ANGPTL4 Regulates Psoriasis via Modulating Hyperproliferation and Inflammation of Keratinocytes.
ABSTRACT: Background: Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and massive inflammatory leukocytes infiltration, affecting 0.14%-1.99% of the world's population. Our aim was to identify novel potential therapeutic strategies for psoriasis. Methods: Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify gene modules that were closely related to psoriasis based on the GSE30999 dataset, which contained expression data from 85 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Then, angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), one of the most related hub genes, was selected for in vitro and in vivo functional assays. In our experiments, imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mice and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells were used to study the potential roles and mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in psoriasis. Results: WGCNA analysis revealed the turquoise module was most correlated with psoriasis, and ANGPTL4 is one of the most related hub genes that significantly upregulated in psoriasis lesions compared with non-lesional skin. Consistent with the bioinformatic analysis, the expression of ANGPTL4 was significantly upregulated in IMQ-induced psoriasiform skin of mice. Exogenous recombinant ANGPLT4 protein treatment could promote the proliferation and induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in HaCaTs, whereas silencing of ANGPTL4 effectively inhibited these effects. Then we demonstrated that recombinant ANGPTL4 protein exacerbated psoriasiform inflammation and epidermal hyperproliferation in vivo. Mechanismly, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways were involved in ANGPTL4-mediated regulation of proliferation and inflammation. Conclusion: We found ANGPTL4 was significantly increased in IMQ-induced psoriasiform skin of mice. ANGPTL4 could promote keratinocyte proliferation and inflammatory response via ERK1/2 and STAT3 dependent signaling pathways in psoriasis.
Project description:Glycerol is used in many skin care products because it improves skin function. Anecdotal reports by patients on the National Psoriasis Foundation website also suggest that glycerol may be helpful for the treatment of psoriasis, although to date no experimental data confirm this idea. Glycerol entry into epidermal keratinocytes is facilitated by aquaglyceroporins like aquaporin-3 (AQP3), and its conversion to phosphatidylglycerol, a lipid messenger that promotes keratinocyte differentiation, requires the lipid-metabolizing enzyme phospholipase-D2 (PLD2). To evaluate whether glycerol inhibits inflammation and psoriasiform lesion development in the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse model of psoriasis, glycerol's effect on psoriasiform skin lesions was determined in IMQ-treated wild-type and PLD2 knockout mice, with glycerol provided either in drinking water or applied topically. Psoriasis area and severity index, ear thickness and ear biopsy weight, epidermal thickness, and inflammatory markers were quantified. Topical and oral glycerol ameliorated psoriasiform lesion development in wild-type mice. Topical glycerol appeared to act as an emollient to induce beneficial effects, since even in PLD2 knockout mice topical glycerol application improved skin lesions. In contrast, the beneficial effects of oral glycerol required PLD2, with no improvement in psoriasiform lesions observed in PLD2 knockout mice. Our findings suggest that the ability of oral glycerol to improve psoriasiform lesions requires its PLD2-mediated conversion to phosphatidylglycerol, consistent with our previous report that phosphatidylglycerol itself improves psoriasiform lesions in this model. Our data also support anecdotal evidence that glycerol can ameliorate psoriasis symptoms and therefore might be a useful therapy alone or in conjunction with other treatments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Keratinocytes of psoriasis have anti-apoptotic properties including delayed apoptosis process, accelerated proliferation metabolism and postponed differentiation process. However, the specific mechanism leading to the abnormal biological behavior of keratinocytes remains unclear.<h4>Objectives</h4>We investigated the role of increased RPL22 expression in regulating the abnormal biological behavior of keratinocytes and the mechanism of regulation of RPL22 expression in skin lesions of psoriatic patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined clinical samples and utilized cytokine-induced cell and IMQ-treated mouse models. We determined the expression and functions of RPL22 <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>.<h4>Results</h4>We showed that RPL22 expression was significantly increased in the skin lesions of psoriasis patients and IMQ-treated psoriatic-like mice. Such increased expression is attributed to hyperacetylation of histone H3K27 in the promoter region of RPL22. Interestingly, overexpression of RPL22 enhanced keratinocyte proliferation by increasing cyclinD1 expression and accelerated CD4<sup>+</sup>T cells recruitment <i>via</i> upregulating CXCL10 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that RPL22 overexpression promoted psoriasiform phenotypes in IMQ-induced mouse skins.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggested that RPL22 regulates keratinocytes abnormal biological behavior and contributes to the development of psoriatic phenotypes. Thus, RPL22 might be a novel potential molecular target for treatment of psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is complex and has not been fully understood. C10orf99 was a recently identified human antimicrobial peptide whose mRNA expression is elevated in psoriatic human skin samples. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of C10orf99 in epidermal proliferation under inflammatory condition. We showed that C10orf99 protein was significantly up-regulated in psoriatic skin samples from patients and the ortholog gene expression levels were up-regulated in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in mice. Using M5-stimulated HaCaT cell line model of inflammation and a combinational approach of knockdown and overexpression of C10orf99, we demonstrated that C10orf99 could promote keratinocyte proliferation by facilitating the G1/S transition, and the pro-proliferation effect of C10orf99 was associated with the activation of the ERK1/2 and NF-?B but not the AKT pathways. Local depletion of C10orf99 by lentiviral vectors expressing C10orf99 shRNA effectively ameliorated IMQ-induced dermatitis. Taken together, these results indicate that C10orf99 plays a contributive role in psoriasis pathogenesis and may serve as a new target for psoriasis treatment.