Coliform bacteria and nitrogen fixation in pulp and paper mill effluent treatment systems.
ABSTRACT: The majority of pulp and paper mills now biotreat their combined effluents using activated sludge. On the assumption that their wood-based effluents have negligible fixed N, and that activated-sludge microorganisms will not fix significant N, these mills routinely spend large amounts adding ammonia or urea to their aeration tanks (bioreactors) to permit normal biomass growth. N(2) fixation in seven Eastern Canadian pulp and paper mill effluent treatment systems was analyzed using acetylene reduction assays, quantitative nitrogenase (nifH) gene probing, and bacterial isolations. In situ N(2) fixation was undetectable in all seven bioreactors but was present in six associated primary clarifiers. One primary clarifier was studied in greater detail. Approximately 50% of all culturable cells in the clarifier contained nifH, of which >90% were Klebsiella strains. All primary-clarifier coliform bacteria growing on MacConkey agar were identified as klebsiellas, and all those probed contained nifH. In contrast, analysis of 48 random coliform isolates from other mill water system locations showed that only 24 (50%) possessed the nifH gene, and only 13 (27%) showed inducible N(2)-fixing activity. Thus, all the pulp and paper mill primary clarifiers tested appeared to be sites of active N(2) fixation (0.87 to 4.90 mg of N liter(-1) day(-1)) and a microbial community strongly biased toward this activity. This may also explain why coliform bacteria, especially klebsiellas, are indigenous in pulp and paper mill water systems.
Project description:We evaluated the possible mechanisms by which exposures to pulp and paper mill effluents gene expression in the fathead minnow hypothalamus Keywords: Toxicology Overall design: Sexually mature fathead minnows were exposed to 100% pulp and paper mill effluents for 5 days. Tanks contained 4 females and 2 males. A total 4 tanks per effluents were used in this experiment. TM5, TM6, and KM4 represent different pulp and paper mill effluents from different mills coded for by FPInnovations-Paprican.
Project description:We evaluated the possible mechanisms by which exposures to pulp and paper mill effluents gene expression in the fathead minnow hypothalamus Keywords: Toxicology Sexually mature fathead minnows were exposed to 100% pulp and paper mill effluents for 5 days. Tanks contained 4 females and 2 males. A total 4 tanks per effluents were used in this experiment. TM5, TM6, and KM4 represent different pulp and paper mill effluents from different mills coded for by FPInnovations-Paprican.
Project description:Small-scale agro-based pulp and paper mills are characterized as highly polluting industries. These mills use Kraft pulping process for paper manufacturing due to which toxic lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Lack of infrastructure, technical manpower, and research and development facilities restricts these mills to recover these chemicals. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem, four bacteria were isolated from the premises of agro-based pulp and paper mill which were identified as species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pannonibacter, and Ochrobacterum. These bacteria were found capable of reducing COD up to 85%-86.5% in case of back water and 65-66% in case of back water?:?black liquor (60:40), respectively, after acclimatization under optimized conditions (pH 6.8, temperature 35°C, and shaking 200 rpm) when the wastewater was supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus as trace elements.
Project description:The Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) procedure was used to compare waste management options for kraft pulp mill sludge following its anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion of sludge is advantageous because it produces biogas that may be used to generate electricity, heat and biofuels. However, adequate management of the digested sludge is essential. Landfill disposal is a non-sustainable waste management alternative. Kraft pulp mill digested sludge applied to land may pose risks to the environment and public health if the sludge has not been properly treated. This study is aimed to compare several recycling alternatives for anaerobically digested sludge from kraft pulp mills: land application, landfill disposal, composting, incineration, pyrolysis/gasification, and biofuel production by algae. The MCDA procedure considered nine criteria into three domains to compare digested sludge recycling alternatives in a kraft pulp mill: environmental (CO2 emission, exposure to pathogens, risk of pollution, material and energy recovery), economic (overall costs, value of products) and technical (maintenance and operation, feasibility of implementation). The most suitable management options for digested sludge from kraft pulp mills were found to be composting and incineration (when the latter was coupled with recycling ash to the cement industry). Landfill disposal was the worst option, presenting low performance in feasibility of implementation, risk of pollution, material and energy recovery.
Project description:Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki endocrine system and the stream ecosystem are unknown. The objective of this study was to use gene expression analysis to determine if exposure to an androgen receptor agonist was occurring and to couple this analysis with in vitro assays to evaluate the presence of androgen and progesterone receptor active chemicals in the Fenholloway River. Focused gene expression analyses of masculinized G. holbrooki from downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill were indicative of androgen exposure, while genes related to reproduction indicated potential progesterone exposure. Hepatic microarray analysis revealed an increase in the expression of metabolic genes in Fenholloway River fish, with similarities in genes and biological processes compared to G. holbrooki exposed to androgens. Water samples collected downstream of the paper mill and at a reference site indicated that progesterone and androgen receptor active chemicals were present at both sites, which corroborates previous chemical analyses. Results indicate that G. holbrooki downstream of the Fenholloway River paper mill are impacted by a mixture of both androgens and progesterones. This research provides data on the mechanisms of how paper mill effluents in Florida are acting as endocrine disruptors.
