Differences in Antioxidant Potential of Allium cepa Husk of Red, Yellow, and White Varieties.
ABSTRACT: The effective management of agro-industry organic waste for developing high-commercial-value products is a promising facet of the circular economy. Annually, more than 550,000 tons of waste that is potentially rich in biologically active substances is generated worldwide while processing onions (Allium cepa L.). The antioxidant potential of red, yellow, and white onion husks was studied using FRAP, ORAC, chemiluminescence, and UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS analysis methods. The extraction of phenolic compounds from onion husks was more effective when using an aqueous solution of 70% ethanol as compared with water. Ethanolic extract from red onion husks exhibited the highest TACORAC and TACFRAP values, averaging 2017.34 µmol-equiv. Trolox/g raw material and 2050.23 µmol-equiv. DQ/g raw material, respectively, while the white onion exhibited much lower levels of antioxidants. According to the chemiluminescence results, it was determined that the red and yellow onion husks contained antioxidants of three types of power, while white onion husks only contained medium and weak types. The highest content of flavonoids was found in red onion husks, averaging 1915.90 ± 9.92 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material and 321.42 ± 2.61 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material for ethanol and water, respectively, while yellow onion husks exhibited 544.06 ± 2.73 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material and 89.41 ± 2.08 for ethanol and water, respectively. Quercetin and its glycosides were the most representative flavonoids, and a number of substances with different pharmacological and biological properties were also identified.
Project description:The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and ?-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors.
Project description:Onions are one of the most widely grown vegetable crops. As production increases, so does the generation of waste from various parts of the onion, raising the need for efficient ecological disposal and use of such waste products. However, onion waste products are a rich source of antioxidants with a range of biological properties, therefore, they could potentially be used in food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, we identified the main flavonols and anthocyanins in peel extracts of <i>Allium × cornutum</i> Clement ex Visiani, 1842, and two varieties of <i>Allium cepa</i> L. and tested their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties. Quercetin 3,4'-diglucolside, quercetin 4'-monoglucoside and quercetin are the most abundant flavonols in all onion extracts detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The composition of anthocyanins varied in all extracts. 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays showed that the triploid onion <i>A. × cornutum</i> had the highest antioxidant power. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity by broth microdilution assay also showed that <i>A. × cornutum</i> had higher antimicrobial activity compared to the red and yellow onion varieties. Comparable antiproliferative activity was confirmed for all onion extracts tested on three cancer cell lines: Hela (cervical cancer cell line), HCT116 (human colon cancer cell line) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma cell line). The most abundant onion flavonols (quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin 4'-monoglucoside) showed weaker antimicrobial as well as antiproliferative properties compared to the extracts, leading to the conclusion that other phytochemicals besides flavonols contribute to the biological activity of onion peel extracts. The results demonstrate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of onion peels, which have promising potential as cancer cell proliferation inhibitors.
Project description:Anthocyanins, the pigmented flavonoids responsible for red and blue colors in horticultural products, promote human health by preventing cancers and lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease. Red onions contain several cyanidin- and peonidin-based anthocyanins. In this study, we constructed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic linkage map in an F2 segregating population derived from a cross between the inbred line 'SP3B' (yellow bulb) and the doubled haploid line 'H6' (red bulb) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for total anthocyanin content of onion bulbs using a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis based on a reference gene set. A total of 101.9 Gbp of raw sequences were generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 system and a total of 1625 SNP loci were identified with the criteria of three minimum depths, lower than 30% missing rate, and more than 5% minor allele frequency. As a result, an onion genetic linkage map consisting of 319 GBS-based SNP loci and 34 high-resolution melting (HRM) markers was constructed with eight linkage groups and a total genetic distance of 881.4 cM. In addition, the linkage groups were assigned to corresponding chromosomes by comparison with the reference genetic map OH1×5225 through marker development based on common transcripts. The analysis revealed one major QTL, qAS7.1, for anthocyanin synthesis and two significant QTLs, qAC4.1 and qAC4.2, for anthocyanin content. The QTL qAS7.1, located on chromosome 7 with a phenotypic variation of 87.61%, may be a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene that determines whether the bulb color is red or yellow. The QTLs qAC4.1 and qAC4.2 are separately positioned on chromosome 4 with R2 values of 19.43% and 26.28%, respectively. This map and QTL information will contribute to marker development and breeding for high anthocyanin content in bulb onion.
