Intraoperative Laximetry-Based Selective Transtibial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Concomitant With Medial Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy for Treating Varus Knee Osteoarthritis With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency.
ABSTRACT: High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used in the treatment of varus knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in young and active patients. At times, a concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency is found, and there is no conclusive evidence comparing the osteotomy options for an ACL-deficient knee despite the popularity of medial opening-wedge (MOW) HTO in varus KOA with ACL deficiency. To minimize the incidence of an unnecessary ACL reconstruction with MOW-HTO, we developed an intraoperative laximetry-based selective technique for transtibial ACL reconstruction concomitant with MOW-HTO using a sterilizable metal laximeter. To successfully use the device required for this procedure, surgeons must understand the proper techniques. Hence, this Technical Note aims to give a comprehensive description of the technique.
Project description:High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a valid treatment option for young active patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthrosis (OA) and varus deformity. Sometimes medial OA is combined with symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Although isolated HTO (with possible delayed ACL reconstruction) might be indicated in the older population, young active patients may require combined HTO and ACL reconstruction. In addition, an abnormally increased tibial slope may predispose to ACL reconstruction failure and should be addressed for a successful ACL revision. The combination of HTO and ACL reconstruction produces good results, with resumption of normal daily activities, as well as recreational sports, and does not seem to increase the risk of complications compared with isolated HTO. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe our indications, planning, and technique for opening wedge HTO fixed with a spacer plate and anatomic soft-tissue (autograft or allograft) ACL reconstruction, with proximal extracortical suspension and distal interference screw fixation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We aimed to evaluate clinical and radiological results after simultaneous open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in patients with ACL deficiency combined with medial uni-compartmental osteoarthritis (OA) and varus deformity.<h4>Methods</h4>This retrospective study was performed using data collected from 2005 to 2011 on a total of 24 patients who were diagnosed with ACL injury and medial unicompartmental OA with varus deformity, and who subsequently underwent simultaneous open-wedge HTO and arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. The mean follow-up duration was 5.2 years. For clinical outcomes, we evaluated Lysholm score, Tegner activity score, range of motion, Lachmann test, and pivot-shift test, and for radiological outcomes, we evaluated the degree of varus deformity, progression of medial OA, tibial posterior slope, anterior instability, and postoperative complication.<h4>Results</h4>There were no limitations in range of motion found in any cases. Three patients showed progressive osteoarthritis on the medial compartment. The mechanical femorotibial angle was significantly corrected from varus 7.0 degrees to valgus 1.2 degrees, and the tibial posterior slope was not significantly changed. The Lysholm and Tegner activity scores were significantly improved after surgery (from 58 to 94 points on the Lysholm scale and from 4.0 to 5.3 points on the Tegner activity scale). Although the Lachman test and the pivot-shift test showed significant improvements after surgery, instability greater than Gr II was observed in three patients on the Lachman test and in four patients on the pivot-shift test. The side-to-side difference improved from 9.6 mm to 4.2 mm postoperatively as assessed using a Telos® arthrometer. There were no cases of nonunion or fixation loss.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Simultaneous open-wedge HTO and ACL reconstruction in patients with ACL injury with medial compartmental OA showed satisfactory functional outcomes and postoperative activity level scores. However, some patients showed residual instability and progression of OA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The incidence of primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) failure ranges from 10 to 20% in the USA. Many patient and surgical factors may lead to re-rupture after ACLR. Some authors have suggested that not correcting excessive posterior tibial slope may be a significant contributing factor to ACLR failure.<h4>Purposes</h4>We sought to systematically review the literature on outcomes, indications, and complications in patients undergoing simultaneous high tibial osteotomy (HTO) and ACLR revision.