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Durability of concretes exposed to high concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2.


ABSTRACT: In cold regions, calcium and magnesium chloride deicing salts damage concrete pavements due to the formation of certain deleterious chemical phases, including calcium oxychloride. While there is much research at a cement paste-scale, damage in concrete has been less studied. In this study, we evaluate concrete damage due to calcium and magnesium chloride and explain the roles of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) replacement level, air entrainment, salt type, and exposure conditions in damage development. Various non-destructive test methods including bulk resistivity, mass change, and visual damage assessment were used to monitor the damage over time. Damage was reduced as the SCM replacement level and air content increased, regardless of exposure conditions. Bulk resistivity and visual assessment were promising indicators of damage. The product of 91-day bulk resistivity and the air content predicted concrete performance when exposed to concentrated deicing salts. Based on several criteria, mixtures with 20% fly ash replacement level or 35% slag mitigated damage significantly when the air content was greater than 5% by concrete volume. Damage mitigation mechanisms of SCM and air are discussed.

Supplementary information

The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1617/s11527-022-01992-y.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC9243803 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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