Cloning and characterization of the genes encoding a cytochrome P450 (PipA) involved in piperidine and pyrrolidine utilization and its regulatory protein (PipR) in Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155.
ABSTRACT: Transposon mutagenesis of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 enabled the isolation of a mutant strain (called LGM1) altered in the regulation of piperidine and pyrrolidine utilization. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene inactivated in mutant LGM1 was determined from the wild-type strain. This gene (pipR) encoded a member of the GntR family of bacterial regulatory proteins. An insertion element (IS1096), previously described for M. smegmatis, was detected downstream of the gene pipR. Three additional open reading frames were found downstream of IS1096. The first open reading frame (pipA) appeared to encode a protein identified as a cytochrome P450 enzyme. This gene is the first member of a new family, CYP151. By a gene replacement experiment, it was demonstrated that the cytochrome P450 pipA gene is required for piperidine and pyrrolidine utilization in M. smegmatis mc2155. Genes homologous to pipA were detected by hybridization in several, previously isolated, morpholine-degrading mycobacterial strains. A gene encoding a putative [3Fe-4S] ferredoxin (orf1) and a truncated gene encoding a putative glutamine synthetase (orf2') were found downstream of pipA.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Homologs of the LuxR acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signal receptor are prevalent in Proteobacteria isolated from roots of the Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides Many of these isolates possess an orphan LuxR homolog, closely related to OryR from the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae OryR does not respond to AHL signals but, instead, responds to an unknown plant compound. We discovered an OryR homolog, PipR, in the cottonwood endophyte Pseudomonas sp. strain GM79. The genes adjacent to pipR encode a predicted ATP-binding cassette (ABC) peptide transporter and peptidases. We purified the putative peptidases, PipA and AapA, and confirmed their predicted activities. A transcriptional pipA-gfp reporter was responsive to PipR in the presence of plant leaf macerates, but it was not influenced by AHLs, similar to findings with OryR. We found that PipR also responded to protein hydrolysates to activate pipA-gfp expression. Among many peptides tested, the tripeptide Ser-His-Ser showed inducer activity but at relatively high concentrations. An ABC peptide transporter mutant failed to respond to leaf macerates, peptone, or Ser-His-Ser, while peptidase mutants expressed higher-than-wild-type levels of pipA-gfp in response to any of these signals. Our studies are consistent with a model where active transport of a peptidelike signal is required for the signal to interact with PipR, which then activates peptidase gene expression. The identification of a peptide ligand for PipR sets the stage to identify plant-derived signals for the OryR family of orphan LuxR proteins.<h4>Importance</h4>We describe the transcription factor PipR from a Pseudomonas strain isolated as a cottonwood tree endophyte. PipR is a member of the LuxR family of transcriptional factors. LuxR family members are generally thought of as quorum-sensing signal receptors, but PipR is one of an emerging subfamily of LuxR family members that respond to compounds produced by plants. We found that PipR responds to a peptidelike compound, and we present a model for Pip system signal transduction. A better understanding of plant-responsive LuxR homologs and the compounds to which they respond is of general importance, as they occur in dozens of bacterial species that are associated with economically important plants and, as we report here, they also occur in members of certain root endophyte communities.
Project description:Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays a critical role in the host defense against microbial pathogens. Many pathogens modulate NF-κB signaling to establish infection in their host. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) possesses two type III secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2) and directly injects many effector proteins into host cells. It has been reported that some effectors block NF-κB signaling, but the molecular mechanism of the inactivation of NF-κB signaling in S. Typhimurium is poorly understood. Here, we identified seven type III effectors-GogA, GtgA, PipA, SseK1, SseK2, SseK3, and SteE-that inhibited NF-κB activation in HeLa cells stimulated with TNF-α. We also determined that only GogA and GtgA are involved in regulation of the activation of NF-κB in HeLa cells infected with S. Typhimurium. GogA, GtgA, and PipA are highly homologous to one another and have the consensus zinc metalloprotease HEXXH motif. Our experiments demonstrated that GogA, GtgA, and PipA each directly cleaved NF-κB p65, whereas GogA and GtgA, but not PipA, inhibited the NF-κB activation in HeLa cells infected with S. Typhimurium. Further, expressions of the gogA or gtgA gene were induced under the SPI-1-and SPI-2-inducing conditions, but expression of the pipA gene was induced only under the SPI-2-inducing condition. We also showed that PipA was secreted into RAW264.7 cells through T3SS-2. Finally, we indicated that PipA elicits bacterial dissemination in the systemic stage of infection of S. Typhimurium via a T3SS-1-independent mechanism. Collectively, our results suggest that PipA, GogA and GtgA contribute to S. Typhimurium pathogenesis in different ways.
