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Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of pvmdr-1 in Plasmodium vivax isolated from military personnel of Republic of Korea in 2016 and 2017.


ABSTRACT:

Background

Malaria chemoprophylaxis using chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ) has been administered to resident soldiers in the 3rd Army of Republic of Korea (ROK) to prevent malaria infection since the year 1997. Due to mass chemoprophylaxis against malaria, concern exists about the occurrence of chloroquine resistance (CQR). This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Plasmodium vivax multi-drug resistance protein-1 (pvmdr-1) gene to monitor the risk of CQR.

Methods

SNPs of the pvmdr-1 gene were analysed in 73 soldiers of the 3rd Army of ROK diagnosed with infection by P. vivax.

Results

Quintuple mutations (G698S, L845F, M908L, T958M, and F1076L) were detected in 73 soldiers. A newly identified non-synonymous mutation in the Y541C position had been introduced into P. vivax malaria-endemic areas in ROK, at a frequency of 1.3% (1/73). In addition, synonymous mutations were detected at positions K44 (38.4%, 28/73), L493 (26%, 19/73), T529 (61.6%, 45/73), and E1233 (52.1%, 38/73). Based on these SNPs, pvmdr-1 sequences of ROK were classified into 6 haplotypes. The phylogenetic analysis closed to the type of North Korean showed that P. vivax malaria of ROK could be a reason of influx from North Korea.

Conclusions

This study showed that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations of pvmdr-1 were observed in the malaria chemoprophylaxis-executed regions of ROK from 2016 to 2017. Based on the rapid transition of pvmdr-1 SNPs, continuous surveillance for SNPs of pvmdr-1 related to CQR in the malaria-endemic regions of ROK is essential.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC9238087 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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