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, Medline, and Embase were searched in February 2018 for articles addressing simultaneous HTO and ACLR revision in skeletally mature patients. Major orthopedic conferences were screened in duplicate to find gray literature. All studies were assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies. Descriptive statistics are presented where applicable.<h4>Results</h4>Seven studies satisfied inclusion. Seventy-seven patients underwent combined HTO and ACLR revision. The main indications were a posterior slope of more than 12° or severe varus malalignment. Graft types included hamstring tendon autograft (58.4%; <i>n?=</i> 45) and quadriceps tendon graft (16.9%; <i>n?=</i> 13). Mean delay between primary and revision surgery was 9 years. Rehabilitation protocol dictated return to running at 4 months and return to sport at 4 to 9 months. Visual analog scale pain scores reduced on average by 30 points. Subjective International Knee Documentation Committee, Tegner-Lysholm, and Tegner activity scores also improved. Fifty-eight percent (35/60) of patients showed osteoarthritis signs post-operatively. One patient (1.3%) received an arthroscopic arthrolysis of adhesions for stiffness. There were no reported incidences of graft re-rupture.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This systematic review found that the use of HTO for ACLR revision produces good post-operative functional outcomes, low complication rates, and no reported re-ruptures. The main indications for combined HTO with ACLR revision was a posterior slope of more than 12° or severe varus malalignment. Future studies with large sample sizes and long-term follow-up are required to corroborate these results.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are increasingly common in the skeletally immature population. As such there is a need to increase our understanding of the biomechanical function of the joint following partial and complete ACL injury during skeletal growth. In this work, we aimed to assess changes in knee kinematics and loading of the remaining soft tissues following both partial and complete ACL injury in a porcine model. To do so, we applied anterior-posterior tibial loads and varus-valgus moments to stifle joints of female pigs ranging from early juvenile to late adolescent ages and assessed both kinematics and in-situ loads carried in the bundles of the ACL and other soft tissues including the collateral ligaments and the menisci. Partial ACL injury led to increased anterior tibial translation only in late adolescence and small increases in varus-valgus rotation at all ages. Complete ACL injury led to substantial increases in translation and rotation at all ages. At all ages, the medial collateral ligament and the medial meniscus combined to resist the majority of applied anterior tibial load following complete ACL transection. Across all ages and flexion angles, the contribution of the MCL ranged from 45 to 90% of the anterior load and the contribution of the medial meniscus ranged from 14 to 35% of the anterior load. These findings add to our current understanding of age-specific functional properties of both healthy and injured knees during skeletal growth.
Project description:Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is a technique that continues to evolve. Good results have been established with respect to reducing anteroposterior laxity. However, these results have come into question because nonanatomic techniques have been ineffective at restoring knee kinematics and raised concerns that abnormal kinematics may impact long-term knee health. Anatomic ACL-R attempts to closely reproduce the patient's individual anatomic characteristics. Measurements of the patient's anatomy help determine graft choice and whether anatomic reconstruction should be performed with a single- or double-bundle technique. The bony landmarks and insertions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are preserved to assist with anatomic placement of both tibial and femoral tunnels. An anatomic single- or double-bundle reconstruction is performed with a goal of reproducing the characteristics of the native ACL. Long-term outcomes for anatomic ACL reconstruction are unknown. By individualizing ACL-R, we strive to reproduce the patient's native anatomy and restore knee kinematics to improve patient outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Lateral extra-articular tenodesis in the context of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) is performed to better control anterolateral knee instability in patients with high-grade preoperative pivot shift. However, some authors believe these procedures may cause lateral compartment overconstraint, affecting knee motion in daily life.<h4>Purpose/hypothesis</h4>The primary aim of the present study was to identify kinematic differences during the execution of an activity under weightbearing conditions between knees having undergone ACLR using anatomic single-bundle (SB) versus single-bundle plus lateral plasty (SBLP) techniques. The secondary aim was to compare the postoperative kinematic data with those from the same knees before ACLR and from the healthy contralateral knees in order to investigate if ACLR was able to restore physiologic knee biomechanics during squat execution. The hypotheses were that (1) the SBLP technique would allow a better restoration of internal-external (IE) knee rotation than would SB and (2) regardless of the technique, ACLR would not fully restore physiologic knee biomechanics.