Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Sequence Type 198 Isolated From Livestock In East Africa.
ABSTRACT: Since its emergence in the beginning of the 90's, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has become a significant public health problem, especially in East Africa. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile and the genotypic relatedness of Salmonella Kentucky isolated from animal sources in Ethiopia and Kenya (n=19). We also investigated population evolutionary dynamics through phylogenetic and pangenome analyses with additional publicly available Salmonella Kentucky ST198 genomes (n=229). All the 19 sequenced Salmonella Kentucky isolates were identified as ST198. Among these isolates, the predominant genotypic antimicrobial resistance profile observed in ten (59.7%) isolates included the aac(3)-Id, aadA7, strA-strB, blaTEM-1B, sul1, and tet(A) genes, which mediated resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin/spectinomycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline, respectively; and gyrA and parC mutations associated to ciprofloxacin resistance. Four isolates harbored plasmid types Incl1 and/or Col8282; two of them carried both plasmids. Salmonella Pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 to SPI-5) were highly conserved in the 19 sequenced Salmonella Kentucky isolates. Moreover, at least one Pathogenicity Island (SPI 1-4, SPI 9 or C63PI) was identified among the 229 public Salmonella Kentucky genomes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that almost all Salmonella Kentucky ST198 isolates (17/19) stemmed from a single strain that has accumulated ciprofloxacin resistance-mediating mutations. A total of 8,104 different genes were identified in a heterogenic and still open Salmonella Kentucky ST198 pangenome. Considering the virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes detected in Salmonella Kentucky, the implications of this pathogen to public health and the epidemiological drivers for its dissemination must be investigated.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky (S. Kentucky) sequence type 198 has emerged as a global zoonotic pathogen. We explored Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 samples from the broiler chicken supply chain and patients between 2010 and 2016. Here, we collected 180 S. Kentucky isolates from clinical cases and the poultry supply chain. We performed XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. We assessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions and screened for the presence of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). We determined that 63 (35.0%) of the 180 isolates were S. Kentucky ST198. Chinese strains of S. Kentucky ST198 have a high transmission of ciprofloxacin resistance (38/63, 60.3%) and a high risk of multidrug resistance. The quinolone resistance of the S. Kentucky ST198 strain found in China may be due to mutations in its quinolone resistance-determining region. Our study firstly revealed that ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky ST198 strains can undergo cross-host transmission, thereby causing a serious foodborne public health problem in China.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><i>Salmonella</i> Kentucky belongs to zoonotic serotypes that demonstrate that the high antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance (including fluoroquinolones) is an emerging problem. To the best of our knowledge, clinical <i>S.</i> Kentucky strains isolated in Poland remain undescribed.<h4>Methods</h4>Eighteen clinical <i>S.</i> Kentucky strains collected in the years 2018-2019 in Poland were investigated. All the strains were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials using the disc diffusion and E-test methods. Whole genome sequences were analysed for antimicrobial resistance genes, mutations, the presence and structure of SGI1-K (Salmonella Genomic Island and the genetic relationship of the isolates.<h4>Results</h4>Sixteen of 18 isolates (88.9%) were assigned as ST198 and were found to be high-level resistant to ampicillin (>256 mg/L) and quinolones (nalidixic acid MIC ≥ 1024 mg/L, ciprofloxacin MIC range 6-16 mg/L). All the 16 strains revealed three mutations in QRDR of GyrA and ParC. The substitutions of Ser83 → Phe and Asp87 → Tyr of the GyrA subunit and Ser80→Ile of the ParC subunit were the most common. One <i>S.</i> Kentucky isolate had <i>qnrS1</i> in addition to the QRDR mutations. Five of the ST198 strains, grouped in cluster A, had multiple resistant determinants like <i>bla</i>TEM1-B, <i>aac(6')-Iaa</i>, <i>sul1</i> or <i>tetA</i>, mostly in SGI1 K. Seven strains, grouped in cluster B, had shorter SGI1-K with deletions of many regions and with few resistance genes detected.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results of this study demonstrated that a significant part of <i>S.</i> Kentucky isolates from humans in Poland belonged to ST198 and were high-level resistant to ampicillin and quinolones.
