera Fusarium, Oidiodendron, and Trichoderma had positive correlation with T. matsutake. Four keystone species were identified during succession; two species (Fusarium oxysporum, and F. trincintum) had a positive correlation with T. matsutake, while the other two had a negative correlation (Suillus granulatus, Cylindrocarpon pauciseptatum). These findings have important implications for further studies on the artificial cultivation of T. matsutake.
Project description:In this study, in an effort to develop a method for the molecular detection of Tricholoma matsutake in Korea from other closely related Tricholomataceae, a species-specific PCR primer pair, TmF and TmR, was designed using nuclear ribosomal intertranscribed spacer (ITS) sequences. The DTmF and DTmR sequences were 5'-CCTGACGCCAATCTTTTCA-3' and 5'-GGAGAGCAGACTTGTGAGCA-3', respectively. The PCR primers reliably amplified only the ITS sequences of T. matsutake, and not those of other species used in this study.
Project description:Fungal and actinobacterial communities were analyzed together with soil chemistry and enzyme activities in order to profile the microbial diversity associated with the economically important mushroom Tricholoma matsutake. Samples of mycelium-soil aggregation (shiro) were collected from three experimental sites where sporocarps naturally formed. PCR was used to confirm the presence and absence of matsutake in soil samples. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and direct sequencing were used to identify fungi and actinobacteria in the mineral and organic soil layers separately. Soil enzyme activities and hemicellulotic carbohydrates were analyzed in a productive experimental site. Soil chemistry was investigated in both organic and mineral soil layers at all three experimental sites. Matsutake dominated in the shiro but also coexisted with a high diversity of fungi and actinobacteria. Tomentollopsis sp. in the organic layer above the shiro and Piloderma sp. in the shiro correlated positively with the presence of T. matsutake in all experimental sites. A Thermomonosporaceae bacterium and Nocardia sp. correlated positively with the presence of T. matsutake, and Streptomyces sp. was a common cohabitant in the shiro, although these operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not occur at all sites. Significantly higher enzyme activity levels were detected in shiro soil. These enzymes are involved in the mobilization of carbon from organic matter decomposition. Matsutake was not associated with a particular soil chemistry compared to that of nearby sites where the fungus does not occur. The presence of a significant hemicellulose pool and the enzymes to degrade it indicates the potential for obtaining carbon from the soil rather than tree roots.
Project description:Hydrophobins-secreted small cysteine-rich, amphipathic proteins-foster interactions of fungal hyphae with hydrophobic surfaces, and are involved in the formation of aerial hyphae. Phylogenetic analyses of Tricholoma vaccinum hydrophobins showed a grouping with hydrophobins of other ectomycorrhizal fungi, which might be a result of co-evolution. Further analyses indicate angiosperms as likely host trees for the last common ancestor of the genus Tricholoma. The nine hydrophobin genes in the T. vaccinum genome were investigated to infer their individual roles in different stages of the life cycle, host interaction, asexual and sexual development, and with respect to different stresses. In aerial mycelium, hyd8 was up-regulated. In silico analysis predicted three packing arrangements, i.e., ring-like, plus-like and sheet-like structure for Hyd8; the first two may assemble to rodlets of hydrophobin covering aerial hyphae, whereas the third is expected to be involved in forming a two-dimensional network of hydrophobins. Metal stress induced hydrophobin gene hyd5. In early steps of mycorrhization, induction of hyd4 and hyd5 by plant root exudates and root volatiles could be shown, followed by hyd5 up-regulation during formation of mantle, Hartig' net, and rhizomorphs with concomitant repression of hyd8 and hyd9. During fruiting body formation, mainly hyd3, but also hyd8 were induced. Host preference between the compatible host Picea abies and the low compatibility host Pinus sylvestris could be linked to a stronger induction of hyd4 and hyd5 by the preferred host and a stronger repression of hyd8, whereas the repression of hyd9 was comparable between the two hosts.