Project description:Certain plant-associated Proteobacteria sense their host environment by detecting an unknown plant signal recognized by a member of a LuxR subfamily of transcription factors. This interkingdom communication is important for both mutualistic and pathogenic interactions. The Populus root endophyte Pseudomonas sp. GM79 possesses such a regulator, named PipR. In a previous study we reported that PipR activates an adjacent gene (pipA) coding for a proline iminopeptidase in response to Populus leaf macerates and peptides and that this activation is dependent on a putative ABC-type transporter [Schaefer AL, et al. (2016) mBio 7:e01101-16]. In this study we identify a chemical derived from ethanolamine that induces PipR activity at picomolar concentrations, and we present evidence that this is the active inducer present in plant leaf macerates. First, a screen of more than 750 compounds indicated ethanolamine was a potent inducer for the PipR-sensing system; however, ethanolamine failed to bind to the periplasmic-binding protein (PBP) required for the signal response. This led us to discover that a specific ethanolamine derivative, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(2-hydroxyethylamino) acetamide (HEHEAA), binds to the PBP and serves as a potent PipR-dependent inducer. We also show that a compound, which coelutes with HEHEAA in HPLC and induces pipA gene expression in a PipR-dependent manner, can be found in Populus leaf macerates. This work sheds light on how plant-associated bacteria can sense their environment and on the nature of inducers for a family of plant-responsive LuxR-like transcription factors found in plant-associated bacteria.
Project description:In order to better understand the chiral recognition mechanisms of positively charged cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives, the synthesis, the p<i>K<sub>a</sub></i> determination by <sup>1</sup>H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-pH titration and a comparative chiral capillary electrophoretic (CE) study were performed with two series of mono-substituted cationic single isomer CDs. The first series of selectors were mono-(6-<i>N</i>-pyrrolidine-6-deoxy)-β-CD (PYR-β-CD), mono-(6-<i>N</i>-piperidine-6-deoxy)-β-CD (PIP-β-CD), mono-(6-<i>N</i>-morpholine-6-deoxy)-β-CD (MO-β-CD) and mono-(6-<i>N</i>-piperazine-6-deoxy)-β-CD (PIPA-β-CD), carrying a pH-adjustable moiety at the narrower rim of the cavity, while the second set represented by their quaternarized, permanently cationic counterparts: mono-(6-<i>N</i>-(<i>N</i>-methyl-pyrrolidine)-6-deoxy)-β-CD (MePYR-β-CD), mono-(6-<i>N</i>-(<i>N</i>-methyl-piperidine)-6-deoxy)-β-CD (MePIP-β-CD), mono-(6-<i>N</i>-(<i>N</i>-methyl-morpholine)-6-deoxy)-β-CD (MeMO-β-CD) and mono-(6-<i>N</i>-(4,4-<i>N,N</i>-dimethyl-piperazine)-β-CD (diMePIPA-β-CD). Based on pH-dependent and selector concentration-dependent comparative studies of these single isomer <i>N</i>-heterocyclic CDs presented herein, it can be concluded that all CDs could successfully be applied as chiral selectors for the enantiodiscrimination of several negatively charged and zwitterionic model racemates. The substituent-dependent enantiomer migration order reversal of dansylated-valine using PIP-β-CD contrary to PYP-β-CD, MO-β-CD and PIPA-β-CD was also studied by <sup>1</sup>H- and 2D ROESY NMR experiments.
