Targeting UDP-α-d-glucose 6-dehydrogenase alters the CNS tumor immune microenvironment and inhibits glioblastoma growth.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM, WHO grade IV glioma) is the most common and lethal malignant brain tumor in adults with a dismal prognosis. The extracellular matrix (ECM) supports GBM progression by promoting tumor cell proliferation, migration, and immune escape. Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans that are the principal component of the CNS ECM. We investigated how targeting UGDH in GBM influences the GBM immune microenvironment, including tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAMs) and T cells. TAMs are the main immune effector cells in GBM and can directly target tumor cells if properly activated. In co-cultures of GBM cells and human primary macrophages, UGDH knockdown in GBM cells promoted macrophage phagocytosis and M1-like polarization. In orthotropic human GBM xenografts and syngeneic mouse glioma models, targeting UGDH decreased ECM deposition, increased TAM phagocytosis marker expression, reduced M2-like TAMs and inhibited tumor growth. UGDH knockdown in GBM cells also promoted cytotoxic T cell infiltration and activation in orthotopic syngeneic mouse glioma models. The potent and in-human-use small molecule GAG synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was found to inhibit GBM cell proliferation and migration in vitro, mimic the macrophage and T-cell responses to UGDH knockdown in vitro and in vivo and inhibit growth of orthotopic murine GBM. Our study shows that UGDH supports GBM growth through multiple mechanisms and supports the development of ECM-based therapeutic strategies to simultaneously target tumor cells and their microenvironment.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) comprises several molecular subtypes, including proneural GBM. Most therapeutic approaches targeting glioma cells have failed. An alternative strategy is to target cells in the glioma microenvironment, such as tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAMs). Macrophages depend on colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) for differentiation and survival. We used an inhibitor of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to target TAMs in a mouse proneural GBM model, which significantly increased survival and regressed established tumors. CSF-1R blockade additionally slowed intracranial growth of patient-derived glioma xenografts. Surprisingly, TAMs were not depleted in treated mice. Instead, glioma-secreted factors, including granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) and interferon-? (IFN-?), facilitated TAM survival in the context of CSF-1R inhibition. Expression of alternatively activated M2 markers decreased in surviving TAMs, which is consistent with impaired tumor-promoting functions. These gene signatures were associated with enhanced survival in patients with proneural GBM. Our results identify TAMs as a promising therapeutic target for proneural gliomas and establish the translational potential of CSF-1R inhibition for GBM.
Project description:UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) produces UDP-?-D-glucuronic acid, the precursors for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. Elevated GAG formation has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including glioblastoma (GBM). In our previous study, we found that Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) promotes GBM cell migration by binding to methylated DNA, mainly methylated CpGs (mCpG) and transactivating gene expression. We identified UDGH as one of the downstream targets of KLF4-mCpG binding activity. In this study, we show that KLF4 upregulates UGDH expression in a mCpG-dependent manner, and UGDH is required for KLF4-induced cell migration in vitro. UGDH knockdown decreases GAG abundance in GBM cells, as well as cell proliferation and migration in vitro. In intracranial xenografts, reduced UGDH inhibits tumor growth and migration, accompanied by a decrease in the expression of extracellular matrix proteins such as tenascin C, brevican. Our studies demonstrate a novel DNA methylation-dependent UGDH upregulation by KLF4. Developing UGDH antagonists to decrease the synthesis of extracellular matrix components will be a useful strategy for GBM therapy.
Project description:ABSTRACT The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a critical role in promoting the growth and metastasis of glioblastoma (GBM). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), the most abundant myeloid cells infiltrating in TME, produce proinflammatory cytokines, regulate glioma cell pools, and lead to GBM progression. Understanding the mechanism of GBM-TAMs regulation can help to find new targeted therapeutic strategies against GBM. Based on the CGGA and TCGA GBM cohorts, ARPC1B was defined as the key macrophage-associated gene with prognostic value. Higher ARPC1B expression was associated with progressive malignancy, poor outcomes and TAM infiltration. We demonstrated that macrophage-expressed ARPC1B promoted the migration, invasion, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of glioma cells. Glioma-intrinsic ARPC1B also maintained the malignant phenotype and promoted macrophage recruitment. Positive feedback signaling between macrophages and glioma cells via ARPC1B was determined to be under control of the IFNγ-IRF2-ARPC1B axis. This study highlights the important role of ARPC1B in GBM malignancy progression and the regulation network between GBM and TAMs, suggesting ARPC1B as a novel biomarker with potential therapeutic implications.
