Comparison of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children-Related Myocarditis, Classic Viral Myocarditis, and COVID-19 Vaccine-Related Myocarditis in Children.
ABSTRACT: Background Although rare, classic viral myocarditis in the pediatric population is a disease that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Since 2020, myocarditis has been a common component of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 2021, myocarditis related to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was recognized as a rare adverse event. This study aims to compare classic, MIS-C, and COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis with regard to clinical presentation, course, and outcomes. Methods and Results In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients aged <21 years hospitalized at our institution with classic viral myocarditis from 2015 to 2019, MIS-C myocarditis from March 2020 to February 2021, and vaccine-related myocarditis from May 2021 to June 2021. Of 201 total participants, 43 patients had classic myocarditis, 149 had MIS-C myocarditis, and 9 had vaccine-related myocarditis. At presentation, ejection fraction was lowest for those with classic myocarditis, with ejection fraction <55% present in 58% of patients. Nearly all patients with MIS-C myocarditis (n=139, 93%) and all patients with vaccine-related myocarditis (n=9, 100%) had normal left ventricular ejection fraction at the time of discharge compared with 70% (n=30) of the classic myocarditis group (P<0.001). At 3 months after discharge, of the 21 children discharged with depressed ejection fraction, none of the 10 children with MIS-C myocarditis had residual dysfunction compared with 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the classic myocarditis group. Conclusions Compared with classic myocarditis, those with MIS-C myocarditis had better clinical outcomes, including rapid recovery of cardiac function. Patients with vaccine-related myocarditis had prompt resolution of symptoms and improvement of cardiac function.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Adults who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 can develop a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-A), including fulminant myocarditis. Yet, several patients fail to meet MIS-A criteria, suggesting the existence of distinct phenotypes in fulminant COVID-19-related myocarditis.<h4>Objectives</h4>This study sought to compare the characteristics and clinical outcome between patients with fulminant COVID-19-related myocarditis fulfilling MIS-A criteria (MIS-A<sup>+</sup>) or not (MIS-A<sup>-</sup>).<h4>Methods</h4>A monocentric retrospective analysis of consecutive fulminant COVID-19-related myocarditis in a 26-bed intensive care unit (ICU).<h4>Results</h4>Between March 2020 and June 2021, 38 patients required ICU admission (male 66%; mean age 32 ± 15 years) for suspected fulminant COVID-19-related myocarditis. In-ICU treatment for organ failure included dobutamine 79%, norepinephrine 60%, mechanical ventilation 50%, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 42%, and renal replacement therapy 29%. In-hospital mortality was 13%. Twenty-five patients (66%) met the MIS-A criteria. MIS-A<sup>-</sup> patients compared with MIS-A<sup>+</sup> patients were characterized by a shorter delay between COVID-19 symptoms onset and myocarditis, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and a higher rate of in-ICU organ failure, and were more likely to require mechanical circulatory support with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (92% vs 16%; P < 0.0001). In-hospital mortality was higher in MIS-A<sup>-</sup> patients (31% vs 4%). MIS-A<sup>+</sup> had higher circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-22, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas MIS-A<sup>-</sup> had higher interferon-α2 (IFN-α2) and IL-8 levels. RNA polymerase III autoantibodies were present in 7 of 13 MIS-A<sup>-</sup> patients (54%) but in none of the MIS-A<sup>+</sup> patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MIS-A<sup>+</sup> and MIS-A<sup>-</sup> fulminant COVID-19-related myocarditis patients have 2 distinct phenotypes with different clinical presentations, prognosis, and immunological profiles. Differentiating these 2 phenotypes is relevant for patients' management and further understanding of their pathophysiology.