Project description:Mouse macrophages J774A.1 were pre-treated with the anti-inflammatory lipid eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) or the pro-inflammatory lipid ceramide (Cer) for 3h. Macrophages were then infected with Mycobacterium smegmatis for 1h, and total RNA was collected. In a parallel experiment, infected macrophages were infected for 1h, 4h and 24h. At these time points, macrophages were lysed, bacteria was collected and quantified by the Colony Forming Units (CFU) Assay. This provided the kinetics of the killing of Mycobacteria inside mouse macrophages. CFU experiments revealed that cells pre-treated with EPA showed an increased number of bacteria inside macrophages, in contrast to cells pre-treated with Cer. To dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in the survival and killing of mycobacteria infected macrophages, mediated by lipids, gene expression studies were performed. Cultures of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 harbouring a p19-(long lived) EGFP plasmid were grown to exponential growth phase. Bacteria were pelleted, washed in PBS and resuspended in medium DMEM with a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 (10 bacteria per macrophage). Clumps of bacteria were removed by ultrasonic treatment of bacterial suspensions in an ultrasonic water bath for 15 minutes, followed by a low speed centrifugation for 2 minutes. Mouse macrophages J774A.1 were pre-.treated with the anti-inflammatory lipid eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) or the pro-inflammatory lipid ceramide (Cer), 3h before infection. Mouse macrophages J774A.1 were infected with Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 for 1h, at 37M-BM-:C and 5% CO2. After 1h of infection, cells were washed with PBS. After washing, 1 ml Trizol was added per well, to collect total RNA. The experimental condition were: samples 1.1, 1.2, 1.3: Untreated macrophages; samples 2.1, 2.2, 2.3: Mock treated macrophages (ethanol 1ul/ml); samples 3.1, 3.2, 3.3: EPA (15uM) treated macrophages (ethanol 1ul/ml); samples 4.1, 4.2, 4.3: Cer (5ug/ml) treated macrophages (ethanol 1ul/ml); samples 5.1, 5.2, 5.3: Untreated macrophages, infected with Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 for 1h; samples 6.1, 6.2, 6.3: Mock treated macrophages (ethanol 1ul/ml) infected with Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 for 1h; samples 7.1, 7.2, 7.3: EPA (15uM) treated macrophages (ethanol 1ul/ml) infected with Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 for 1h; samples 8.1, 8.2, 8.3: Cer (5ug/ml) treated macrophages (ethanol 1ul/ml) infected with Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 for 1h; In a parallel experiment, infected macrophages remained with the bacteria for 1h, 4h and 24h after infection. After these time points, the macrophages were lysed, the bacteria was collected and quantified by the Colony Forming Units (CFU) Assay. This provided the kinetics of the killing of non-pathogenic intracellular bacteria inside mouse macrophages. For the CFU assay, after 1h of infection, cells were washed with PBS and Gentamicin (10ug/ml) in DMEM to kill the extracellular bacteria. At discrete time points, cells were washed with PBS and lysed with sterilized water. Quantitative cultures of bacteria were performed in a 10-fold serial dilutions, inoculated on 7H10 agar plates. 5ul were plated in triplicate and the number of colonies were counted after 48h.
Project description:PhoH2 proteins are highly conserved across bacteria and archaea yet their biological function is poorly characterised. We examined the growth profiles of Mycobacterium smegmatis strains mc2155 and mc2155 ?phoH2 and observed the same growth profile and growth rate in a variety of conditions. In light of the comparable growth, we used RNAseq to provide a snapshot of the differences between the transcriptomes of M. smegmatis mc2155 and M. smegmatis mc2155 ?phoH2 during normal growth. At 48 hours, elevated expression of the sigF regulon was observed in ?phoH2 relative to wild type. In biochemical assays, PhoH2 showed activity toward sigF mRNA insinuating a role of PhoH2 in modulating the pool of sigF mRNA in the cell during normal growth, adding further complexity to the repertoire of reported mechanisms of post-translational regulation. Multiple copies of the preferred target site of PhoH2 were identified in loops of the sigF mRNA structure, leading us to propose a mechanism for the activity of PhoH2 that is initiated after assembly on specific single-stranded loops of RNA. We hypothesise that PhoH2 is a toxin-antitoxin that contributes to the regulation of SigF at a post-transcriptional level through targeted activity on sigF mRNA. This work presents the first evidence for post-transcriptional regulation of SigF along with the biological function of PhoH2 from M. smegmatis. This has implications for the highly conserved PhoH2 toxin-antitoxin module across the mycobacteria including the important human pathogen M. tuberculosis.
Project description:To identify the AmtR regulon of Mycobacterium smegmatis, we created a markerless deletion of the amtR gene in the background of strain M. smegmatis mc2155 (wild-type) and compared the transcription profile of both strains grown in batch culture under aerobic conditions on Hartmans de Bont medium supplemented with glycerol (carbon source) and lysine (sole nitrogen source) using microarray. Cells were harvested in early exponential growth stage.
Project description:Three mycobacteriophages, Bipolarisk, Bread, and FudgeTart, were isolated from enriched soil samples found in Crete, NE. All three phages are lytic, belong to subcluster C1, and infect Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155. The structures of the three genomes are similar, with slight variations in gene number and content.