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Psoriasis is a common cutaneous disease with multiple characteristics including inflammation and aberrant keratinocyte proliferation. However, the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not completely clear yet. The objective of this study is to perform an in-depth analysis of the association between SPRR and LCE in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we explore the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in psoriasis by analyzing different gene expression profiles obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The DEGs were examined using gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interactions (PPI) network. Correlation analysis in R studio software was used to analyze the association between SPRR and LCE genes. Further, potential direct protein-protein interactions between SPRR proteins and LCE3D were verified by co-localization observations and co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assays in 293T cells. Also, the expression levels of SPRR and LCE genes were detected in lesional skin of the IMQ-induced psoriasiform dermatitis mice using RT-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>Interestingly, the small proline-rich (SPRR) and late cornified envelope (LCE) genes were identified as a module in the constructed PPI network. And the analysis of the gene expression profile GSE63684 showed that both SPRR family and LCE family genes were significantly upregulated in imiquimod (IMQ) induced psoriasiform dermatitis mice. Also, the correlation analysis in R studio software recognized the association of SPRR and LCE genes, which were further verified by co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assays in 293T cells, and the results show that the direct interactions between SPRR2 and LCE3D. Notably, we also found that the expression levels of SPRR and LCE genes were significantly increased in the IMQ-induced psoriasiform dermatitis mice, while specifically decreased under the tazarotene cream treatment, indicating that the SPRR and LCEs were regulated simultaneously in psoriasis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In summary, our study found that interactions between SPRR proteins and LCE proteins may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
Project description:IL-36 cytokines, a subgroup of IL-1 family, comprise IL-36?, IL-36?, and IL-36? agonists, abundantly expressed in psoriatic skin, and IL-36RA and IL-38 antagonists. In psoriatic skin, IL-36 cytokines interfere with keratinocyte cornification programs and induce the release of antimicrobial peptides and chemokines active on neutrophils and Th17 lymphocytes. To date, the role of IL-38 antagonist in psoriasis remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that skin and circulating IL-38 levels are reduced in psoriatic patients and in other skin diseases characterized by neutrophilic infiltrate. In psoriasis, the balance of IL-36? agonist/IL-38 antagonist serum levels is in favor of agonists and is closely associated with disease severity. Interestingly, IL-38 is upregulated by anti-IL-17A biological treatment and positively correlates with the therapeutic efficacy of secukinumab in psoriatic patients. The downregulation of IL-38 expression is strictly related to keratinocyte de-differentiation triggered by the inflammatory cytokines IL-36?, IL-17, and IL-22. Finally, we demonstrate that administration of recombinant full-length IL-38 counteracts in vitro the biological processes induced by IL-36? in human keratinocytes and endothelial cells and attenuates in vivo the severity of the psoriasiform phenotype induced by IMQ in mice. Such effects are achieved by restoring the physiological programs of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and reducing the immune cell infiltrates.
Project description:While psoriasis is known as a T cell- and dendritic cell-driven skin inflammation disease, macrophages are also reported to play some roles in its development. However, the signaling pathway of activated macrophages contributing to psoriasis is not entirely understood. Thus, we aimed to explore the possible mechanisms of how macrophages initiate and sustain psoriasis. The differentiated THP1 cells, stimulated by imiquimod (IMQ), were utilized as the activated macrophage model. IMQ was also employed to produce psoriasis-like lesions in mice. A transcriptomic assay of macrophages revealed that the expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators and GDAP1L1 were largely increased after an IMQ intervention. The depletion of GDAP1L1 by short hairpin (sh)RNA could inhibit cytokine release by macrophages. GDAP1L1 modulated cytokine production by activating the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. Besides GDAP1L1, another mitochondrial fission factor, Drp1, translocated from the cytosol to mitochondria after IMQ stimulation, followed by the mitochondrial fragmentation according to the immunofluorescence imaging. Clodronate liposomes were injected into the mice to deplete native macrophages for examining the latter's capacity on IMQ-induced inflammation. The THP1 cells, with or without GDAP1L1 silencing, were then transplanted into the mice to monitor the deposition of macrophages. We found a significant THP1 accumulation in the skin and lymph nodes. The silencing of GDAP1L1 in IMQ-treated animals reduced the psoriasiform severity score from 8 to 2. After depleting GDAP1L1, the THP1 recruitment in the lymph nodes was decreased by 3-fold. The skin histology showed that the GDAP1L1-mediated macrophage activation induced neutrophil chemotaxis and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. Thus, mitochondrial fission can be a target for fighting against psoriatic inflammation.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)/LPAR5 signaling has been reported to be involved in both NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages and keratinocyte activation to produce inflammatory cytokines, contributing to psoriasis pathogenesis. However, the effect and molecular mechanisms of LPA/LPAR signaling in keratinocyte proliferation in psoriasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of LPAR1/3 inhibition on imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice. Treatment with the LPAR1/3 antagonist, ki16425, alleviated skin symptoms in IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse models and decreased keratinocyte proliferation in the lesion. It also decreased LPA-induced cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via increased cyclin A2, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, and CDK4 expression and decreased p27<sup>Kip1</sup> expression in HaCaT cells. LPAR1 knockdown in HaCaT cells reduced LPA-induced proliferation, suppressed cyclin A2 and CDK2 expression, and restored p27<sup>Kip1</sup> expression. LPA increased Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) expression and PI3K/AKT activation; moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of ROCK2 and PI3K/AKT signaling suppressed LPA-induced cell cycle progression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that LPAR1/3 antagonist alleviates IMQ-induced psoriasis-like symptoms in mice, and in particular, LPAR1 signaling is involved in cell cycle progression via ROCK2/PI3K/AKT pathways in keratinocytes.