Project description:Salmonella has been known as the most important foodborne pathogen, which can infect humans via consuming contaminated food. Chicken meat has been known as an important vehicle to transmit Salmonella by the food supply chain. This study determined the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic characteristics of Salmonella at different chicken slaughtering stages in East China. In total, 114 out of 200 (57%) samples were Salmonella positive, while Salmonella contamination was gradually increasing from the scalding and unhairing stage (17.5%) to the subdividing stage (70%) throughout the slaughtering. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was then performed to analyze the serotype, antimicrobial resistance gene profiles, and genetic relationship of all Salmonella isolates. The most common serotypes were S. Kentucky (51/114, 44.7%) and S. Enteritidis (37/114, 32.5%), which were distributed throughout the four slaughtering stages, and were also identified in the corresponding environments. The multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed that seven sequence types (STs) were occupied by six different serotypes, respectively. Only S. Kentucky had two STs, ST314 was the predominant ST shared by 50 isolates, while the ST198 has 1 isolate. The antimicrobial resistance gene analysis demonstrated that most of the strains belonging to S. Kentucky (39/51, 76.5%) and S. Indiana (15, 100%) contained over five groups of antimicrobial resistance genes. Based on the core genome analysis, 50 S. Kentucky isolates were genetically identical, indicating that one S. Kentucky strain with the same genetic background was prevalent in the chicken slaughtering line. Although 37 S. Enteritidis isolates only had three different antimicrobial resistance gene profiles, the core genome sequence analysis subtyped these S. Enteritidis isolates into five different clusters, which revealed the diverse genetic background of S. Enteritidis in the slaughterhouse. The antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were consistent with the presence of the corresponding resistance genes of S. Kentucky and S. Enteritidis, including tetA, floR, blaTEM-1B, strA/B, sul1/sul2, and gyrA (D87Y). Our study observed a high prevalence of Salmonella in the chicken slaughter line and identified the slaughtering environment as a main source of causing Salmonella cross-contamination during chicken slaughtering. Further studies will be needed to limit the transmission of Salmonella in the slaughterhouse.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gastrointestinal infections are a global public health problem. In Burkina Faso, West Africa, exposure to Salmonella through the consumption of unhygienic street food represents a major risk of infection requiring detailed evaluation.<h4>Methods</h4>Between June 2017 and July 2018, we sampled 201 street food stalls, in 11 geographic sectors of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. We checked for Salmonella contamination in 201 sandwiches (one per seller), according to the ISO 6579:2002 standard. All Salmonella isolates were characterized by serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and whole-genome sequencing was performed on a subset of isolates, to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and antimicrobial resistance determinants.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of Salmonella enterica was 17.9% (36/201) and the Salmonella isolates belonged to 16 different serotypes, the most frequent being Kentucky, Derby and Tennessee, with five isolates each. Six Salmonella isolates from serotypes Brancaster and Kentucky were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Whole-genome sequencing revealed that four of these MDR isolates belonged to the emergent S. enterica serotype Kentucky clone ST198-X1 and to an invasive lineage of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis (West African clade).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study reveals a high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in sandwiches sold in Ouagadougou. The presence of MDR Salmonella in food on sale detected in this study is also matter of concern.