Project description:The interplay between glioma stem cells (GSCs) and the tumor microenvironment plays crucial roles in promoting malignant growth of glioblastoma (GBM), the most lethal brain tumor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this crosstalk are incompletely understood. Here, we show that GSCs secrete the Wnt-induced signaling protein 1 (WISP1) to facilitate a pro-tumor microenvironment by promoting the survival of both GSCs and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). WISP1 is preferentially expressed and secreted by GSCs. Silencing WISP1 markedly disrupts GSC maintenance, reduces tumor-supportive TAMs (M2), and potently inhibits GBM growth. WISP1 signals through Integrin ?6?1-Akt to maintain GSCs by an autocrine mechanism and M2 TAMs through a paracrine manner. Importantly, inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin-WISP1 signaling by carnosic acid (CA) suppresses GBM tumor growth. Collectively, these data demonstrate that WISP1 plays critical roles in maintaining GSCs and tumor-supportive TAMs in GBM, indicating that targeting Wnt/?-catenin-WISP1 signaling may effectively improve GBM treatment and the patient survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and has a dismal prognosis. Measles virus (MV) therapy of GBM is a promising strategy due to preclinical efficacy, excellent clinical safety, and its ability to evoke antitumor pro-inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that combining anti- programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) blockade and MV therapy can overcome immunosuppression and enhance immune effector cell responses against GBM, thus improving therapeutic outcome.<h4>Methods</h4>In vitro assays of MV infection of glioma cells and infected glioma cells with mouse microglia ± aPD-1 blockade were established to assess damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule production, migration, and pro-inflammatory effects. C57BL/6 or athymic mice bearing syngeneic orthotopic GL261 gliomas were treated with MV, aPD-1, and combination treatment. T2* weighted immune cell-specific MRI and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of treated mouse brains was used to examine adaptive immune responses following therapy.<h4>Results</h4>In vitro, MV infection induced human GBM cell secretion of DAMP (high-mobility group protein 1, heat shock protein 90) and upregulated programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). MV infection of GL261 murine glioma cells resulted in a pro-inflammatory response and increased migration of BV2 microglia. In vivo, MV+aPD-1 therapy synergistically enhanced survival of C57BL/6 mice bearing syngeneic orthotopic GL261 gliomas. MRI showed increased inflammatory cell influx into the brains of mice treated with MV+aPD-1; FACS analysis confirmed increased T-cell influx predominantly consisting of activated CD8+ T cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This report demonstrates that oncolytic measles virotherapy in combination with aPD-1 blockade significantly improves survival outcome in a syngeneic GBM model and supports the potential of clinical/translational strategies combining MV with ?PD-1 therapy in GBM treatment.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages/microglia (TAMs) are prominent microenvironment components in human glioblastoma (GBM) that are potential targets for anti-tumor therapy. However, TAM depletion by CSF1R inhibition showed mixed results in clinical trials. We hypothesized that GBM subtype-specific tumor microenvironment convey distinct sensitivities to TAM targeting.We generated syngeneic PDGFB-driven and RAS-driven GBM models that resemble proneural-like and mesenchymal-like gliomas, and determined the effect of TAM targeting by CSF1R inhibitor PLX3397 on glioma growth. We also investigated the co-targeting of TAMs and angiogenesis on PLX3397-resistant RAS-driven GBM. Using single-cell transcriptomic profiling, we further explored differences in tumor microenvironment cellular compositions and functions in PDGFB- and RAS-driven gliomas. We found that growth of PDGFB-driven tumors was markedly inhibited by PLX3397. In contrast, depletion of TAMs at the early phase accelerated RAS-driven tumor growth and had no effects on other proneural and mesenchymal GBM models. In addition, PLX3397-resistant RAS-driven tumors did not respond to PI3K signaling inhibition. Single-cell transcriptomic profiling revealed that PDGFB-driven gliomas induced expansion and activation of pro-tumor microglia, whereas TAMs in mesenchymal RAS-driven GBM were enriched in pro-inflammatory and angiogenic signaling. Co-targeting of TAMs and angiogenesis decreased cell proliferation and changed the morphology of RAS-driven gliomas.Our work identify functionally distinct TAM subpopulations in the growth of different glioma subtypes. Notably, we uncover a potential responsiveness of resistant mesenchymal-like gliomas to combined anti-angiogenic therapy and CSF1R inhibition. These data highlight the importance of characterization of the microenvironment landscape in order to optimally stratify patients for TAM-targeted therapy. Overall design: Single Cell RNA-seq (10X and Drop-Seq) for glioma driven by HRasV12 and dominant negative p53. Bulk RNA-seq of Ras-driven glioma tumor tissues from mouse treated with vehicle and PLX3397. Bulk RNA-seq of cell lines derived from PDGFB and Ras-driven GBM. Bulk RNA-seq of Cd11b+ positive cells from PDGFB-driven GBM after three days of vehicle or PLX3397 treatment