Project description:Food waste is a serious problem for food processing industries, especially when it represents a loss of a valuable source of nutrients and phytochemicals. Increasing consumer demand for processed food poses the problem of minimizing waste by conversion into useful products. In this regard, onion (<i>Allium cepa</i>) waste consisting mainly of onion skin is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds. Here, we characterized the flavonoid profiles and biological activities of onion skin wastes of two traditional varieties with protected geographical indication (PGI), the red "Rossa di Tropea" and the coppery "Ramata di Montoro", typically cultivated in a niche area in southern Italy. The phytochemical profiles of exhaustive extracts, characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet (UV) detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry, revealed that flavonols and anthocyanins were the characteristic metabolite classes of onion skins. Quercetin, quercetin glucosides and their dimer and trimer derivatives, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside, were the most abundant bioactive compounds. The potential of onion skins was evaluated by testing several biological activities: ABTS/oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in vitro alpha-glucosidase assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties of the extracts and of their main compounds, respectively, and proliferative activity was evaluated by MTT assay on human fibroblasts. In the present study, by observing various biological properties of "Rossa di Tropea" and "Ramata di Montoro" onion-dried skins, we clearly indicated that this agricultural waste can provide bioactive molecules for multiple applications, from industrial to nutraceutical and cosmetical sectors.
Project description:Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.
Project description:Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) are experiencing growing interest as substitutes of polluting organic solvents for their low or absent toxicity and volatility. Moreover, they can be formed with natural bioavailable and biodegradable molecules; they are synthesized in absence of hazardous solvents. DESs are, inter alia, successfully used for the extraction/preconcentration of biofunctional molecules from complex vegetal matrices. Onion skin is a highly abundant waste material which represents a reservoir of molecules endowed with valuable biological properties such as quercetin and its glycosylated forms. An efficient extraction of these molecules from dry onion skin from "Dorata di Parma" cultivar was obtained with water dilution of acid-based DESs. Glycolic acid (with betaine 2/1 molar ratio and L-Proline 3/1 molar ratio as counterparts) and of <i>p</i>-toluensulphonic acid (with benzyltrimethylammonium methanesulfonate 1/1 molar ratio)-based DESs exhibited more than 3-fold higher extraction efficiency than methanol (14.79 µg/mL, 18.56 µg/mL, 14.83 µg/mL vs. 5.84 µg/mL, respectively). The extracted quercetin was also recovered efficaciously (81% of recovery) from the original extraction mixture. The proposed extraction protocol revealed to be green, efficacious and selective for the extraction of quercetin from onion skin and it could be useful for the development of other extraction procedures from other biological matrixes.
Project description:High-quality silicon (Si) nanocrystals that simultaneously had superior mesoporous and luminescent characteristics were derived from sticky, red, and brown rice husks via the facile and cost-effective magnesiothermic reduction method. The Si nanocrystals were confirmed to comprise an aggregated morphology with spherical nanocrystals (e.g., average sizes of 15-50 nm). Due to the surface functional groups formed at the nanocrystalline Si surfaces, the Si nanocrystals clearly exhibited multiple luminescence peaks in visible-wavelength regions (i.e., blue, green, and yellow light). Among the synthesized Si nanocrystals, additionally, the brown rice husk (BRH)-derived Si nanocrystals showed to have a strong UV absorption and a high porosity (i.e., large specific surface area: 265.6 m<sup>2</sup>/g, small average pore diameter: 1.91 nm, and large total pore volume: 0.5389 cm<sup>3</sup>/g). These are indicative of the excellent optical and textural characteristics of the BRH-derived Si nanocrystals, compared to previously reported biomass-derived Si nanocrystals. The results suggest that the biomass BRH-derived Si nanocrystals hold great potential as an active source material for optoelectronic devices as well as a highly efficient catalyst or photocatalyst for energy conversion devices.