Project description:Clinical course and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination remain variable. We retrospectively collected data on patients > 12 years old from 01/01/2021 to 12/30/2021 who received COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination and were diagnosed with myocarditis within 60 days of vaccination. Myocarditis cases were based on case definitions by authors. We report on 238 patients of whom most were male (n = 208; 87.1%). The mean age was 27.4 ± 16 (range 12-80) years. Females presented at older ages (41.3 ± 21.5 years) than men 25.7 ± 14 years (p = 0.001). In patients > 20 years of age, the mean duration from vaccination to symptoms was 4.8 days ± 5.5 days, but in < 20, it was 3.0 ± 3.3 days (p = 0.04). Myocarditis occurred most commonly after the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (n = 183; 76.45) and after the second dose (n = 182; 80%). Symptoms started 3.95 ± 4.5 days after vaccination. The commonest symptom was chest pain (n = 221; 93%). Patients were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 105; 58.3%), colchicine (n = 38; 21.1%), or glucocorticoids (n = 23; 12.7%). About 30% of the patients had left ventricular ejection fraction but more than half recovered the on repeat imaging. Abnormal cardiac MRIs were common; 168 patients (96% of 175 patients that had MRI) had late gadolinium enhancement, while 120 patients (68.5%) had myocardial edema. Heart failure guideline-directed medical therapy use was common (n = 27; 15%). Eleven patients had cardiogenic shock; and 4 patients required mechanical circulatory support. Five patients (1.7%) died; of these, 3 patients had endomyocardial biopsy/autopsy-confirmed myocarditis. Most cases of COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis are mild. Females presented at older ages than men and duration from vaccination to symptoms was longer in patients > 20 years. Cardiogenic shock requiring mechanical circulatory support was seen and mortality was low. Future studies are needed to better evaluate risk factors, and long-term outcomes of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine myocarditis.
Project description:Fulminant myocarditis (FM) causes rapid onset severe heart failure requiring inotropes or mechanical circulatory support. Myocarditis is sometimes associated with pericardial effusion, however, how this effusion affects the hemodynamics in patients with FM under venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) management has not been fully reported. We show a case of FM presenting with cardiac tamponade during VA-ECMO management. A 64-year-old female diagnosed as having FM showed a rapid hemodynamic collapse and that led to the application of VA-ECMO. Although her left ventricular ejection fraction did not improve despite proper hemodynamics management for several days, a pericardial effusion accumulated gradually. Apparent elevation of right atrial pressure and reduction of blood pressure were not observed, however, we performed pericardiocentesis because we were not able to wean off VA-ECMO. After the drainage of pericardial effusion, the blood pressure and cardiac output elevated as did the left ventricular ejection fraction. We successfully removed VA-ECMO and the patient was discharged without any complications. This is a case report in which a cardiac tamponade under VA-ECMO did not show typical signs and pericardiocentesis contributed to withdrawal of a VA-ECMO system. <Learning objective: Typical findings of cardiac tamponade are less likely to appear in patients with fulminant myocarditis under venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management (VA-ECMO). Drainage of pericardial effusion delivers dramatic improvement in blood pressure, cardiac output, and left ventricular ejection fraction. When VA-ECMO cannot be weaned off, pericardiocentesis should be considered in patients with fulminant myocarditis who showed gradual accumulation of pericardial effusion.>.
Project description:Background?:Pembrolizumab is an immune check-point inhibitor (ICI), which acts by blocking the T lymphocyte PD-1 inhibitor receptor. It has been increasingly used in advanced or non-responsive tumours with promising results. However, acute myocarditis is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening autoimmune adverse effect related to ICIs. Case summary?:This case deals with a 69-year-old gentleman on second-line therapy with pembrolizumab for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Three weeks after first dose, the patient was diagnosed with an autoimmune hepatitis, treated with decreasing corticoid dosage, followed by acute heart failure. On admission, his electrocardiogram (ECG) showed diffuse repolarization changes and a transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe left ventricle impairment (left ventricular ejection fraction 32%). High-sensitivity cardiac troponin was elevated and a coronary angiogram was performed showing non-significant obstructive disease. An autoimmune myocarditis was suspected, and high-dose intravenous corticoid, intravenous vasodilators, and loop diuretics were started with favourable response. