Cloning and characterization of a tetracycline resistance determinant present in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58.
ABSTRACT: Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 and its derivatives give rise to spontaneous mutants resistant to tetracycline at a high frequency. We observed that a mutation affecting a tRNA processing function significantly affected the emergence of such mutants, suggesting that C58 contained a positively acting gene conferring resistance to tetracycline. A cosmid clone conferring resistance to tetracycline in Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium was isolated from a genomic bank of one such mutant. Subcloning, transposon mutagenesis, and DNA sequence analysis revealed that this DNA fragment contained two divergently transcribed genes, tetA and tetR, encoding products that were very similar to proteins of the Tet(A) class of tetracycline resistance systems. In the clone from this mutant, tetR was disrupted by an IS426. The homologous region from wild-type NT1 contained an intact tetR gene and did not confer resistance to tetracycline. Hybridization analysis showed that of 22 members of the genus Agrobacterium surveyed, only strains C58 and T37 contained the tet determinant. Moreover, only these two strains mutated to resistance to this antibiotic. Unlike other Tet(A) systems, neither tetracycline nor a series of its derivatives induced the expression of this tet gene unit. Other polycyclic compounds, including many of plant origin, also did not induce this tet gene system. The divergent promoter region of this tet system contained a single inverted repeat element identical to one such operator repeat in the promoter region of the tet determinant from the IncP1alpha R plasmid RP4. TetR repressor proteins from the Agrobacterium tet system and from RP4 interacted with the heterologous operators. While the repressive effect of the TetR protein from strain C58 (TetRC58) on the tetA gene from strain RP4 (tetARP4) was not relieved by tetracycline, repression of tetAC58 by TetRRP4 was lifted by this antibiotic.
Project description:Resistances to tetracycline and mercury were identified in an environmental strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from a stream highly contaminated with heavy metals. As a step toward addressing the mechanisms of coselection of heavy metal and antibiotic resistances, the tetracycline resistance determinant was cloned in Escherichia coli. Within the cloned 13-kb segment, the tetracycline resistance locus was localized by deletion analysis and transposon mutagenesis. DNA sequence analysis of an 8.0-kb region revealed a novel gene [tetA(41)] that was predicted to encode a tetracycline efflux pump. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the TetA(41) protein was most closely related to the Tet(39) efflux protein of Acinetobacter spp. yet had less than 80% amino acid identity with known tetracycline efflux pumps. Adjacent to the tetA(41) gene was a divergently transcribed gene [tetR(41)] predicted to encode a tetracycline-responsive repressor protein. The tetA(41)-tetR(41) intergenic region contained putative operators for TetR(41) binding. The tetA(41) and tetR(41) promoters were analyzed using lacZ fusions, which showed that the expression of both the tetA(41) and tetR(41) genes exhibited TetR(41)-dependent regulation by subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline. The apparent lack of plasmids in this S. marcescens strain, as well as the presence of metabolic genes adjacent to the tetracycline resistance locus, suggested that the genes were located on the S. marcescens chromosome and may have been acquired by transduction. The cloned Tet 41 determinant did not confer mercury resistance to E. coli, confirming that Tet 41 is a tetracycline-specific efflux pump rather than a multidrug transporter.
Project description:Bacterial resistance mechanisms must cope with transient fast-changing conditions. These systems are often repressed in the absence of the drug, and it is unclear how their regulation can provide a quick response when challenged. Here, we focus on the tet operon, which provides resistance to tetracycline through efflux pump TetA. We show that, somewhat counterintuitively, prompt expression of the TetA repressor TetR is key for cellular survival upon abrupt drug exposure. Tracking individual cells upon exposure, we find that differences in the rate of TetR elevation result in three distinct cell fates: recovery (high rate), death due to excess TetA (intermediate rate), and death from the drug (low rate). A surge of TetR expression optimizes the response by allowing sensitive detection of both the initial rise and the later decline of intracellular drug, avoiding an undesirable overshoot in TetA expression. These results show how regulatory circuits of resistance genes have evolved for optimized dynamics.
Project description:Tet 42, a novel tetracycline resistance determinant from deep subsurface bacteria, was characterized and found to have a 30% sequence similarity to TetA(Z). The protein is a putative efflux pump that shares characteristics with previously characterized pumps, including a divergently transcribed TetR repressor, a conserved GxxSDRxGRR motif, and transmembrane domains.