<h4>Study design</h4>Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2.<h4>Methods</h4>In total, 32 patients (42 knees) were included in the study. Patients were asked to perform a single-leg squat before surgery (ACL-injured group, n = 32; healthy contralateral group, n = 10) and at minimum 18-month follow-up after ACLR (SB group, n = 9; SBLP group, n = 18). Knee motion was determined using a validated model-based tracking process that matched patient-specific magnetic resonance imaging bone models to dynamic biplane radiographic images under the principles of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Data processing was performed using specific software. The authors compared IE and varus-valgus rotations and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral translations among the groups.<h4>Results</h4>The mean follow-up period was 21.7 ± 4.5 months. No kinematic differences were found between the SB and SBLP groups (<i>P</i> > .05). A more medial tibial position (<i>P</i> < .05) of the ACL-injured group was reported during the entire motor task and persisted after ACLR in both the SB and the SBLP groups. Differences in IE and varus-valgus rotations were found between the ACL-injured and healthy groups.<h4>Conclusion</h4>There were no relevant kinematic differences between SBLP and anatomic SB ACLR during the execution of a single-leg squat. Regardless of the surgical technique, ACLR failed in restoring knee biomechanics.<h4>Registration</h4>NCT02323386 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Favorable clinical results have been reported following high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) in knees with varus alignment. However, the effect on the preoperative neutral alignment of the knee is not known. This study sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of medial open-wedge HTO for MMPRT with neutral alignment.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively reviewed 119 medial open-wedge HTOs and analyzed 22 knees with MMPRT. The knees were divided according to the preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle into a moderate varus alignment group (≤4° of varus alignment) and a varus alignment group (> 4° of varus alignment). The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS-12) values were evaluated preoperatively and at the latest follow-up. The healing status of MMPRT at the time of second-look arthroscopy, performed at a mean of 15.4 ± 4.2 months, was compared with that after the primary HTO.<h4>Results</h4>There were 11 knees in the moderate varus alignment group and 11 in the varus alignment group. In terms of perioperative patient-reported outcome measures, there was no significant difference in the preoperative or postoperative KOOS subscale score or FJS-12 score between the moderate varus and varus alignment groups. The healing rate was significantly higher in the moderate varus alignment group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Favorable clinical results were obtained by medial open-wedge HTO in knees with MMPRT and moderate varus alignment in the short term. Surgeons should consider the indications for medial open-wedge HTO, even with moderate varus alignment, when planning treatment for MMPRT with persistent knee pain.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>IV.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency alters 6 degrees of freedom knee kinematics, yet only anterior translation and internal rotation have been the primary measures in previous studies.To compare the 6 degrees of freedom knee kinematics and the graft forces after single- and double-bundle ACL reconstructions under various external loading conditions.Controlled laboratory study.Ten human cadaveric knees were tested with a robotic testing system under 4 conditions: intact, ACL deficient, single-bundle reconstructed with a quadrupled hamstring tendon graft, and double-bundle reconstructed with 2 looped hamstring tendon grafts. Knee kinematics and forces of the ACL or ACL graft in each knee were measured under 3 loading conditions: an anterior tibial load of 134 N, a simulated quadriceps muscle load of 400 N, and combined tibial torques (10 N.m valgus and 5 N.m internal tibial torques) at 0 degrees , 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of knee flexion.The double-bundle reconstruction restored the anterior and medial laxities closer to the intact knee than the single-bundle reconstruction. However, the internal rotation of the tibia under the simulated quadriceps muscle load was significantly decreased when compared with the intact knee after both reconstructions, more so after double-bundle reconstruction (P < .05). The entire graft force of the double-bundle reconstruction was more similar to that of the intact ACL than that of the single-bundle reconstruction. However, the posterolateral bundle graft in the double-bundle reconstructed knee was overloaded as compared with the intact posterolateral bundle.The double-bundle reconstruction can better restore the normal anterior-posterior and medial-lateral laxities than the single-bundle reconstruction can, but an overloading of the posterolateral bundle graft can occur in a double-bundle reconstructed knee.Both single-bundle and double-bundle techniques cannot restore the rotational laxities and the ACL force distributions of the intact knee.