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, performed 2?weeks after clinical onset, revealed extracellular oedema in the anteroseptal-apical left ventricle segments. A new transthoracic echocardiography, performed after 3?months, showed preserved left ventricle ejection fraction. Finally, the patient was readmitted due to an autoimmune myasthenia-like syndrome. Discussion?:Acute autoimmune myocarditis related to ICIs is a challenging diagnosis and its incidence has been underestimated in early studies. Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is the gold standard test for its diagnosis. Nevertheless, a definite myocarditis diagnosis is possible without EMB when characteristic clinical syndrome, elevated myonecrosis markers, and electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and CMR changes are present together.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Nearly 6,000 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been reported in the United States by November 2021. Left ventricular global myocardial strain has been proved to be one of the best evidence of the diagnostic and prognostic implications for cardiac dysfunction. The global myocardial strain change of MIS-C in the acute phase was still unclear. <h4>Methods</h4> PubMed and other sources were searched. A network meta-analysis was conducted. MIS-C was divided into two groups according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): MIS-C with depressed ejection fraction (MIS-C dEF) and MIS-C with preserved ejection fraction (MIS-C pEF). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) were compared among MIS-C, Kawasaki disease (KD), and healthy children. <h4>Results</h4> In total, nine case-control studies were included, published between 2014 and 2021. These studies involved 107 patients with MIS-C, 188 patients with KD, and 356 healthy children. After Bayesian analysis, MIS-C dEF group was found to have a lower LVEF, higher GLS and GCS than the KD groups. Both MIS-C pEF and KD had similar GLS and GCS, which were higher than healthy controls. There was no difference of LVEF among MIS-C pEF, KD, and healthy controls. <h4>Conclusion</h4> MIS-C dEF was more severe than KD, both in LVEF and global myocardial strain. MIS-C pEF and KD were similar with mild impaired left ventricular myocardial strain compared with the healthy children. Global myocardial strain may be a monitoring index for MIS-C. <h4>Systematic Review Registration</h4> [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [CRD42021264760].
Project description:Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis have been reported following the receipt of Covid-19 mRNA vaccines. As vaccination campaigns are still to be extended, we aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the association, by vaccine and across sex and age groups. Using nationwide hospital discharge and vaccine data, we analysed all 1612 cases of myocarditis and 1613 cases of pericarditis that occurred in France in the period from May 12, 2021 to October 31, 2021. We perform matched case-control studies and find increased risks of myocarditis and pericarditis during the first week following vaccination, and particularly after the second dose, with adjusted odds ratios of myocarditis of 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7 to 9.9) for the BNT162b2 and 30 (95% CI, 21 to 43) for the mRNA-1273 vaccine. The largest associations are observed for myocarditis following mRNA-1273 vaccination in persons aged 18 to 24 years. Estimates of excess cases attributable to vaccination also reveal a substantial burden of both myocarditis and pericarditis across other age groups and in both males and females.
Project description:Previous mouse studies have shown the increased presence of platelets in the myocardium during early stages of myocarditis and their selective detection by MRI. Here, we aimed to depict early myocarditis using molecular contrast-enhanced ultrasound of activated platelets, and to evaluate the impact of a P2Y<sub>12</sub> receptor platelet inhibition. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis was induced in BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection of porcine cardiac myosin and complete Freund adjuvant (CFA). Activated platelets were targeted with microbubbles (MB) coupled to a single-chain antibody that binds to the "ligand-induced binding sites" of the GPIIb/IIIa-receptor (=LIBS-MB). Alongside myocarditis induction, a group of mice received a daily dose of 100 g prasugrel for 1 month. Mice injected with myosin and CFA had a significantly deteriorated ejection fraction and histological inflammation on day 28 compared to mice only injected with myosin. Platelets infiltrated the myocardium before reduction in ejection fraction could be detected by echocardiography. No selective binding of the LIBS-MB contrast agent could be detected by either ultrasound or histology. Prasugrel therapy preserved ejection fraction and significantly reduced platelet aggregates in the myocardium compared to mice without prasugrel therapy. Therefore, P2Y<sub>12</sub> inhibition could be a promising early therapeutic target in myocarditis, requiring further investigation.