Project description:Psoriasis, a long-lasting and multifactorial skin disease, is related to comorbidities such as metabolic disease, depression, and psoriatic arthritis. Psoriasis occurs due to a variety of factors including keratinocyte hyperproliferation, inflammation, and abnormal differentiation. Proinflammatory cytokines upregulated by increased activation of keratinocytes and immune cells in the skin trigger progression of psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of anoctamin1 (ANO1) on psoriasis development in vitro and in vivo. We analyzed the proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes and ANO1-related ERK and AKT signaling pathways after ANO1 inhibitor (T16Ainh-A01 and Ani9) treatment and knock-down of <i>ANO1</i>. Furthermore, after applying imiquimod (IMQ) cream or coapplying IMQ cream and T16Ainh-A01 on mouse ears, we not only observed psoriatic symptoms, including ear thickening, but also quantified the effects of treatment on ERK and AKT signaling-involved proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of ANO1 attenuated the proliferation of HaCaT cells and induced reduction of pERK1/2. Coapplication of IMQ and T16Ainh-A01 on ears of mice reduced not only symptoms of IMQ-induced psoriasis such as thickening and erythema, but also expression of ANO1 and pERK1/2 compared to that of application of IMQ alone. In addition, the expression levels of <i>IL-17A</i>, <i>IL-17F</i>, <i>IL-22</i>, <i>IL-23</i>, <i>IL-6</i>, <i>IL-1β</i>, and <i>TNF-α</i> increased after applying IMQ and were significantly reduced by coapplying IMQ and T16Ainh-A01. These results aid in understanding the underlying mechanisms of ANO1 in epidermal layer keratinocyte hyperproliferation and suggest the potential of ANO1 as a target to treat psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease involving both environmental and genetic factors. According to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the TNIP1 gene, which encodes the TNF-?-induced protein 3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1), is strongly linked to the susceptibility of psoriasis. TNIP1 is a widely expressed ubiquitin sensor that binds to the ubiquitin-editing protein A20 and restricts TNF- and TLR-induced signals. In our study, TNIP1 expression decreased in specimens of epidermis affected by psoriasis. Based on previous studies suggesting a role for TNIP1 in modulating cancer cell growth, we investigated its role in keratinocyte proliferation, which is clearly abnormal in psoriasis. To mimic the downregulation or upregulation of TNIP1 in HaCaT cells and primary human keratinocytes (PHKs), we used a TNIP1 specific small interfering hairpin RNA (TNIP1 shRNA) lentiviral vector or a recombinant TNIP1 (rTNIP1) lentiviral vector, respectively. Blocking TNIP1 expression increased keratinocyte proliferation, while overexpression of TNIP1 decreased keratinocyte proliferation. Furthermore, we showed that TNIP1 signaling might involve extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) activity. Intradermal injection of TNIP1 shRNA in BALB/c mice led to exaggerated psoriatic conditions in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis. These findings indicate that TNIP1 has a protective role in psoriasis and therefore could be a promising therapeutic target.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 2-3% of the global population, and there is still no known possibility of a cure. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), an endogenous lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoid mediator, has potent dual pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory properties. BML-111 (5(S)-6(R)-7-trihydroxyheptanoic acid methyl ester), a lipoxin receptor agonist, has been previously confirmed to be equivalent to LXA4 in the anti-inflammatory processes. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) serves as an inflammatory cytokine when secreted extracellularly in psoriatic lesions and is involved in the development of psoriasis. Therefore, we investigated the effects of LXA4 and BML-111 on the HMGB1 signaling cascade and inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced keratinocytes and imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mice. In the present study, we found that treatment with BML-111 attenuated the development of IMQ-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. Furthermore, treatment with BML-111 and LXA4 inhibited HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm and downregulated the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), p-ERK1/2, nuclear NF-?B p65, and proinflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro. Our findings indicate that LXA4 and its analog may be potential therapeutic candidates for psoriasis because of their ability to modulate the translocation and expression of HMGB1.