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nearly three-quarters of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur as "noncontact" failures from routine athletic maneuvers. Recent in vitro studies revealed that repetitive strenuous submaximal knee loading known to especially strain the ACL can lead to its fatigue failure, often at the ACL femoral enthesis. HYPOTHESIS:ACL failure can be caused by accumulated tissue fatigue damage: specifically, chemical and structural evidence of this fatigue process will be found at the femoral enthesis of ACLs from tested cadaveric knees, as well as in ACL explants removed from patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:One knee from each of 7 pairs of adult cadaveric knees were repetitively loaded under 4 times-body weight simulated pivot landings known to strain the ACL submaximally while the contralateral, unloaded knee was used as a comparison. The chemical and structural changes associated with this repetitive loading were characterized at the ACL femoral enthesis at multiple hierarchical collagen levels by employing atomic force microscopy (AFM), AFM-infrared spectroscopy, molecular targeting with a fluorescently labeled collagen hybridizing peptide, and second harmonic imaging microscopy. Explants from ACL femoral entheses from the injured knee of 5 patients with noncontact ACL failure were also characterized via similar methods. RESULTS:AFM-infrared spectroscopy and collagen hybridizing peptide binding indicate that the characteristic molecular damage was an unraveling of the collagen molecular triple helix. AFM detected disruption of collagen fibrils in the forms of reduced topographical surface thickness and the induction of ~30- to 100-nm voids in the collagen fibril matrix for mechanically tested samples. Second harmonic imaging microscopy detected the induction of ~10- to 100-µm regions where the noncentrosymmetric structure of collagen had been disrupted. These mechanically induced changes, ranging from molecular to microscale disruption of normal collagen structure, represent a previously unreported aspect of tissue fatigue damage in noncontact ACL failure. Confirmatory evidence came from the explants of 5 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, which exhibited the same pattern of molecular, nanoscale, and microscale structural damage detected in the mechanically tested cadaveric samples. CONCLUSION:The authors found evidence of accumulated damage to collagen fibrils and fibers at the ACL femoral enthesis at the time of surgery for noncontact ACL failure. This tissue damage was similar to that found in donor knees subjected in vitro to repetitive 4 times-body weight impulsive 3-dimensional loading known to cause a fatigue failure of the ACL. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:These findings suggest that some ACL injuries may be due to an exacerbation of preexisting hierarchical tissue damage from activities known to place larger-than-normal loads on the ACL. Too rapid an increase in these activities could cause ACL tissue damage to accumulate across length scales, thereby affecting ACL structural integrity before it has time to repair. Prevention necessitates an understanding of how ACL loading magnitude and frequency are anabolic, neutral, or catabolic to the ligament.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are one of the most common knee pathologies sustained during athletic participation and are characterised by long convalescence periods and associated financial burden. Muscles have the ability to increase or decrease the mechanical loads on the ACL, and thus are viable targets for preventative interventions. However, the relationship between muscle forces and ACL loading has been investigated by many different studies, often with differing methods and conclusions. Subsequently, this review aimed to summarise the evidence of the relationship between muscle force and ACL loading. A range of studies were found that investigated muscle and ACL loading during controlled knee flexion, as well as a range of weightbearing tasks such as walking, lunging, sidestep cutting, landing and jumping. The quadriceps and the gastrocnemius were found to increase load on the ACL by inducing anterior shear forces at the tibia, particularly when the knee is extended. The hamstrings and soleus appeared to unload the ACL by generating posterior tibial shear force; however, for the hamstrings, this effect was contingent on the knee being flexed greater than ~ 20° to 30°. The gluteus medius was consistently shown to oppose the knee valgus moment (thus unloading the ACL) to a magnitude greater than any other muscle. Very little evidence was found for other muscle groups with respect to their contribution to the loading or unloading of the ACL. It is recommended that interventions aiming to reduce the risk of ACL injury consider specifically targeting the function of the hamstrings, soleus and gluteus medius.