Durability of concretes exposed to high concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2.
ABSTRACT: In cold regions, calcium and magnesium chloride deicing salts damage concrete pavements due to the formation of certain deleterious chemical phases, including calcium oxychloride. While there is much research at a cement paste-scale, damage in concrete has been less studied. In this study, we evaluate concrete damage due to calcium and magnesium chloride and explain the roles of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) replacement level, air entrainment, salt type, and exposure conditions in damage development. Various non-destructive test methods including bulk resistivity, mass change, and visual damage assessment were used to monitor the damage over time. Damage was reduced as the SCM replacement level and air content increased, regardless of exposure conditions. Bulk resistivity and visual assessment were promising indicators of damage. The product of 91-day bulk resistivity and the air content predicted concrete performance when exposed to concentrated deicing salts. Based on several criteria, mixtures with 20% fly ash replacement level or 35% slag mitigated damage significantly when the air content was greater than 5% by concrete volume. Damage mitigation mechanisms of SCM and air are discussed.
The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1617/s11527-022-01992-y.
Project description:The potassium (K) and sodium (Na) elements in banana are needed for hydration reaction that can enhance the strength properties of concrete. This research aims (a) to determine the material engineering properties of banana skin ash (BSA) and concrete containing BSA, (b) to measure the strength enhancement of concrete due to BSA, and (c) to identify optimal application of BSA as supplementary cement materials (SCM) in concrete. The BSA characterization were assessed through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Blaine's air permeability. The workability, compressive strength, and microstructures of concrete containing BSA were analysed using slump test, universal testing machine (UTM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A total of 15 oxides and 19 non-oxides elements were identified in BSA with K (43.1%) the highest and Na was not detected. At 20 g of mass, the BSA had a higher bulk density (198.43 ± 0.00 cm<sup>3</sup>) than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) (36.32 ± 0.00 cm<sup>3</sup>) indicating availability of large surface area for water absorption. The concrete workability was reduced with the presence of BSA (0% BSA: > 100 mm, 1% BSA: 19 ± 1.0 mm, 2%: 15 ± 0.0 mm, 3% BSA: 10 ± 0.0 mm). The compressive strength increased with the number of curing days. The concrete microstructures were improved; interfacial transition zones (ITZ) decreased with an increase of BSA. The optimal percentage of BSA obtained was at 1.25%. The established model showed significant model terms (Sum of Squares = 260.60, F value = 69.84) with probability of 0.01% for the F-value to occur due to noise. The established model is useful for application in construction industries.
Project description:This paper aims to demonstrate the self-protection and self-sensing functionalities of self-compacted concrete (SCC) containing carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon microfibers (CMF) in a hybrid system. The ability for self-sensing at room temperature and that of self-protection after thermal fatigue cycles is evaluated. A binder containing a high volume of supplementary mineral additions (30%BFSand20%FA) and different type of aggregates (basalt, limestone, and clinker) are used. The self-diagnosis is assessed measuring electrical resistivity (ER) and piezoresistivity (PZR) in compression mode within the elastic region of the concrete. Thermal fatigue is evaluated with mechanical and crack measurements after heat cycles (290-550 °C). SCC withstands high temperature cycles. The protective effect of the hybrid additive (CNT+CMF) notably diminishes damage by keepinghigher residual strength and lessmicrocracking of the concrete. Significant reductions in ER are detected. The self-diagnosis ability of functionalized SCC isconfirmed with PZR. A content of the hybrid functional additive (CNT+CMF) in the percolation region is recommended to maximize the self-sensing sensitivity. Other parameters as sample geometry, sensor location, power supply, and load level have less influence.
Project description:This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at -15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e., -15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention) and deicing (curing), which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.
Project description:Ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC) is the world's most consumed commodity after water. However, the production of cement is a major contributor to global anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. In recent years, ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) has emerged as a strong contender to replace OPC in diverse applications. UHPC has much higher mechanical strength, and thus less material is used in a structural member to resist the same load. Moreover, it has a much longer service life, reducing the long-term need for repair and replacement of aging civil infrastructure. Thus, UHPC can enhance the sustainability of cement and concrete. However, there is currently no robust tool to estimate the sustainability benefits of UHPC. This task is challenging considering that such benefits can only be captured over the long-term since variables, such as population growth and cement demand per capita, become more uncertain. In addition, the problem of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions from cement and concrete is a complex system affected by time-dependent feedback. The System Dynamics (SD) method has specifically been developed for modeling such complex systems. Accordingly, a SD model was developed in this study to test various pertinent policy scenarios. It is shown that UHPC can reduce cumulative CO<sub>2</sub> emissions of cement and concrete-over the studied simulation period-by more than 17%. If supplementary cementitious materials are further deployed in UHPC and new technologies permit reducing the carbon footprint per unit mass of cement, emission savings can become more substantial. The model offers a flexible framework where the user controls various inputs and can extend the model to account for new data, without the need for reconstruction of the entire model.
