Evidence of a role for LytB in the nonmevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis.
ABSTRACT: It is proposed that the lytB gene encodes an enzyme of the deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate (DOXP) pathway that catalyzes a step at or subsequent to the point at which the pathway branches to form isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). A mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis strain PCC 6803 with an insertion in the promoter region of lytB grew slowly and produced greenish-yellow, easily bleached colonies. Insertions in the coding region of lytB were lethal. Supplementation of the culture medium with the alcohol analogues of IPP and DMAPP (3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol) completely alleviated the growth impairment of the mutant. The Synechocystis lytB gene and a lytB cDNA from the flowering plant Adonis aestivalis were each found to significantly enhance accumulation of carotenoids in Escherichia coli engineered to produce these colored isoprenoid compounds. When combined with a cDNA encoding deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase (dxs), the initial enzyme of the DOXP pathway, the individual salutary effects of lytB and dxs were multiplied. In contrast, the combination of lytB and a cDNA encoding IPP isomerase (ipi) was no more effective in enhancing carotenoid accumulation than ipi alone, indicating that the ratio of IPP and DMAPP produced via the DOXP pathway is influenced by LytB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Terpenoids are of high interest as chemical building blocks and pharmaceuticals. In microbes, terpenoids can be synthesized via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) or mevalonate (MVA) pathways. Although the MEP pathway has a higher theoretical yield, metabolic engineering has met with little success because the regulation of the pathway is poorly understood. RESULTS:We applied metabolic control analysis to the MEP pathway in Escherichia coli expressing a heterologous isoprene synthase gene (ispS). The expression of ispS led to the accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP)/dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and severely impaired bacterial growth, but the coexpression of ispS and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (idi) restored normal growth and wild-type IPP/DMAPP levels. Targeted proteomics and metabolomics analysis provided a quantitative description of the pathway, which was perturbed by randomizing the ribosome binding site in the gene encoding 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (Dxs). Dxs has a flux control coefficient of 0.35 (i.e., a 1% increase in Dxs activity resulted in a 0.35% increase in pathway flux) in the isoprene-producing strain and therefore exerted significant control over the flux though the MEP pathway. At higher dxs expression levels, the intracellular concentration of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP) increased substantially in contrast to the other MEP pathway intermediates, which were linearly dependent on the abundance of Dxs. This indicates that 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase (IspG), which consumes MEcPP, became saturated and therefore limited the flux towards isoprene. The higher intracellular concentrations of MEcPP led to the efflux of this intermediate into the growth medium. DISCUSSION:These findings show the importance of Dxs, Idi and IspG and metabolite export for metabolic engineering of the MEP pathway and will facilitate further approaches for the microbial production of valuable isoprenoids.
Project description:Escherichia coli synthesizes its isoprenoids via the mevalonate-independent 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The MC4100dxs::CAT strain, defective in deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase, which is the first enzyme in this metabolic route, exclusively synthesizes its isoprenoids from exogenous 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (ME) added to the culture medium. The fate of the hydrogen atoms in the MEP pathway was followed by the incorporation of [1,1-(2)H(2)]ME and [3,5,5,5-(2)H(4)]ME. The two C-1 hydrogen atoms of ME were found without any loss in the prenyl chain of menaquinone and/or ubiquinone on the carbon atoms derived from C-4 of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and on the E-methyl group of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the C-5 hydrogen atoms on the methyl groups derived from IPP C-5 methyl group and the Z-methyl group of DMAPP. This showed that no changes in the oxidation state of these carbon atoms occurred in the reaction sequence between MEP and IPP. Furthermore, no deuterium scrambling was observed between the carbon atoms derived from C-4 and C-5 of IPP or DMAPP, suggesting a completely stereoselective IPP isomerase or no significant activity of this enzyme. The C-3 deuterium atom of [3,5,5,5-(2)H(4)]ME was preserved only in the DMAPP starter unit and was completely missing from all those derived from IPP. This finding, aided by the non-essential role of the IPP isomerase gene, suggests the presence in E. coli of two different routes towards IPP and DMAPP, starting from a common intermediate derived from MEP.
Project description:Molecular evolution has evolved two metabolic routes for isoprenoid biosynthesis: the mevalonate and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The MEP pathway is used by most pathogenic bacteria and some parasitic protozoa (including the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum) as well as by plants, but is not present in animals. The terminal reaction of the MEP pathway is catalyzed by (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl diphosphate (HMBPP) reductase (LytB), an enzyme that converts HMBPP into isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Here, we present the structure of Aquifex aeolicus LytB, at 1.65 A resolution. The protein adopts a cloverleaf or trefoil-like structure with each monomer in the dimer containing three alpha/beta domains surrounding a central [Fe3S4] cluster ligated to Cys13, Cys96, and Cys193. Two highly conserved His (His 42 and His 124) and a totally conserved Glu (Glu126) are located in the same central site and are proposed to be involved in ligand binding and catalysis. Substrate access is proposed to occur from the front-side face of the protein, with the HMBPP diphosphate binding to the two His and the 4OH of HMBPP binding to the fourth iron thought to be present in activated clusters, while Glu126 provides the protons required for IPP/DMAPP formation.