Project description:Microbial communities play a vital role in maintaining soil health. A multiphasic approach to assess the effect of pulp and paper mill effluent on both the structure and function of microbial soil communities is taken. Bacterial communities from agricultural soils irrigated with pulp and paper mill effluent were compared to communities form soils irrigated with well water. Samples were taken from fields in the state of Uttarakhand, India, where pulp and paper mill effluent has been used for irrigation for over 25 years. Comparisons of bacterial community structure were conducted using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both isolates and clone libraries attained from the soil. Community-level physiological profiling was used to characterize the functional diversity and catabolic profile of the bacterial communities. The multiphasic approach using both physiological and molecular techniques proved to be a powerful tool in evaluating the soil bacterial community population and population differences therein. A significant and consistent difference in the population structure and function was found for the bacterial communities from soil irrigated with effluent in comparison to fields irrigated with well water. The diversity index parameters indicated that the microbial community in pulp and paper mill effluent irrigated fields were more diverse in both structure and function. This suggests that the pulp and paper mill effluent is not having a negative effect on the soil microbial community, but in fact may have a positive influence. In terms of soil health, this finding supports the continued use of pulp and paper mill effluent for irrigation. This is however only one aspect of soil health which was evaluated. Further studies on soil resistance and robustness could be undertaken to holistically evaluate soil health in this situation.
Project description:This study reports the degradation and decolourization capability of a manganese peroxidase enzyme producing bacterium isolated from pulp and paper mill wastewater. The isolate was identified as Bacillus aryabhattai based on biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strain was designated MG966493. This bacterium was able to reduce 67% and 54% colour and lignin, respectively, from the pulp and paper mill wastewater after 144 h of treatment at 32 °C, pH 7.6 and 120 rpm. Further, FT-IR analysis showed that during the lignin degradation process a number of metabolites were produced comprising different functional groups such as carbonyl (C=C), carboxyl (-COOH), alkene (C=C), amines (-NH2), sulphonic (-SO3) and nitro (-NO2). In addition, the SEM analysis showed that the bacterial cells exposed to pulp and paper mill wastewater have rough surfaces with reduced size as compared to the unexposed cells with smooth surfaces. This study concluded that the isolated bacterium B. aryabhattai has significant potential for the bioremediation of pulp and paper mill wastewater and thus, can be applied for their treatment at an industrial scale.
Project description:Controlling the size and rigidity of calcium carbonate became possible. HCCs were developed and manufactured by the in situ reaction of carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, which were already preflocculated together with GCC using ionic polymers before the reaction. HCC is deformable under pressure during the papermaking process, and its degree of rigidity can be controlled by adjusting the fraction of calcium oxide. The size of HCC can be further controlled by adjusting shearing force. The more the fraction of calcium oxide, the more rigid the HCC and the smaller the diameter of the HCC. When used in papermaking, HCC increased the tensile strength and bulk of paper simultaneously without lowering other essential paper properties, and its deformable nature under pressure improved paper smoothness. Saving chemical pulp by 10% by replacing it with HCC, which is 3–4 times less expensive than the chemical pulp, was demonstrated successfully without lowering the essential properties of paper. Implementation of HCC in the paper mill may result in saving chemical pulp, drying energy, and production cost. The paper mill may utilize the carbon dioxide from the mill stack after purification for HCC preparation.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion of biosludge has not yet been implemented in pulp mills due to low biogas yields. Enzymatic pretreatment of biosludge has shown improvements in biogas yields but results are varied. A key limitation of previous studies is that they fail to consider the COD contribution from the enzyme solutions. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the potential for enzymatic pretreatment on the anaerobic digestibility of pulp mill biosludge. Out of the six enzymes tested, four enhanced the anaerobic digestibility of biosludge. At the end of the BMP, a maximum improvement of 26% in biogas yield was observed with protease from B. licheniformis. There was no correlation between enzymatic activities on standard substrates and/or on biosludge and the effect of enzymes on biogas yields. Enzymes have potential for improving biosludge anaerobic digestibility but more research on optimal conditions and potential synergies with other pretreatment is needed.
Project description:In order to reduce the ecotoxicity of paper mill, four different enzymatic pretreatment strategies were investigated in comparison to conventional chemical based processes. In strategy I, xylanase-aided pretreatment of pulp was carried out, and in strategy II, xylanase and laccase-mediator systems were used sequentially. Moreover, to compare the efficiency of Bacillus stearothermophilus xylanase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora laccase in the reduction of ecotoxicity and pollution, parallel strategies (III and IV) were implemented using commercial enzymes. Conventional C(D)E(OP)D(1)D(2) (C(D), Cl(2) with ClO2; EOP, H2O2 extraction; D1 and D2, ClO2) and X/XLC(D)E(OP)D(1)D(2) (X, xylanase; L, laccase) sequences were employed with non-enzymatic and enzymatic strategies, respectively. Acute toxicity was determined by the extent of inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri with different dilutions of the effluent. Two-fold increase was observed in EC50 values for strategy I compared to the control process. On the other hand, sequential application of commercial enzymes resulted in higher acute toxicity compared to lab enzymes. In comparison to the control process, strategy II was the most efficient and successfully reduced 60.1 and 25.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and color of effluents, respectively. We report for the first time the comparative analysis of the ecotoxicity of industrial effluents.