An oligoribonuclease gene in Streptomyces griseus.
ABSTRACT: In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) serves as a microbial hormone that switches on many genes required for streptomycin production and morphological development. An open reading frame (Orf1) showing high sequence similarity to oligoribonucleases of various origins is present just downstream of adpA, one of the A-factor-dependent genes. Orf1 was named OrnA (oligoribonuclease A) because it showed 3'-to-5' exo-oligoribonuclease activity, releasing [(32)P]CMP from ApCpC[(32)P]pC used as a substrate. Reverse transcription-PCR and S1 nuclease mapping analyses revealed that ornA was transcribed from two promoters; one was a developmentally regulated, A-factor-dependent promoter in front of adpA, and the other was a constitutive promoter in front of the ornA coding sequence. Transcription of ornA was thus additively enhanced at the initiation stage for secondary metabolism and aerial mycelium formation. ornA-disrupted strains grew slowly and scarcely formed aerial mycelium. ornA homologues were distributed in a wide variety of Streptomyces species, including S. coelicolor A3(2), as determined by Southern hybridization analysis. Disruption of the ornA homologue in S. coelicolor A3(2) also caused phenotypes similar to those of the S. griseus DeltaornA strains. The OrnA oligoribonucleases in Streptomyces species are therefore not essential but play an important role in vegetative growth and in the initiation of differentiation.
Project description:AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpA(Sc)) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpA(Sc)) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hours (48 to 60 h), and then the signal intensity decreased considerably. AdpA(Sc) specifically binds the adpA(Sc) promoter region in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that its expression is autoregulated; surprisingly, in contrast to S. griseus, the protein presumably acts as a transcriptional activator. We also demonstrate a direct influence of AdpA(Sc) on the expression of several genes whose products play key roles in the differentiation of S. coelicolor: STI, a protease inhibitor; RamR, an atypical response regulator that itself activates expression of the genes for a small modified peptide that is required for aerial growth; and ClpP1, an ATP-dependent protease. The diverse influence of AdpA(Sc) protein on the expression of the analyzed genes presumably results mainly from different affinities of AdpA(Sc) protein to individual promoters.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) is essentially required for aerial mycelium formation and streptomycin production in Streptomyces griseus. A DNA fragment which induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain, S. griseus HH1, was cloned from this strain on a high-copy-number plasmid. Subcloning and nucleotide sequencing revealed that one open reading frame with 218 amino acids, named AmfC, served as a multicopy suppressor of the aerial mycelium-defective phenotype of the A-factor-deficient strain. The amfC gene did not restore A-factor or streptomycin production, indicating that amfC is involved in aerial mycelium formation independently of secondary metabolic function. Disruption of the chromosomal amfC gene in the wild-type S. griseus strain caused a severe reduction in the abundance of spores but no effect on the shape or size of the spores. The infrequent sporulation of the amfC disruptant was reversed by introduction of amfC on a plasmid. The amfC-defective phenotype was also restored by the orf1590 gene but not by the amfR-amfA-amfB gene cluster. Nucleotide sequences homologous to the amfC gene were distributed in all of 12 Streptomyces species tested, including Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The amfC homolog of S. coelicolor A3(2) was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The AmfC products of S. griseus and S. coelicolor A3(2) showed a 60% identity in their amino acid sequences. Introduction of the amfC gene of S. coelicolor A3(2) into strain HH1 induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation, which suggests that both play the same functional role in morphogenesis in the strains.
Project description:AdpA in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus activates a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, forming an AdpA regulon. The Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) gene, sgiA, in S. griseus was transcribed in response to AdpA, showing that sgiA is a member of the AdpA regulon. AdpA bound a single site upstream of the sgiA promoter at approximately position -70 with respect to its transcriptional start point. Mutational analysis of the AdpA-binding site showed that the AdpA-binding site was essential for transcriptional activation. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted had higher trypsin, chymotrypsin, metalloendopeptidase, and total protease activities than the wild-type strain, which showed that SgiA modulated the activities of these extracellularly produced proteases. Because a number of genes encoding chymotrypsins, trypsins, and metalloendopeptidases, most of which are SSI-sensitive proteases, are also under the control of AdpA, the A-factor regulatory cascade was thought to play a crucial role in modulating the extracellular protease activities by triggering simultaneous production of the proteases and their inhibitor at a specific timing during growth. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted grew normally and formed aerial hyphae and spores with the same time course as the wild-type strain. However, exogenous addition of purified SgiA to substrate mycelium grown on agar medium resulted in a delay in aerial mycelium formation, indicating that SgiA is involved in aerial hypha formation in conjunction with proteases.