Project description:Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) represent the two central intermediates in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. The recently discovered deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate pathway generates a mixture of IPP and DMAPP in its final step by reductive dehydroxylation of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-butenyl 4-diphosphate. This conversion is catalyzed by IspH protein comprising a central iron-sulfur cluster as electron transfer cofactor in the active site. The five crystal structures of IspH in complex with substrate, converted substrate, products and PP(i) reported in this article provide unique insights into the mechanism of this enzyme. While IspH protein crystallizes with substrate bound to a [4Fe-4S] cluster, crystals of IspH in complex with IPP, DMAPP or inorganic pyrophosphate feature [3Fe-4S] clusters. The IspH:substrate complex reveals a hairpin conformation of the ligand with the C(1) hydroxyl group coordinated to the unique site in a [4Fe-4S] cluster of aconitase type. The resulting alkoxide complex is coupled to a hydrogen-bonding network, which serves as proton reservoir via a Thr167 proton relay. Prolonged x-ray irradiation leads to cleavage of the C(1)-O bond (initiated by reducing photo electrons). The data suggest a reaction mechanism involving a combination of Lewis-acid activation and proton coupled electron transfer. The resulting allyl radical intermediate can acquire a second electron via the iron-sulfur cluster. The reaction may be terminated by the transfer of a proton from the beta-phosphate of the substrate to C(1) (affording DMAPP) or C(3) (affording IPP).
Project description:Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the basic five-carbon building blocks of isoprenoid molecules. Two structurally unrelated classes of IDIs are known. Type I IPP isomerase (IDI-1) utilizes a divalent metal in a protonation-deprotonation reaction. In contrast, the type II enzyme (IDI-2) requires reduced flavin, raising the possibility that the reaction catalyzed by IDI-2 involves the net addition or abstraction of a hydrogen atom. As part of our studies of the mechanism of isomerization for IDI-2, we synthesized allene and alkyne substrate analogues for the enzyme. These molecules are predicted to be substantially less reactive toward proton addition than IPP and DMAPP but have similar reactivities toward hydrogen atom addition. This prediction was verified by calculations of gas-phase heats of reaction for addition of a proton and of a hydrogen atom to 1-butyne (3) and 1,2-butadiene (4) to form the 1-buten-2-yl carbocation and radical, respectively, and related affinities for 2-methyl-1-butene (5) and 2-methyl-2-butene (6) using G3MP2B3 and CBS-QB3 protocols. Alkyne 1-OPP and allene 2-OPP were not substrates for Thermus thermophilus IDI-2 or Escherichia coli IDI-1 but instead were competitive inhibitors. The experimental and computational results are consistent with a protonation-deprotonation mechanism for the enzyme-catalyzed isomerization of IPP and DMAPP.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) are the enzymes that catalyze the first two enzyme steps of the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway to supply the isoprene building-blocks of carotenoids. Plant DXR and DXS enzymes have been reported to function differently depending on the plant species. In this study, the differential roles of rice DXS and DXR genes in carotenoid metabolism were investigated.<h4>Results</h4>The accumulation of carotenoids in rice seeds co-expressing OsDXS2 and stPAC was largely enhanced by 3.4-fold relative to the stPAC seeds and 315.3-fold relative to non-transgenic (NT) seeds, while the overexpression of each OsDXS2 or OsDXR caused no positive effect on the accumulation of either carotenoids or chlorophylls in leaves and seeds, suggesting that OsDXS2 functions as a rate-limiting enzyme supplying IPP/DMAPPs to seed carotenoid metabolism, but OsDXR doesn't in either leaves or seeds. The expressions of OsDXS1, OsPSY1, OsPSY2, and OsBCH2 genes were upregulated regardless of the reductions of chlorophylls and carotenoids in leaves; however, there was no significant change in the expression of most carotenogenic genes, even though there was a 315.3-fold increase in the amount of carotenoid in rice seeds. These non-proportional expression patterns in leaves and seeds suggest that those metabolic changes of carotenoids were associated with overexpression of the OsDXS2, OsDXR and stPAC transgenes, and the capacities of the intermediate biosynthetic enzymes might be much more important for those metabolic alterations than the transcript levels of intermediate biosynthetic genes are. Taken together, we propose a 'Three Faucets and Cisterns Model' about the relationship among the rate-limiting enzymes OsDXSs, OsPSYs, and OsBCHs as a "Faucet", the biosynthetic capacity of intermediate metabolites as a "Cistern", and the carotenoid accumulations as the content of "Cistern".<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study suggests that OsDXS2 plays an important role as a rate-limiting enzyme supplying IPP/DMAPPs to the seed-carotenoid accumulation, and rice seed carotenoid metabolism could be largely enhanced without any significant transcriptional alteration of carotenogenic genes. Finally, the "Three Faucets and Cisterns model" presents the extenuating circumstance to elucidate rice seed carotenoid metabolism.