Project description:Recently, Tet Q, a tetracycline resistance determinant that confers resistance by a ribosome protection mechanism, was described and added to the two previously described classes, Tet M and Tet O. The first representative of this class, tetA(Q)1, was isolated from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DOT. We report the sequencing of a gene isolated from B. fragilis 1126 which also confers tetracycline resistance. Because of its high degree of identity (97%) with the tetA(Q)1 gene, we defined it as tetA(Q)2. MIC studies revealed that tetA(Q)2 provides a low level of resistance to tetracycline when cloned into Escherichia coli. The extensive homology between tetA(Q)1 and tetA(Q)2 supports the idea of a recent horizontal transfer of tet(Q) genes among Bacteroides spp.
Project description:<i>Burkholderia ubonensis</i>, a nonpathogenic soil bacterium belonging to the <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> complex (Bcc), is highly resistant to some clinically significant antibiotics. The concern is that <i>B. ubonensis</i> may serve as a resistance reservoir for Bcc or <i>B. pseudomallei</i> complex (Bpc) organisms that are opportunistic human pathogens. Using a <i>B. ubonensis</i> strain highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC, ≥256 µg/ml), we identified and characterized <i>tetA</i>(64) that encodes a novel tetracycline-specific efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily. TetA(64) and associated TetR(64) regulator expression are induced by tetracyclines. Although TetA(64) is the primary tetracycline and doxycycline resistance determinant, maximum tetracycline and doxycycline resistance requires synergy between TetA(64) and the nonspecific AmrAB-OprA resistance nodulation cell division efflux pump. TetA(64) does not efflux minocycline, tigecycline, and eravacycline. Comprehensive screening of genome sequences showed that TetA(64) is unequally distributed in the Bcc and absent from the Bpc. It is present in some major cystic fibrosis pathogens, like <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i>, but absent from others like <i>Burkholderia multivorans</i> The <i>tetR</i>(64)-<i>tetA</i>(64) genes are located in a region of chromosome 1 that is highly conserved in <i>Burkholderia</i> sp. Because there is no evidence for transposition, the <i>tetR</i>(64)-<i>tetA</i>(64) genes may have been acquired by homologous recombination after horizontal gene transfer. Although <i>Burkholderia</i> species contain a resident multicomponent efflux pump that allows them to respond to tetracyclines up to a certain concentration, the acquisition of the single-component TetA(64) by some species likely provides the synergy that these bacteria need to defend against high tetracycline concentrations in niche environments.
Project description:The bacterium Clostridium saccharolyticum K10, isolated from a fecal sample obtained from a healthy donor who had received long-term tetracycline therapy, was found to carry three tetracycline resistance genes: tet(W) and the mosaic tet(O/32/O), both conferring ribosome protection-type resistance, and a novel, closely linked efflux-type resistance gene designated tet(40). tet(40) encodes a predicted membrane-associated protein with 42% amino acid identity to tetA(P). Tetracycline did not accumulate in Escherichia coli cells expressing the Tet(40) efflux protein, and resistance to tetracycline was reduced when cells were incubated with an efflux pump inhibitor. E. coli cells carrying tet(40) had a 50% inhibitory concentration of tetracycline of 60 microg/ml. Analysis of a transconjugant from a mating between donor strain C. saccharolyticum K10 and the recipient human gut commensal bacterium Roseburia inulinivorans suggested that tet(O/32/O) and tet(40) were cotransferred on a mobile element. Sequence analysis of a 37-kb insert identified on the basis of tetracycline resistance from a metagenomic fosmid library again revealed a tandem arrangement of tet(O/32/O) and tet(40), flanked by regions with homology to parts of the VanG operon previously identified in Enterococcus faecalis. At least 10 of the metagenomic inserts that carried tet(O/32/O) also carried tet(40), suggesting that tet(40), although previously undetected, may be an abundant efflux gene.