Project description:Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) have been shown to control diverse cellular processes in prokaryotes. To identify and characterize novel bacterial sRNAs, a gram-positive, soil-inhabiting, filamentous bacterium, Streptomyces griseus, was examined, on the assumption that Streptomyces should express sRNAs as important regulators of morphological and physiological differentiation. By bioinformatics investigation, 54 sRNA candidates, which were encoded on intergenic regions of the S. griseus chromosome and were highly conserved in those of both Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces avermitilis, were selected. Of these 54 sRNA candidates, 17 transcripts were detected by Northern blot analysis of the total RNAs isolated from cells grown on solid medium. Then, the direction of transcription of each sRNA candidate gene was determined by S1 nuclease mapping, followed by exclusion of four sRNA candidates that were considered riboswitches of their downstream open reading frames (ORFs). Finally, a further sRNA candidate was excluded because it was cotranscribed with the upstream ORF determined by reverse transcription-PCR. Thus, 12 sRNAs ranging in size from 40 to 300 nucleotides were identified in S. griseus. Seven of them were apparently transcribed in a growth phase-dependent manner. Furthermore, of the 12 sRNAs, the expression profiles of 7 were significantly influenced by a mutation of adpA, which encodes the central transcriptional regulator of the A-factor regulatory cascade involved in both morphological differentiation and secondary metabolism in S. griseus. However, disruption of all 12 sRNA genes showed no detectable phenotypic changes; all the disruptants grew and formed aerial mycelium and spores with the same time course as the wild-type strain on various media and produced streptomycin similarly to the wild-type strain.
Project description:In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) switches on aerial mycelium formation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. An A-factor-dependent transcriptional activator, AdpA, activates multiple genes required for morphological development and secondary metabolism in a programmed manner. A region upstream of a zinc-containing metalloendopeptidase gene (sgmA) was found among the DNA fragments that had been isolated as AdpA-binding sites. The primary product of sgmA consisted of N-terminal pre, N-terminal pro, mature, and C-terminal pro regions. sgmA was transcribed in an AdpA-dependent manner, and its transcription was markedly enhanced at the timing of aerial mycelium formation. AdpA bound two sites in the region upstream of the sgmA promoter; one was at about nucleotide position -60 (A site) with respect to the transcriptional start point of sgmA, and the other was at about position -260 (B site), as determined by DNase I footprinting. Transcriptional analysis with mutated promoters showed that the A site was essential for the switching on of sgmA transcription and that the B site was necessary for the marked enhancement of transcription at the timing of aerial mycelium formation. Disruption of the chromosomal sgmA gene resulted in a delay in aerial hypha formation by half a day. SgmA is therefore suggested to be associated with the programmed morphological development of Streptomyces, in which this peptidase, perhaps together with other hydrolytic enzymes, plays a role in the degradation of proteins in substrate hyphae for reuse in aerial hypha formation.
Project description:The amf gene cluster encodes a probable secretion system for a peptidic morphogen, AmfS, which induces aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. Here we examined the transcriptional control mechanism for the promoter preceding amfT (PamfT) directing the transcription of the amfTSBA operon. High-resolution S1 analysis mapped a transcriptional start point at 31 nucleotides upstream of the translational start codon of amfT. Low-resolution analysis showed that PamfT is developmentally regulated in the wild type and completely abolished in an amfR mutant. The -35 region of PamfT contained the consensus sequence for the binding of BldD, a pleiotropic negative regulator for morphological and physiological development in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The cloned bldD locus of S. griseus showed high sequence similarity to the S. coelicolor counterpart. Transcription of bldD occurred constitutively in both the wild type and an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus, which suggests that the regulatory role of BldD is independent of A-factor. The gel retardation assay revealed that purified BldD and AmfR recombinant proteins specifically bind PamfT. Overproduction of BldD in the wild-type cell conferred a bald phenotype (defective in aerial growth and streptomycin production) and caused marked repression of PamfT activity. An amfT-depleted mutant also showed a bald phenotype but PamfT activity was not affected. Both the bldD-overproducing wild-type strain and the amfT mutant were unable to induce aerial growth of an amfS mutant in a cross-feeding assay, which indicates that these strains are defective in the production of an active AmfS peptide. The results overall suggests that two independent regulators, AmfR and BldD, control PamfT activity via direct binding to determine the transcriptional level of the amf operon responsible for the production and secretion of AmfS peptide, which induces the erection of aerial hyphae in S. griseus.