Project description:Although, the long-standing debate on the resistivity anomaly in ZrTe<sub>5</sub> somewhat comes to an end, the exact topological nature of the electronic band structure remains elusive till today. Theoretical calculations predicted that bulk ZrTe<sub>5</sub> to be either a weak or a strong three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator. However, the angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport measurements clearly demonstrate 3D Dirac cone state with a small mass gap between the valence band and conduction band in the bulk. From the magnetization and magneto-transport measurements on ZrTe<sub>5</sub> single crystal, we have detected both the signature of helical spin texture from topological surface state and chiral anomaly associated with the 3D Dirac cone state in the bulk. This implies that ZrTe<sub>5</sub> hosts a novel electronic phase of material, having massless Dirac fermionic excitation in its bulk gap state, unlike earlier reported 3D topological insulators. Apart from the band topology, it is also apparent from the resistivity and Hall measurements that the anomalous peak in the resistivity can be shifted to a much lower temperature (T?<?2?K) by controlling impurity and defects.
Project description:The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at -18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%-5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges.
Project description:One of the most important parameters concerning durability is undoubtedly represented by cement matrix resistance to chloride diffusion in environments where reinforced concrete structures are exposed to the corrosion risk induced by marine environment or de-icing salts. This paper deals with protection from chloride ingress by a silane-based surface-applied corrosion inhibitor. Results indicated that the corrosion inhibitor (CI) allows to reduce the penetration of chloride significantly compared to untreated specimens, independently of w/c, cement type, and dosage. Reduction of chloride diffusion coefficient (Dnssn) measured by an accelerated test in treated concrete was in the range 30-60%. Natural chloride diffusion test values indicate a sharp decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) equal to about 75% when concrete is protected by CI. Mechanism of action of CI in slowing down the chloride penetration inside the cement matrix is basically due to the water repellent effect as confirmed by data of concrete bulk electrical resistivity.
Project description:In concrete structures (concrete), damage from cracks, deterioration, amorphization, and delamination occur in some structures, causing disaggregation (concrete changed to very fine particles) and hollowing out of the concrete. In concrete pavements, damage from large amounts of pop-out of aggregate occurs from the surface of the concrete pavement 4-5 hours after spraying of snow melting agent on the surface of the pavement. The damage from disaggregation, blistering, cracks, and peeling-off of a surface course have also been observed in asphalt runways and highways. The damage from disaggregation, cracks and pop-out of aggregate in asphalt pavements and concrete structures have long been seen as strange and unexpected and have defied explanation. As a result of examinations in various experiments, it was concluded that all of the unexplained kinds of damage of both asphalt pavements and concrete structures were caused by Trace Quantities of Organic Matter (TQOM), Air Entrained (AE) water reducing agent in air and/or cement, and surfactant in snow melting agent. The emission sources of TQOM and these organic substances were also identified by chemical analysis for these unexpected and unexplained phenomena. The TQOM includes phthalate compounds (phthalates in the following), amine compounds, phosphate compounds, snow melting agent and Sodium Polyoxyethylene Nonyl phenyl Ether Sulfate (SPNES). SPNES is a surfactant in windshield washer fluid for automobiles. We found that the water content and content of organic matter in damaged asphalt pavements and concrete structures are also important indicators for the damage. Further, a new evaluation method for amorphization was proposed in this study and it appears suitable for evaluating the safety of concrete structures along roads which were exposed to TQOM in severely air-polluted environments.
Project description:Electrical measurements are promising for evaluation of frost damage of concrete, but the index is still controversial. In this paper, to propose an efficient index, various electrical characteristics were examined to correlate them with the mechanical property degradation of meso-scale mortar samples due to combined effects of sodium chloride and freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs). While the electrical responses of specimens were measured during FTCs, the mechanical properties were obtained from three-point bending tests after FTCs. Typical microstructural change after the damage was also analyzed by using a water absorption test. The results showed that no clear degradation tendency was observed for electrical resistivity at the lowest temperature, the activation energy or the freezing/thawing point change with the FTCs. The reduction in electrical resistivity at reference temperature has a consistent tendency with that of elastic modulus and flexural strength, thus can be an efficient index for quantitative frost damage evaluation. The change due to salt-frost damage is mainly due to the increase of connectivity rather than porosity.
Project description:Cathodic protection (CP) is being increasingly used on reinforced concrete structures to protect steel reinforcing bars from corrosion in aggressive conditions. Due to the complexity of environmental conditions, the design specifications in national and international standards are still open to discussion to achieve both sufficient and efficient protection for reinforced concrete structures in engineering practices. This paper reports an experimental research to investigate the influence of chloride content on concrete resistivity, rebar corrosion rate and the performance of CP operation using different current densities. It aims to understand the correlation between the chloride content and concrete resistivity together with the CP current requirement, and to investigate the precision of the CP design criteria in standards.