Phylogeographical Pattern and Population Evolution History of Indigenous Elymus sibiricus L. on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
ABSTRACT: Elymus sibiricus L. is a perennial allotetraploid belonging to Triticeae of Poaceae, Elymus L., as the type species of genus Elymus L. The existing geographical distribution pattern and genetic spatial structure of E. sibiricus on Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP) are not yet clear. In this study, population genetic structure and demography history of 216 individuals from 44 E. sibiricus populations on QTP were studied used specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The result of genetic diversity showed that there was no single genetic diversity center was observed across all E. sibiricus populations. The results of genetic variation showed that 44 populations were clearly divided into the following three groups: Qinghai Plateau (Group I), South Tibet (Group II), and Hengduan Mountains (Group III). From the three analyses of AMOVA, Mantel test and Treemix, strong genetic differentiation across all populations and low genetic differentiation among populations within three groups. Molecular dating indicated that E. sibiricus diverged at 16.08 Ma (during the early Miocene) can be linked to the Himalayan Motion stage of QTP uplift. It is speculated that the reasons affecting the current phylogeographical pattern are as follows: (1) The environmental changes due to the uplift of the QTP; (2) The geographic distance between the populations (Groups I and III are close in geographic distance, and gene flow are frequent); (3) Geographical barriers (the Tanggula and Bayangela Mountains between Groups I and II). This study provides new evidence and historical perspective to the future exploration of the evolution and geographic distribution pattern of Elymus L.
Project description:Geographic barriers and Quaternary climate changes are two major forces driving the evolution, speciation, and genetic structuring of extant organisms. In this study, we used Pinus armandii and eleven other Asian white pines (subsection Strobus, subgenus Pinus) to explore the influences of geographic factors and Pleistocene climatic oscillations on species in South China, a region known to be centers of plant endemism and biodiversity hotspots. Range-wide patterns of genetic variation were investigated using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA markers, with extensive sampling throughout the entire range of P. armandii. Both cpDNA and mtDNA revealed that P. armandii exhibits high levels of genetic diversity and significant population differentiation. Three geographically distinct subdivisions corresponding to the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM), Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and Yungui Plateau (YGP) were revealed in mainland China by cpDNA. Their break zone was located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). A series of massive mountains, induced by the QTP uplift, imposed significant geographic barriers to genetic exchange. The disjunct distribution patterns of ancestral haplotypes suggest that a large continuous population of the white pines may have existed from southwest to subtropical China. Repeated range shifts in response to the Pleistocene glaciations led to the isolation and diversification of the subtropical species. The two Taiwanese white pines share a common ancestor with the species in mainland China and obtain their chloroplasts via long-distance pollen dispersal from North Asian pines. Distinct genetic patterns were detected in populations from the Qinling-Daba Mountains, Yungui Plateau, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, and subtropical China, indicating significant contributions of geographic factors to the genetic differentiation in white pines. Our study depicts a clear picture of the evolutionary history of Chinese white pines and highlights the heterogeneous contributions of geography and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations to the extremely high plant species diversity and endemism in South China.
Project description:Aim:The evolutionary process of an organism provides valuable data toward an understanding of the Earth evolution history. To investigate the relationship between the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and mammalian evolution since the late Cenozoic, the geographic distribution of genetic variations in the Tibetan hamster Cricetulus kamensis was investigated using phylogeographical methods. In particular, population divergence, demographic history, genetic variation, and the prediction of species distribution area were investigated. Location:The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Methods:A total of 53 specimens, representing 13 geographic populations, were collected from the QTP. The phylogeographical pattern and demographic history of C. kamensis were analyzed, and the probable factors in the QTP uplift and the Quaternary glacial periods were inferred from one nuclear and four mitochondrial genes. Furthermore, the species distribution model (SDM) was used to predict changes in potentially suitable habitats since the last Interglacial. Results:Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that two major genetic differentiations of the C. kamensis population occurred during the Early Pleistocene that were influenced by the Qing-Zang tectonic movement from the Middle Pliocene to the Early Pleistocene. Genetic distance between two major clades indicated low genetic divergence. Demographic history analysis showed that the C. kamensis population was affected by the Quaternary glacial period. SDM analysis indicated that C. kamensis was endemic to the QTP and the suitable habitat was affected by climate change, especially during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Main conclusion:Our results indicated that the QTP uplift led to the population divergence of C. kamensis, and vicariance well accounted for the geographic distribution of genetic variation in C. kamensis as a result of genetic divergence and lack of gene flow. The genetic distance shows that C. alticola may be a subspecies of C. kamensis. Demographic history analysis suggests that the QTP was affected by the last glacial period. SDM analysis supports that almost the entire QTP is covered by a huge ice sheet during the LGM.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Siberian wildrye (Elymus sibiricus L.) attracts considerable interest for grassland establishment and pasture recovery in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) due to its excellence in strong stress tolerance, high nutritional value and ease to cultivate. However, the lack of genomic information of E. sibiricus hampers its genetics study and breeding process.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we performed a genome survey and developed a set of SSR markers for E. sibiricus based on Next-generation sequencing (NGS). We generated 469.17 Gb clean sequence which is 58.64× of the 6.86 Gb estimated genome size. We assembled a draft genome of 4.34 Gb which has 73.23% repetitive elements, a heterozygosity ratio of 0.01% and GC content of 45.68%. Based on the gnomic sequences we identified 67,833 SSR loci and from which four hundred were randomly selected to develop markers. Finally, 30 markers exhibited polymorphism between accessions and ten were identified as single-locus SSR. These newly developed markers along with previously reported 30 ones were applied to analyze genetic polymorphism among 27 wild E. sibiricus accessions. We found that single-locus SSRs are superior to multi-loci SSRs in effectiveness.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study provided insights into further whole genome sequencing of E. sibiricus in strategy selection. The novel developed SSR markers will facilitate genetics study and breeding for Elymus species.
