ObjectivesOccupational exposure to carcinogens is associated with trachea, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer. The objective of this study was to provide global and regional estimates of the burden of TBL cancer associated with occupational carcinogens (OCs) between 1990 and 2019.
MethodsAge-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rates (ASDR) of TBL cancer related to exposure to OCs at the global and regional levels were extracted for 1990-2019 from the Global Burden of Disease 2019. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends in the ASMR and ASDR of TBL cancer burden related to OCs, and the annual percent change and the average annual percent change (AAPC) were recorded.
ResultsThe mortality from TBL cancer related to exposure to OCs increased globally. The ASMR and ASDR decreased in both sexes and in men between 1990 and 2019. The AAPC of ASMR and ASDR decreased in men between 1990 and 2019, but increased in women. Asbestos accounted for the highest death number and beryllium accounted for the lowest; diesel engine exhaust caused the largest percentage change in death number (145.3%), in ASDR (14.9%), and in all ages DALY rates (57.6%). Asbestos accounted for the largest death number in high social development index (SDI) countries, whereas low-middle SDI countries had the largest percent change (321.4%). Asbestos was associated with decreased ASDR in high SDI countries and increased ASDR in low-middle SDI countries, and similar changes were observed for other OCs.
ConclusionsThe overall mortality and DALYs of TBL cancer burden related to OCs showed a decreasing trend between 1990 and 2019, whereas death number increased. Asbestos accounted for the highest death number. TBL cancer burden related to OCs decreased to different degrees in high, low, low-middle, and middle SDI countries, which showed variable levels of TBL cancer burden related to exposure to OCs (except asbestos).