Project description:We identified adpA as an araC-like regulatory gene needed for colonial morphogenesis in Streptomyces coelicolor and showed that its activity depended on a unique TTA triplet corresponding to the leucyl-tRNA gene (bldA). These findings partially explained the dependence of aerial mycelium formation on a rare tRNA that is postulated to have developmental control functions.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) triggers morphological development and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus. A transcriptional activator (AdpA) in the A-factor regulatory cascade switches on a number of genes required for both processes. AdBS11 was identified in a library of the DNA fragments that are bound by AdpA and mapped upstream of ssgA, which is essential for septum formation in aerial hyphae. Gel mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting revealed three AdpA-binding sites at nucleotide positions about -235 (site 1), -110 (site 2), and +60 (site 3) with respect to the transcriptional start point, p1, of ssgA. ssgA had two transcriptional start points, one starting at 124 nucleotides (p1) and the other starting at 79 nucleotides (p2) upstream of the start codon of ssgA. Of the three binding sites, only sites 1 and 2 were required for transcriptional activation of p1 and p2 by AdpA. The transcriptional switch on of ssgA required the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor, sigma(AdsA), in addition to AdpA. However, it was unlikely that sigma(AdsA) recognized the two ssgA promoters, since their -35 and -10 sequences were not similar to the promoter sequence motifs recognized by sigma(BldN), a sigma(AdsA) homologue of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). An ssgA disruptant formed aerial hyphae, but did not form spores, irrespective of the carbon source of the medium, which indicated that ssgA is a member of the whi genes. Transcriptional analysis of ssfR, located just upstream of ssgA and encoding an IclR-type transcriptional regulator, suggested that no read-through from ssfR into ssgA occurred, and ssgA was transcribed in the absence of ssfR. ssgA was thus found to be controlled by AdpA and not by SsfR to a detectable extent. SsfR appeared to regulate spore septum formation independently of SsgA or through interaction with SsgA in some unknown way, because an ssfR disruptant also showed a whi phenotype.
Project description:Antibiotic production and cell differentiation in Streptomyces is stimulated by micromolar levels of Cu(2+) . Here, we knocked out the Sco1/SenC family copper chaperone (ScoC) encoded in the conserved gene cluster 'sco' (the S treptomycescopper utilization) in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and S.?griseus. It is known that the Sco1/SenC family incorporates Cu(2+) into the active centre of cytochrome oxidase (cox). The knockout caused a marked delay in antibiotic production and aerial mycelium formation on solid medium, temporal pH decline in glucose-containing liquid medium, and significant reduction of cox activity in S.?coelicolor. The scoC mutant produced two- to threefold higher cellular mass of the wild type exhibiting a marked cox activity in liquid medium supplied with 10?µM CuSO(4) , suggesting that ScoC is involved in not only the construction but also the deactivation of cox. The scoC mutant was defective in the monoamine oxidase activity responsible for cell aggregation and sedimentation. These features were similarly observed with regard to the scoC mutant of S.?griseus. The scoC mutant of S.?griseus was also defective in the extracellular activity oxidizing N,N'-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate. Addition of 10?µM CuSO(4) repressed the activity of the conserved promoter preceding scoA and caused phenylalanine auxotrophy in some Streptomyces spp. probably because of the repression of pheA; pheA encodes prephenate dehydratase, which is located at the 3' terminus of the putative operon structure. Overall, the evidence indicates that Sco is crucial for the utilization of copper under a low-copper condition and for the activation of the multiple Cu(2+) -containing oxidases that play divergent roles in the complex physiology of Streptomyces.
Project description:Analysis of proteins recovered in the S100 precipitate fraction of Streptomyces griseus after ultracentrifugation led to the identification of a 52-kDa protein which is produced during the late growth phase. The gene (eshA) which codes for this protein was cloned from S. griseus, and then its homologue was cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The protein was deduced to be 471 amino acids in length. The protein EshA is characterized by a central region that shows homology to the eukaryotic-type cyclic nucleotide-binding domains. Significant homology was also found to MMPI in Mycobacterium leprae, a major antigenic protein to humans. The eshA gene mapped near the chromosome end and was not essential for viability, as demonstrated by gene disruption experiments, but its disruption resulted in the abolishment of an antibiotic (actinorhodin but not undecylprodigiosin) production. Aerial mycelium was produced as abundantly as by the parent strain. Expression analysis of the EshA protein by Western blotting revealed that EshA is present only in late-growth-phase cells. The eshA gene was transcribed just preceding intracellular accumulation of the EshA protein, as determined by S1 nuclease protection, indicating that EshA expression is regulated at the transcription level. The expression of EshA was unaffected by introduction of the relA mutation, which blocks ppGpp synthesis.