Project description:Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPPI) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata (CA) of insects. IPPI catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP); afterward IPP and DMAPP condense in a head-to-tail manner to produce geranyl diphosphate (GPP), this head-to-tail condensation can be repeated, by the further reaction of GPP with IPP, yielding the JH precursor farnesyl diphosphate. An IPPI expressed sequence tag (EST) was obtained from an Aedes aegypti corpora-allata + corpora cardiaca library. Its full-length cDNA encodes a 244-aa protein that shows a high degree of similarity with type I IPPIs from other organisms, particularly for those residues that have important roles in catalysis, metal coordination and interaction with the diphosphate moiety of the IPP. Heterologous expression produced a recombinant protein that metabolized IPP into DMAPP; treatment of DMAPP with phosphoric acid produced isoprene, a volatile compound that was measured with an assay based on a solid-phase micro extraction protocol and direct analysis by gas chromatography. A. aegypti IPPI (AaIPPI) required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) but not Zn(2+) for full activity and it was entirely inhibited by iodoacetamide. Real time PCR experiments showed that AaIPPI is highly expressed in the CA. Changes in AaIPPI mRNA levels in the CA in the pupal and adult female mosquito corresponded well with changes in JH synthesis (Li et al., 2003). This is the first molecular and functional characterization of an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in the production of juvenile hormone in the CA of an insect.
Project description:In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the mevalonic-acid (MVA)-independent 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is characterized by two branches leading separately to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The signature of this branching is the retention of deuterium in DMAPP and the deuterium loss in IPP after incorporation of 1-[4-(2)H]deoxy-d-xylulose ([4-(2)H]DX). Feeding tobacco BY-2 cell-suspension cultures with [4-(2)H]DX resulted in deuterium retention in the isoprene units derived from DMAPP, as well as from IPP in the plastidial isoprenoids, phytoene and plastoquinone, synthesized via the MEP pathway. This labelling pattern represents direct evidence for the presence of the DMAPP branch of the MEP pathway in a higher plant, and shows that IPP can be synthesized from DMAPP in plant plastids, most probably via a plastidial IPP isomerase.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The isopentenols, including isoprenol and prenol, are excellent alternative fuels. However, they are not compounds largely accumulated in natural organism. The need for the next generation of biofuels with better physical and chemical properties impels us to develop biosynthetic routes for the production of isoprenol and prenol from renewable sugar. In this study, we use the heterogenous mevalonate-dependent (MVA) isoprenoid pathway for the synthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) intermediates, and then convert IPP and DMAPP to isoprenol and prenol, respectively. RESULTS: A mevalonate titer of 1.7 g/L was obtained by constructing an efficient MVA upper pathway in engineered E. coli. Different phosphatases and pyrophosphatases were investigated for their abilities in hydrolyzing the IPP and DMAPP. Consequently, ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase was found to be an efficient IPP and DMAPP hydrolase. Moreover, ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase from Bacillus subtilis (BsNudF) exhibited a equivalent substrate specificity towards IPP and DMAPP, while ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase from E. coli (EcNudF) presented a high substrate preference for DMAPP. Without the expression of any phosphatases or pyrophosphatases, a background level of isopentenols was synthesized. When the endogenous pyrophosphatase genes (EcNudF and yggV) that were capable of enhancing the hydrolyzation of the IPP and DMAPP were knocked out, the background level of isopentenols was still obtained. Maybe the synthesized IPP and DMAPP were hydrolyzed by some unknown hydrolases of E. coli. Finally, 1.3 g/L single isoprenol was obtained by blocking the conversion of IPP to DMAPP and employing the BsNudF, and 0.2 g/L ~80% prenol was produced by employing the EcNudF. A maximal yield of 12% was achieved in both isoprenol and prenol producing strains. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful report on high-specificity production of isoprenol and prenol by microbial fermentation. Over 1.3 g/L isoprenol achieved in shake-flask experiments represents a quite encouraging titer of higher alcohols. In addition, the substrate specificities of ADP-ribose pyrophosphatases were determined and successfully applied for the high-specificity synthesis of isoprenol and prenol. Altogether, this work presents a promising strategy for high-specificity production of two excellent biofuels, isoprenol and prenol.
Project description:Substrate analogues for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), where the C3 methyl groups were replaced by chlorine, were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase). The IPP analogue (3-ClIPP) was a cosubstrate when incubated with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) or geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to give the corresponding chlorinated analogues of geranyl diphosphate (3-ClGPP) and farnesyl diphosphate (3-ClFPP), respectively. No products were detected in incubations of 3-ClIPP with 3-ClDMAPP. Incubation of IPP with 3-ClDMAPP gave 11-ClFPP as the sole product. Values of K(M)(3-ClIPP) (with DMAPP) and K(M)(3-ClDMAPP) (with IPP) were similar to those for IPP and DMAPP; however, values of k(cat) for both analogues were substantially lower. These results are consistent with a dissociative electrophilic alkylation mechanism where the rate-limiting step changes from heterolytic cleavage of the carbon-oxygen bond in the allylic substrate to alkylation of the double bond of the homoallylic substrate.