Project description:A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification-that orogeny creates conditions favoring rapid in situ speciation of resident lineages. We tested this hypothesis in the context of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjoining mountain ranges, using the phylogenetic and geographic histories of multiple groups of plants to infer the tempo (rate) and mode (colonization versus in situ diversification) of biotic assembly through time and across regions. We focused on the Hengduan Mountains region, which in comparison with the QTP and Himalayas was uplifted more recently (since the late Miocene) and is smaller in area and richer in species. Time-calibrated phylogenetic analyses show that about 8 million y ago the rate of in situ diversification increased in the Hengduan Mountains, significantly exceeding that in the geologically older QTP and Himalayas. By contrast, in the QTP and Himalayas during the same period the rate of in situ diversification remained relatively flat, with colonization dominating lineage accumulation. The Hengduan Mountains flora was thus assembled disproportionately by recent in situ diversification, temporally congruent with independent estimates of orogeny. This study shows quantitative evidence for uplift-driven diversification in this region, and more generally, tests the hypothesis by comparing the rate and mode of biotic assembly jointly across time and space. It thus complements the more prevalent method of examining endemic radiations individually and could be used as a template to augment such studies in other biodiversity hotspots.
Project description:High-altitude mountains are often geographic barriers to gene flow and play important roles in shaping population divergence. The central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) stands the location of the Tanggula Mountains (TM). We use the TM as a case, using Carex moorcroftii, a dominant species on the QTP to test the effects of geographic barriers on plant population divergence. We sampled 18?C. moorcroftii populations along a north-south transect crossing the TM to investigate the correlations of genetic variation and morphological traits with climate variables. The results showed this species holds high genetic diversity (He?=?0.58) and the surveyed populations can be genetically clustered into two groups: populations from the north face of TM, and the other from the south. Gene flow between populations within groups is higher than those between groups. The traits, number and mass of seeds, mass of root and infructescence significantly varied among populations. Mantel-tests detected a weak but significantly positive correlation between genetic and geographic (R2?=?0.107, p?=?0.032) and climatic distance (R2?=?0.162, p?=?0.005), indicating both isolation by distance and isolation by environment. These findings together suggest high-altitude mountains of TM interrupt habitat continuity, result in distinct climatic conditions on both sides, increasing population divergence of plant species.
Project description:E. sibiricus L., the type species of the genus Elymus, is a perennial, self-pollinating and allotetraploid grass indigenous to Northern Asia, which in some countries can be cultivated as an important forage grass. In the present study, eighty-six Elymus sibiricus accessions, mostly from different parts of Asia, were assayed by gliadin markers based on Acid Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. The genetic similarity matrix was calculated by 47 polymorphic bands, which ranged from 0.108 to 0.952 with an average of 0.373. The total Shannon diversity index (H(o)) and the Simpson index (H(e)) was 0.460 and 0.302, respectively. Cluster analysis showed a clear demarcation between accessions from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China and the others as separate groups. The clustering pattern was probably dependent on geographic origin and ecological adaptability of the accessions. The population structure analysis based on Shannon indices showed that the proportion of variance within and among the five geographic regions of the Northern Hemisphere was 55.9 and 44.1%, respectively, or 63.4 and 36.6% within and among six Chinese provinces. This distinct geographical divergence was perhaps depended on ecogeographical conditions such as climate difference and mountain distribution. The results of gladin analysis in this study are useful for the collection and preservation of E. sibiricus germplasm resources.
