The gdhB gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an arginine-inducible NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase which is subject to allosteric regulation.
ABSTRACT: The NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was purified, and its amino-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. This sequence information was used in identifying and cloning the encoding gdhB gene and its flanking regions. The molecular mass predicted from the derived sequence for the encoded NAD-GDH was 182.6 kDa, in close agreement with that determined from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme (180 kDa). Cross-linking studies established that the native NAD-GDH is a tetramer of equal subunits. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of NAD-GDH from P. aeruginosa with the GenBank database showed the highest homology with hypothetical polypeptides from Pseudomonas putida, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia prowazakii, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Shewanella putrefaciens, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Caulobacter crescentus. A moderate degree of homology, primarily in the central domain, was observed with the smaller tetrameric NAD-GDH (protomeric mass of 110 kDa) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Neurospora crassa. Comparison with the yet smaller hexameric GDH (protomeric mass of 48 to 55 kDa) of other prokaryotes yielded a low degree of homology that was limited to residues important for binding of substrates and for catalytic function. NAD-GDH was induced 27-fold by exogenous arginine and only 3-fold by exogenous glutamate. Primer extension experiments established that transcription of gdhB is initiated from an arginine-inducible promoter and that this induction is dependent on the arginine regulatory protein, ArgR, a member of the AraC/XyIS family of regulatory proteins. NAD-GDH was purified to homogeneity from a recombinant strain of P. aeruginosa and characterized. The glutamate saturation curve was sigmoid, indicating positive cooperativity in the binding of glutamate. NAD-GDH activity was subject to allosteric control by arginine and citrate, which function as positive and negative effectors, respectively. Both effectors act by influencing the affinity of the enzyme for glutamate. NAD-GDH from this organism differs from previously characterized enzymes with respect to structure, protomer mass, and allosteric properties indicate that this enzyme represents a novel class of microbial glutamate dehydrogenases.
Project description:NAD-dependent l-glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) activity was detected in cell extract from the psychrophile Janthinobacterium lividum UTB1302, which was isolated from cold soil and purified to homogeneity. The native enzyme (1,065 kDa, determined by gel filtration) is a homohexamer composed of 170-kDa subunits (determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Consistent with these findings, gene cloning and sequencing enabled deduction of the amino acid sequence of the subunit, which proved to be comprised of 1,575 amino acids with a combined molecular mass of 169,360 Da. The enzyme from this psychrophile thus appears to belong to the GDH family characterized by very large subunits, like those expressed by Streptomyces clavuligerus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (about 180 kDa). The entire amino acid sequence of the J. lividum enzyme showed about 40% identity with the sequences from S. clavuligerus and P. aeruginosa enzymes, but the central domains showed higher homology (about 65%). Within the central domain, the residues related to substrate and NAD binding were highly conserved, suggesting that this is the enzyme's catalytic domain. In the presence of NAD, but not in the presence of NADP, this GDH exclusively catalyzed the oxidative deamination of l-glutamate. The stereospecificity of the hydride transfer to NAD was pro-S, which is the same as that of the other known GDHs. Surprisingly, NAD-GDH activity was markedly enhanced by the addition of various amino acids, such as l-aspartate (1,735%) and l-arginine (936%), which strongly suggests that the N- and/or C-terminal domains play regulatory roles and are involved in the activation of the enzyme by these amino acids.
Project description:Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes reversible conversion between glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate using NAD(P)(H) as a coenzyme. Although mammalian GDH is regulated by GTP through the antenna domain, little is known about the mechanism of allosteric activation by leucine. An extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus, possesses GDH with a unique subunit configuration composed of two different subunits, GdhA (regulatory subunit) and GdhB (catalytic subunit). T. thermophilus GDH is unique in that the enzyme is subject to allosteric activation by leucine. To elucidate the structural basis for leucine-induced allosteric activation of GDH, we determined the crystal structures of the GdhB-Glu and GdhA-GdhB-Leu complexes at 2.1 and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively. The GdhB-Glu complex is a hexamer that binds 12 glutamate molecules: six molecules are bound at the substrate-binding sites, and the remaining six are bound at subunit interfaces, each composed of three subunits. The GdhA-GdhB-Leu complex is crystallized as a heterohexamer composed of four GdhA subunits and two GdhB subunits. In this complex, six leucine molecules are bound at subunit interfaces identified as glutamate-binding sites in the GdhB-Glu complex. Consistent with the structure, replacement of the amino acid residues of T. thermophilus GDH responsible for leucine binding made T. thermophilus GDH insensitive to leucine. Equivalent amino acid replacement caused a similar loss of sensitivity to leucine in human GDH2, suggesting that human GDH2 also uses the same allosteric site for regulation by leucine.
Project description:The arginine regulatory protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ArgR, is essential for induction of operons that encode enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway, which is the primary route for arginine utilization by this organism under aerobic conditions. ArgR also induces the operon that encodes a catabolic NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which converts l-glutamate, the product of the AST pathway, in alpha-ketoglutarate. The studies reported here show that ArgR also participates in the regulation of other enzymes of glutamate metabolism. Exogenous arginine repressed the specific activities of glutamate synthase (GltBD) and anabolic NADP-dependent GDH (GdhA) in cell extracts of strain PAO1, and this repression was abolished in an argR mutant. The promoter regions of the gltBD operon, which encodes GltBD, and the gdhA gene, which encodes GdhA, were identified by primer extension experiments. Measurements of beta-galactosidase expression from gltB::lacZ and gdhA::lacZ translational fusions confirmed the role of ArgR in mediating arginine repression. Gel retardation assays demonstrated the binding of homogeneous ArgR to DNA fragments carrying the regulatory regions for the gltBD and gdhA genes. DNase I footprinting experiments showed that ArgR protects DNA sequences in the control regions for these genes that are homologous to the consensus sequence of the ArgR binding site. In silica analysis of genomic information for P. fluorescens, P. putida, and P. stutzeri suggests that the findings reported here regarding ArgR regulation of operons that encode enzymes of glutamate biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa likely apply to other pseudomonads.