Project description:Glioblastomas (GBM), deadly brain tumors, have greater incidence in males than females. Epidemiological evidence supports a tumor suppressive role of estrogen; however, estrogen as a potential therapy for GBM is limited due to safety concerns. Since GBM express ER?, a second receptor for estrogen, targeting ER? with a selective agonist may be a potential novel GBM therapy. In the present study, we examined the therapeutic effect of the selective synthetic ER? agonist LY500307 using in vitro and in vivo GBM models. Treatment with LY500307 significantly reduced the proliferation of GBM cells with no activity on normal astrocytes in vitro. ER? agonists promoted apoptosis of GBM cells, and mechanistic studies using RNA sequencing revealed that LY500307 modulated several pathways related to apoptosis, cell cycle, and DNA damage response. Further, LY500307 sensitized GBM cells to several FDA-approved chemotherapeutic drugs including cisplatin, lomustine and temozolomide. LY500307 treatment significantly reduced the in vivo tumor growth and promoted apoptosis of GBM tumors in an orthotopic model and improved the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice in the GL26 syngeneic glioma model. Our results demonstrate that LY500307 has potential as a therapeutic agent for GBM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma (GBM) is a complex disease with extensive molecular and transcriptional heterogeneity. GBM can be subcategorized into four distinct subtypes; tumors that shift towards the mesenchymal phenotype upon recurrence are generally associated with treatment resistance, unfavorable prognosis, and the infiltration of pro-tumorigenic macrophages. RESULTS:We explore the transcriptional regulatory networks of mesenchymal-associated tumor-associated macrophages (MA-TAMs), which drive the malignant phenotypic state of GBM, and identify macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) as the most highly differentially expressed gene. MARCOhigh TAMs induce a phenotypic shift towards mesenchymal cellular state of glioma stem cells, promoting both invasive and proliferative activities, as well as therapeutic resistance to irradiation. MARCOhigh TAMs also significantly accelerate tumor engraftment and growth in vivo. Moreover, both MA-TAM master regulators and their target genes are significantly correlated with poor clinical outcomes and are often associated with genomic aberrations in neurofibromin 1 (NF1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases/mammalian target of rapamycin/Akt pathway (PI3K-mTOR-AKT)-related genes. We further demonstrate the origination of MA-TAMs from peripheral blood, as well as their potential association with tumor-induced polarization states and immunosuppressive environments. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our study characterizes the global transcriptional profile of TAMs driving mesenchymal GBM pathogenesis, providing potential therapeutic targets for improving the effectiveness of GBM immunotherapy.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor which is characterized by high proliferation and migration capacity. The poor survival rate has been attributed to limitations of the current standard therapies. The search for novel biological targets that can effectively hamper tumor progression remains extremely challenging. Previous studies indicated that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the abundant elements in the tumor microenvironment that are closely implicated in glioma progression and tumor pathogenesis. M2 type TAMs are immunosuppressive and promote GBM proliferation. RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 (MSI1) has recently been identified as a marker of neural stem/progenitor cells, and its high expression has been shown to correlate with the growth of GBM. Nevertheless, the relationship between MSI1 and TAMs in GBM is still unknown. Thus, in our present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular interplay between MSI1 and TAMs in contributing to GBM tumorigenesis. Our data revealed that the secretion of macrophage inhibitory factor 1 (MIF1) is significantly upregulated by MSI1 overexpression in vitro. Importantly, M2 surface markers of THP-1-derived macrophages were induced by recombinant MIF1 and reduced by using MIF1 inhibitor (S,R)-3-(4-hHydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid (ISO-1). Furthermore, GBM tumor model data suggested that the tumor growth, MIF1 expression and M2 macrophage population were significantly downregulated when MSI1 expression was silenced in vivo. Collectively, our findings identified a novel role of MSI1 in the secretion of MIF1 and the consequent polarization of macrophages into the M2 phenotype in promoting GBM tumor progression.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, can be divided into several molecular subtypes including proneural GBM. Most clinical strategies aimed at directly targeting glioma cells in these tumors have failed. A promising alternative is to target stromal cells in the brain microenvironment, such as tumor-associated microglia and macrophages (TAMs). Macrophages are dependent upon colony stimulating factor (CSF)-1 for differentiation and survival; therefore, we used an inhibitor of its receptor, CSF-1R, to target macrophages in a mouse proneural GBM model. CSF-1R inhibition dramatically increased survival in mice and regressed established GBMs. Tumor cell apoptosis was significantly increased, and proliferation and tumor grade markedly decreased. Surprisingly, TAMs were not depleted in tumors treated with the CSF-1R inhibitor. Instead, analysis of gene expression in TAMs isolated from treated tumors revealed a decrease in alternatively activated/ M2 macrophage markers, consistent with impaired tumor-promoting functions. These gene signatures were also associated with better survival specifically in the proneural subtype of patient gliomas. Collectively, these results establish macrophages as valid therapeutic targets in proneural gliomas, and highlight the clinical potential for CSF-1R inhibitors in GBM. RNA was isolated from sorted tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) from murine gliomas following either 7 days of vehicle or BLZ945 treatment. Samples were collected from 16 total tumor burdened mice, with 8 replicates for each treatment group. BLZ945: a Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor (CSF-1R) inhibitor