Project description:Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a 43-kb integrative mobilizable element that harbors a great diversity of multidrug resistance gene clusters described in numerous Salmonella enterica serovars and also in Proteus mirabilis. The majority of SGI1 variants contain an In104-derivative complex class 1 integron inserted between resolvase gene res and open reading frame (ORF) S044 in SGI1. Recently, the international spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 (ST198) containing SGI1-K variants has been reported. A retrospective study was undertaken to characterize ST198 S. Kentucky strains isolated before the spread of the epidemic ST198-SGI1-K population in Africa and the Middle East. Here, we characterized 12 ST198 S. Kentucky strains isolated between 1969 and 1999, mainly from humans returning from Southeast Asia (n = 10 strains) or Israel (n = 1 strain) or from meat in Egypt (n = 1 strain). All these ST198 S. Kentucky strains did not belong to the XbaI pulsotype X1 associated with the African epidemic clone but to pulsotype X2. SGI1-J subgroup variants containing different complex integrons with a partial transposition module and inserted within ORF S023 of SGI1 were detected in six strains. The SGI1-J4 variant containing a partially deleted class 1 integron and thus showing a narrow resistance phenotype to sulfonamides was identified in two epidemiologically unrelated strains from Indonesia. The four remaining strains harbored a novel SGI1-J variant, named SGI1-J6, which contained aadA2, floR2, tetR(G)-tetA(G), and sul1 resistance genes within its complex integron. Moreover, in all these S. Kentucky isolates, a novel insertion sequence related to the IS630 family and named ISSen5 was found inserted upstream of the SGI1 complex integron in ORF S023. Thus, two subpopulations of S. Kentucky ST198 independently and exclusively acquired the SGI1 during the 1980s and 1990s. Unlike the ST198-X1 African epidemic subpopulation, the ST198-X2 subpopulation mainly from Asia harbors variants of the SGI1-J subgroup that are encountered mainly in the Far East, as previously described for S. enterica serovars Emek and Virchow.
Project description:A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n = 27), covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin resistance in serovar Kentucky ST198 is thus currently mainly due to multiple target gene mutations.
Project description:Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. The study was undertaken to determine the isolation rate, serovar prevalence, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, and molecular subtypes of NTS from a hospital-based diarrheal disease surveillance in Kolkata, India. Rectal swabs were collected from children (<?5 years of age) with acute gastroenteritis from 2000 to 2016. Samples were processed following standard procedures for identification of NTS. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, AMR genes, plasmid profiles, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtypes. A total of 99 (1.0%) Salmonella isolates were recovered from 9957 samples processed. Of the 17 Salmonella serovars identified, S. Worthington (33%) was predominant followed by S. Enteritidis (13%), S. Typhimurium (12%), and others. The isolates showed high resistance towards nalidixic acid (43%), ampicillin (34%), third-generation cephalosporins (32%), and azithromycin (25%), while low resistance was observed for fluoroquinolones (2%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production (bla<sub>CTX-M-15</sub> and bla<sub>SHV-12</sub> genes) and azithromycin resistance (mphA gene) were common in S. Worthington, while fluoroquinolone resistance (gyrA and parC mutations) was found in S. Kentucky. Diverse plasmid profiles were observed among the isolates. PFGE analysis identified genetically related strains of each serovar in circulation. MLST also revealed phylogenetically clonal isolates of which S. Worthington ST592 and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky ST198 were not reported earlier from India. NTS resistant to current drugs of choice poses a potential public health problem. Continuous monitoring of AMR profiles and molecular subtypes of NTS serovars is recommended for controlling the spread of resistant organisms.