Project description:Transcription and replication both influence and are influenced by superhelical changes in DNA. Explaining how supercoil movement is channeled in living chromosomes has been a major problem for 30 years. Transcription of membrane-associated proteins leads to localized hypersupercoiling of plasmid DNA, and this behavior indicates the presence of aberrant supercoil diffusion. Using the lambda Red recombination system, we constructed model domains in the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome to analyze supercoiling dynamics of regions encoding membrane proteins. Regulation of Tn10-derived tetracycline resistance involves a repressor, TetR, and a membrane-bound export pump, TetA. Strains deficient in TetR activity had 60-fold higher transcription levels (from P(A)) than TetR-positive strains. High tetA transcription caused a 10- to 80-fold decrease in the gammadelta resolution efficiency for the domain that includes the Tet module. Replacing tetA with genes encoding cytosolic proteins LacZ and Kan also caused the appearance of supercoil diffusion barriers in a defined region of the chromosome. In strains containing a functional TetR located next to a regulated lacZ reporter (P(R)tetR-P(A)lacZ), induction of transcription with chlortetracycline caused a 5-fold drop in resolution efficiency in the test domain interval. A short half-life resolvase showed that barriers appeared and disappeared over a 10- to 20-min span. These studies demonstrate the importance of transcription in chromosome structure and the plasticity of supercoil domains in bacterial chromosomes.
Project description:Fifty-four epidemiologically unrelated multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates, collected between 1992 and 2000 in Italy, were analyzed for the presence of integrons. Strains were also tested for Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), carrying antibiotic resistance genes in DT104 strains. A complete SGI1 was found in the majority of the DT104 strains. Two DT104 strains, showing resistance to streptomycin-spectinomycin and sulfonamides, carried a partially deleted SGI1 lacking the flo(st), tetR, and tetA genes, conferring chloramphenicol-florfenicol and tetracycline resistance, and the integron harboring the pse-1 gene cassette, conferring ampicillin resistance. The presence of SGI1 was also observed in serovar Typhimurium strains belonging to other phage types, suggesting either the potential mobility of this genomic island or changes in the phage-related phenotype of DT104 strains.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>In the programming of tumor-targeting bacteria, various therapeutic or reporter genes are expressed by different gene-triggering strategies. Previously, we engineered pJL87 plasmid with an inducible bacterial drug delivery system that simultaneously co-expressed two genes for therapy and imaging by a bidirectional tet promoter system only in response to the administration of exogenous doxycycline (Doxy). In this multi-cassette expression approach, tetA promoter (P<sub>tetA</sub>) was 100-fold higher in expression strength than tetR promoter (P<sub>tetR</sub>). In the present study, we developed pJH18 plasmid with novel Doxy-inducible gene expression system based on a tet promoter.<h4>Procedures</h4>In this system, Tet repressor (TetR) expressed by a weak constitutive promoter binds to tetO operator, resulting in the tight repression of gene expressions by P<sub>tetA</sub> and P<sub>tetR</sub>, and Doxy releases TetR from tetO to de-repress P<sub>tetA</sub> and P<sub>tetR</sub>.<h4>Results</h4>In Salmonella transformed with pJH18, the expression balance of bidirectional tet promoters in pJH18 was remarkably improved (P<sub>tetA</sub>:P<sub>tetR</sub> = 4~6:1) compared with that of pJL87 (P<sub>tetA</sub>:P<sub>tetR</sub> = 100:1) in the presence of Doxy. Also, the expression level by novel tet system was much higher in Salmonella transformed with pJH18 than in those with pJL87 (80-fold in rluc8 and 5-fold in clyA). Interestingly, pJH18 of the transformed Salmonella was much more stably maintained than pJL87 in antibiotic-free tumor-bearing mice (about 41-fold), because only pJH18 carries bom sequence with an essential role in preventing the plasmid-free population of programmed Salmonella from undergoing cell division.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, doxycycline-induced co-expression of two proteins at similar expression levels, we exploited bioluminescence reporter proteins with preclinical but no clinical utility. Future validation with clinically compatible reporter systems, for example, suitable for radionuclide imaging, is necessary to develop this system further towards potential clinical application.
Project description:A new antibiotic resistance gene cluster comprising genes for sulfonamide (sul2), streptomycin (strA-strB), and tetracycline [tetR-tet(H)] resistance was detected on plasmid pVM111 from Pasteurella multocida. The tetR-tet(H) gene region was inserted between sul2 and strA, possibly by illegitimate recombination. Two potential recombination sites of 18 and 25 bp were identified.