Project description:Lou onion (Allium fistulosum L. var. viviparum) is an abundant source of flavonols which provides additional health benefits to diseases. Genome-wide specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing method is a rapidly developed deep sequencing technologies used for selection and identification of genetic loci or markers. This study aimed to elucidate the genetic diversity of 122 onion accessions in China using the SLAF-seq method. A set of 122 onion accessions including 107 A.fistulosum L. var. viviparum Makino, 3 A.fistulosum L. var. gigantum Makino, 3 A.mongolicum Regel and 9 A.cepa L. accessions (3 whites, 3 reds and 3 yellows) from different regions in China were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from young leaves and prepared for the SLAF-seq, which generated a total of 1,387.55 M reads and 162,321 high quality SNPs (integrity >0.5 and MAF >0.05). These SNPs were used for the construction of neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, in which 10 A.fistulosum L. var. viviparum Makino accessions from Yinchuan (Ningxia province) and Datong (Qinghai province) had close genetic relationship. The 3 A.cepa L. clusters (red, white and yellow) had close genetic relationship especially with the 97 A.fistulosum L. var. viviparum Makino accessions. Population structure analysis suggested entire population could be clustered into 3 groups, while principal component analysis (PCA) showed there were 4 genetic groups. We confirmed the SLAF-seq approach was effective in genetic diversity analysis in red onion accessions. The key findings would provide a reference to the Lou onion germplasm in China.
Project description:<i>Allium cepa</i> L. is one of the most abundant vegetable crops worldwide. In addition to its versatile culinary uses, onion also exhibits quite interesting medicinal uses. Bulbs have a high content of bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. This study intends to develop and optimize two appropriate ultrasound-assisted methods for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in red onion. A response surface methodology was employed and, specifically, a Box-Behnken design, for the optimization of the methods. The optimal conditions for the extraction of the phenolic compounds were the follows: 53% MeOH as solvent, pH 2.6, 60 °C temperature, 30.1% amplitude, 0.43 s cycle, and 0.2:11 g sample/mL solvent ratio. On the other hand, the optimal conditions for the anthocyanins were as follows: 57% MeOH as solvent, pH 2, 60 °C temperature, 90% amplitude, 0.64 s cycle, and 0.2:15 g sample/mL solvent ratio. Both methods presented high repeatability and intermediate precision, as well as short extraction times with good recovery yields. These results illustrate that the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction, when properly optimized, is suitable for the extraction and quantification of the compounds of interest to determine and improve the quality of the raw material and its subproducts for consumers.
Project description:We present data on absorption spectra (400-540 nm) and concentration of phenolic compounds quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutin, catechin, epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), in yellow, red and white onions. These data are related to the article entitled "Variability in spectrophotometric pyruvate analyses for predicting onion pungency and nutraceutical value" (Beretta et al., 2017) . Given the relevance of pyruvate determinations for estimating onion pungency and functional value, it is important to identify compounds that can interfere with pyruvate determinations when using two previously published analytical procedures, namely Schwimmer and Weston (1961) (SW)  and Anthon and Barret (2002) (AB) , which are based on spectrophotometry and light-absorbance at 420 nm and 515 nm, respectively. The data presented in this article are absorption spectra for 7 onion phenolic compounds in the range 400-540 nm, which include wavelengths used by the two pyruvate analytical methods (Schwimmer and Weston, 1961; Anthon and Barret, 2002) [2,3] that were compared in our reference article (Beretta et al., 2017) . Additionally, bulb content data for these 7 phenolic compounds in onion cultivars and F2 progenies with different bulb color were included to allow further analyses.