Project description:<i>Salmonella enterica</i> serotype Kentucky is frequently associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and has gained epidemiological importance globally. A retrospective screening was performed to understand the national prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant <i>S</i> Kentucky in China. <i>S. enterica</i> strains (<i>n </i>=<i> </i>15,405) were collected within the frame of two national surveillance networks between 2013 and 2017. Thirty-three <i>S.</i> Kentucky strains were detected in 5 of 10 provinces, and 27 were assigned to sequence type 198 (ST198). The 27 isolates were multidrug resistant, with high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin, and 21 isolates were further resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Phylogenomic analysis classified ST198 isolates into two clades (198.1 and 198.2), and recent occurrences of inter-/intraregion and interhost transmission were identified. Phylogenetic reconstruction with a global collection showed that one subclade of clade 198.2 was clustered with historical strains from Egypt, and the other one was clustered with strains from Southeast Asia. Isolates of clade 198.1 were clustered with strains isolated from North America. The various patterns of mutations detected in quinolone resistance-determining regions of GyrA and ParC are accordant with the phylogenetic structure. These findings indicate that our isolates may have various origins. SGI1 was exclusively detected in isolates of clade 198.2 with a highly mosaic structure, which were mainly identified as SGI1-K derivatives. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes <i>qnrS1</i> and <i>aac(6')-Ib-cr</i> were identified in three isolates, and <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-9</sub> and <i>bla</i> <sub>CTX-M-27</sub> were detected in 20 of 21 ESC-resistant isolates. This is the first report of the genetic and epidemiological characterization for the <i>S</i> Kentucky epidemic clone ST198 in China, warranting the necessity of surveillance for the high-risk clone.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Ciprofloxacin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins are the choice for treatment of severe nontyphoidal <i>S. enterica</i> infections in adults. <i>S. enterica</i> serotype Kentucky ST198 has gained epidemiological importance globally, because the clone is frequently resistant to both of these high-level-resistance drug groups. The genetic and epidemiological characterization of <i>S.</i> Kentucky has been well studied in Western countries; however, the information is unclear for China. To fill in the gap, we here did a retrospective screening on a large collection in China, and ST198 isolates were systematically analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. Our study revealed that multidrug-resistant ST198 has spread in five provinces, and the occurrences of interregion and cross-host clonal disseminations were detected. Of note, phylogenomic analysis suggests that the Chinese isolates may have emerged with diverse origins, including Egypt, Southeast Asia, and North America. This study warrants the necessity of surveillance for the high-risk clone to prevent its further dissemination in China.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health concern, and resistance genes in <i>Salmonella</i>, especially those located on mobile genetic elements, are part of the problem. This study used phenotypic and genomic methods to identify antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes, as well as the plasmids that bear them, in <i>Salmonella</i> isolates obtained from poultry in Nigeria. Seventy-four isolates were tested for susceptibility to eleven commonly used antimicrobials. Plasmid reconstruction and identification of resistance and virulence genes were performed with a draft genome using in silico approaches in parallel with plasmid extraction. Phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin (50.0%), gentamicin (48.6%), nalidixic acid (79.7%), sulphonamides (71.6%) and tetracycline (59.5%) was the most observed. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) detected in genomes corresponded well with these observations. Commonly observed ARGs included <i>sul1</i>, <i>sul2</i>, <i>sul3</i>, <i>tet (A)</i>, <i>tet (M)</i>, <i>qnrS1</i>, <i>qnrB19</i> and a variety of aminoglycoside-modifying genes, in addition to point mutations in the <i>gyrA</i> and <i>parC</i> genes. Multiple ARGs were predicted to be located on IncN and IncQ1 plasmids of <i>S.</i> Schwarzengrund and <i>S.</i> Muenster, and most <i>qnrB19</i> genes were carried by Col (pHAD28) plasmids. Seventy-two percent (19/24) of <i>S.</i> Kentucky strains carried multidrug ARGs located in two distinct variants of <i>Salmonella</i> genomic island I. The majority of strains carried full SPI-1 and SPI-2 islands, suggesting full virulence potential<b>.</b>
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is frequently isolated from healthy poultry and dairy cows and is occasionally isolated from people with clinical disease. A genomic analysis of 119 isolates collected in the United States from dairy cows, ground beef, poultry and poultry products, and human clinical cases was conducted. Results of the analysis demonstrated that the majority of poultry and bovine-associated S. Kentucky were sequence type (ST) 152. Several bovine-associated (n = 3) and food product isolates (n = 3) collected from the United States and the majority of human clinical isolates were ST198, a sequence type that is frequently isolated from poultry and occasionally from human clinical cases in Northern Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that both STs are more closely related to other Salmonella serovars than they are to each other. Additionally, there was strong evidence of an evolutionary divergence between the poultry-associated and bovine-associated ST152 isolates that was due to polymorphisms in four core genome genes. The ST198 isolates recovered from dairy farms in the United States were phylogenetically distinct from those collected from human clinical cases with 66 core genome SNPs differentiating the two groups, but more isolates are needed to determine the significance of this distinction. Identification of S. Kentucky ST198 from dairy animals in the United States suggests that the presence of this pathogen should be monitored in food-producing animals.