Project description:Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is used to investigate suspected acute myocarditis, however most supporting data is retrospective and few studies have included parametric mapping. We aimed to investigate the utility of contemporary multiparametric CMR in a large prospective cohort of patients with suspected acute myocarditis, the impact of real-world variations in practice, the relationship between clinical characteristics and CMR findings and factors predicting outcome. 540 consecutive patients we recruited. The 113 patients diagnosed with myocarditis on CMR performed within 40 days of presentation were followed-up for 674 (504-915) days. 39 patients underwent follow-up CMR at 189 (166-209) days. CMR provided a positive diagnosis in 72% of patients, including myocarditis (40%) and myocardial infarction (11%). In multivariable analysis, male sex and shorter presentation-to-scan interval were associated with a diagnosis of myocarditis. Presentation with heart failure (HF) was associated with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), higher LGE burden and higher extracellular volume fraction. Lower baseline LVEF predicted follow-up LV dysfunction. Multiparametric CMR has a high diagnostic yield in suspected acute myocarditis. CMR should be performed early and include parametric mapping. Patients presenting with HF and reduced LVEF require closer follow-up while those with normal CMR may not require it.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myocarditis is an uncommon, but potentially fatal, toxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Myocarditis after ICI has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVES:The authors sought to understand the presentation and clinical course of ICI-associated myocarditis. METHODS:After observation of sporadic ICI-associated myocarditis cases, the authors created a multicenter registry with 8 sites. From November 2013 to July 2017, there were 35 patients with ICI-associated myocarditis, who were compared to a random sample of 105 ICI-treated patients without myocarditis. Covariates of interest were extracted from medical records including the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and hemodynamically significant complete heart block. RESULTS:The prevalence of myocarditis was 1.14% with a median time of onset of 34 days after starting ICI (interquartile range: 21 to 75 days). Cases were 65 ± 13 years of age, 29% were female, and 54% had no other immune-related side effects. Relative to controls, combination ICI (34% vs. 2%; p < 0.001) and diabetes (34% vs. 13%; p = 0.01) were more common in cases. Over 102 days (interquartile range: 62 to 214 days) of median follow-up, 16 (46%) developed MACE; 38% of MACE occurred with normal ejection fraction. There was a 4-fold increased risk of MACE with troponin T of ?1.5 ng/ml (hazard ratio: 4.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 10.9; p = 0.003). Steroids were administered in 89%, and lower steroids doses were associated with higher residual troponin and higher MACE rates. CONCLUSIONS:Myocarditis after ICI therapy may be more common than appreciated, occurs early after starting treatment, has a malignant course, and responds to higher steroid doses.
Project description:<h4>Aims </h4>Necrotizing coronary vasculitis (NCV) is a rare entity usually associated to myocarditis which incidence, cause, and response to therapy is unreported.<h4>Methods and results </h4>Among 1916 patients with biopsy-proven myocarditis, 30 had NCV. Endomyocardial samples were retrospectively investigated with immunohistochemistry for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viral genomes. Serum samples were processed for anti-heart autoantibodies (Abs), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Identification of an immunologic pathway (including virus-negativity, TLR4-, and Ab-positivity) was followed by immunosuppression. Myocarditis-NCV cohort was followed for 6 months with 2D-echo and/or cardiac magnetic resonance and compared with 60 Myocarditis patients and 30 controls. Increase in left ventricular ejection fraction ≥10% was classified as response to therapy. Control endomyocardial biopsy followed the end of treatment. Twenty-six Myocarditis-NCV patients presented with heart failure; four with electrical instability. Cause of Myocarditis-NCV included infectious agents (10%) and immune-mediated causes (chest trauma 3%; drug hypersensitivity 7%; hypereosinophilic syndrome 3%; primary autoimmune diseases 33%, idiopathic 44%). Abs were positive in immune-mediated Myocarditis-NCV and virus-negative Myocarditis; Myocarditis-NCV patients with Ab+ presented autoreactivity in vessel walls. Toll-like receptor 4 was overexpressed in immune-mediated forms and poorly detectable in viral. Interleukin-1β was significantly higher in Myocarditis-NCV than Myocarditis, the former presenting 24% in-hospital mortality compared with 1.5% of Myocarditis cohort. Immunosuppression induced improvement of cardiac function in 88% of Myocarditis-NCV and 86% of virus-negative Myocarditis patients.<h4>Conclusion </h4>Necrotizing coronary vasculitis is histologically detectable in 1.5% of Myocarditis. Necrotizing coronary vasculitis includes viral and immune-mediated causes. Intra-hospital mortality is 24%. The immunologic pathway is associated with beneficial response to immunosuppression.