Project description:The uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) had a profound impact on the plant speciation rate and genetic diversity. High genetic diversity ensures that species can survive and adapt in the face of geographical and environmental changes. The Tanggula Mountains, located in the central of the QTP, have unique geographical significance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Tanggula Mountains as a geographical barrier on plant genetic diversity and structure by using Lancea tibetica. A total of 456 individuals from 31 populations were analyzed using eight pairs of microsatellite makers. The total number of alleles was 55 and the number per locus ranged from 3 to 11 with an average of 6.875. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.2693 to 0.7761 with an average of 0.4378 indicating that the eight microsatellite makers were efficient for distinguishing genotypes. Furthermore, the observed heterozygosity (Ho), the expected heterozygosity (He), and the Shannon information index (I) were 0.5277, 0.4949, and 0.9394, respectively, which indicated a high level of genetic diversity. We detected high genetic differentiation among all sampling sites and restricted gene flow among populations. Bayesian-based cluster analysis (STRUCTURE), principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) cluster analysis based on microsatellite markers grouped the populations into two clusters: the southern branch and the northern branch. The analysis also detected genetic barriers and restricted gene flow between the two groups separated by the Tanggula Mountains. This study indicates that the geographical isolation of the Tanggula Mountains restricted the genetic connection and the distinct niches on the two sides of the mountains increased the intraspecific divergence of the plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Geological events and climatic changes played important roles in shaping population differentiation and distribution within species. In China, populations in many species have contracted and expanded responding to environmental changes with the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and glacial cycles during Pleistocene. In this study, we analysed the population structure of Godlewski's Bunting, Emberiza godlewskii, to determine the effects of major historical events, geographic barriers and past climatic changes on phylogenetic divergence and historical demographic dynamics of this species. RESULTS:A phylogeny based on concatenated mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets show two (northern and southern) clades approximately diverged 3.26 million years ago (Ma). The West Qinling Mountains serve as a dividing line between the two lineages. Both lineages experienced a recent demographic expansion during interglacial periods (marine isotope stages (MISs) 2-6). Bayesian skyline plots and the results of ecological niche modelling suggested a more intensive expansion of the northern lineage during the late Pleistocene, whereas the southern lineage was comparatively mild in population growth. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide insights into the distribution patterns of avian taxa and the possible mechanisms for a south and north divergence model in China. The deep divergence may have been shaped by the uplift of the QTP. Habitat preferences might have facilitated the lineage divergence for E. godlewskii. Moreover, the West Qinling Mountains act as a dividing line between the two lineages, indicating a novel phylogeographic pattern of organisms in China. The difference in population expansion mode between two lineages resulted from different effects caused by the climate of the LGM and the subsequent habitat changes accompanying the arrival of a colder climate in northern and southern regions of China.
Project description:Elymus nutans and Elymus sibiricus are two important perennial forage grasses of the genus Elymus, widely distributed in high altitude regions of Western and Northern China, especially on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Information on phenotypic and genetic diversity is limited, but necessary for Elymus germplasm collection, conservation, and utilization. In the present study, the phenotypic and genetic differentiation of 73 accessions of the two species were evaluated using 15 phenotypic traits and 40 expressed sequence tag derived simple sequence repeat markers (EST-SSRs). The results showed that only 7.23% phenotypic differentiation (Pst) existed between the two Elymus species based on fifteen quantitative traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that leaf traits, spike traits, and some seed traits were dominant factors in phenotypic variation. Moreover, 396 (97.8%) and 331 (87.1%) polymorphic bands were generated from 40 EST-SSR primers, suggesting high levels of genetic diversity for the two species. The highest genetic diversity was found in the Northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau groups. Clustering analysis based on molecular data showed that most accessions of each Elymus species tended to group together. Similar results were described by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and structure analysis. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) revealed that 81.47% and 89.32% variation existed within the geographical groups for the two species, respectively. Pearson's correlation analyses showed a strong positive correlation between Nei's genetic diversity and annual mean temperature. These results could facilitate Elymus germplasm collection, conservation, and future breeding.
Project description:The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) represents one of the earth's most significant physical features and there is increasing interest in the historical generation of biodiversity within this region. We hypothesized that there should be clear geographically coherent genetic structuring within one of the world's highest altitude lizards, Phrynocephalus theobaldi, due to considerable historical population fragmentation in this environment. This was tested using a major mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) survey and sequencing of two nuclear markers (AME and RAG-1) from P. theobaldi, from across the southern QTP. A Bayesian method (BPEC) was used to detect four geographically structured mtDNA clusters. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree, together with associated dating analyses, supported four corresponding evolutionary lineages with a timing of 3.74-7.03?Ma for the most basal P. theobaldi split and Pliocene splits of 2.97-5.79?Ma and 2.40-5.39?Ma in the two daughter lineages. Himalayan uplift and changes in the Jilong basin may have contributed to these divergences, but uplift of the Gangdese mountains is rejected due to its timing. The nuclear markers appeared to be sorted between the four mtDNA groups, and species delimitation analyses supported the four phylogeographical groups as candidate species. The study contributes to our understanding of biodiversity on the QTP.