Project description:Given the lack of effective vaccines to control Streptococcus suis infection and the lack of a rapid and reliable molecular diagnostic assay to detect its infection, a polyclonal antibody was raised against the whole-cell protein of S. suis type 2 and used to screen an S. suis gene library in an effort to identify protective antigen(s) and antigens of diagnostic importance. A clone that produced a 45-kDa S. suis-specific protein was identified by Western blotting. Restriction analysis showed that the gene encoding the 45-kDa protein was present on a 1.6-kb pair DraI region on the cloned chromosomal fragment. The nucleotide sequence contained an open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 448 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 48.8 kDa, in close agreement with the size observed on Western blots. A GenBank database search revealed that the derived amino acid sequence is homologous to the sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) protein isolated from various sources, including conserved motifs and functional domains typical of the family 1-type hexameric GDH proteins, thus placing it in that family. Because of these similarities, the protein was designated the GDH of S. suis. Hybridization studies showed that the gene is conserved among the S. suis type 2 strains tested. Antiserum raised against the purified recombinant protein was reactive with a protein of the same molecular size as the recombinant protein in S. suis strains, suggesting expression of the gene in all of the isolates and antigenic conservation of the protein. The recombinant protein was reactive with serum from pigs experimentally infected with a virulent strain of S. suis type 2, suggesting that the protein might serve as an antigen of diagnostic importance to detect S. suis infection. Activity staining showed that the S. suis GDH activity is NAD(P)H dependent but, unlike the NAD(P)H-dependent GDH from various other sources, that of S. suis utilizes L-glutamate rather than alpha-ketoglutarate as the substrate. Highly virulent strains of S. suis type 2 could be distinguished from moderately virulent and avirulent strains on the basis of their GDH protein profile following activity staining on a nondenaturing gel. We examined the cellular location of the protein using a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunogold-labeling technique. Results showed that the S. suis GDH protein is exposed at the surface of intact cells.
Project description:Protein chemical studies of NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 22.214.171.124) from Clostridium symbiosum indicate only two cysteine residues/subunit, in good agreement with the gene sequence. Experiments with various thiol-modifying reagents reveal that in native clostridial GDH only one of these two cysteines is accessible for reaction. This residue does not react with iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide or N-phenylmaleimide, but reaction with either p-chloromercuribenzene sulphonate or 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) causes complete inactivation, preventable by NAD+ or NADH but not by glutamate or 2-oxoglutarate. Protection studies with combinations of substrates show that glutamate enhances protection by NADH, whereas 2-oxoglutarate diminishes it. These studies were also used to determine a dissociation constant (0.69 mM) for the enzyme-NAD+ complex. Similar data for NADH indicated mildly cooperative binding with a Hill coefficient of 1.32. The significance of these results is discussed in the light of the high-resolution crystallographic structure for clostridial GDH and in relation to information for GDH from other sources.
Project description:Coaggregation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and oral streptococci is thought to play an important role in P. gingivalis colonization. Previously, we reported that P. gingivalis major fimbriae interacted with Streptococcus oralis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and that amino acid residues 166 to 183 of GAPDH exhibited strong binding activity toward P. gingivalis fimbriae (H. Nagata, M. Iwasaki, K. Maeda, M. Kuboniwa, E. Hashino, M. Toe, N. Minamino, H. Kuwahara, and S. Shizukuishi, Infect. Immun. 77:5130-5138, 2009). The present study aimed to identify and characterize P. gingivalis components other than fimbriae that interact with S. oralis GAPDH. A pulldown assay was performed to detect potential interactions between P. gingivalis client proteins and S. oralis recombinant GAPDH with amino acid residues 166 to 183 deleted by site-directed mutagenesis. Seven proteins, namely, tonB-dependent receptor protein (RagA4), arginine-specific proteinase B, 4-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A dehydratase (AbfD), lysine-specific proteinase, GAPDH, NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by proteomic analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. Interactions between these client proteins and S. oralis GAPDH were analyzed with a biomolecular interaction analysis system. S. oralis GAPDH showed high affinity for five of the seven client proteins (RagA4, AbfD, GAPDH, GDH, and MDH). Interactions between P. gingivalis and S. oralis were measured by a turbidimetric method and fluorescence microscopy. RagA4, AbfD, and GDH enhanced coaggregation, whereas GAPDH and MDH inhibited coaggregation. Furthermore, the expression of luxS in P. gingivalis was upregulated by RagA4, AbfD, and GDH but was downregulated by MDH. These results indicate that the five P. gingivalis client proteins function as regulators in P. gingivalis biofilm formation with oral streptococci.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence for a surface-associated protein (A. Joe, A. Yamamoto, and B. C. McBride, Infect. Immun. 61:3294-3303, 1993) of Porphyromonas gingivalis was determined. The structural gene comprises 1,338 bp and codes for a protein of 445 amino acids. The deduced molecular weight of the protein is 49,243. A data base search for homologous proteins revealed significant sequence similarity to the subunit protein of glutamate dehydrogenases (GDHs) isolated from various sources. This protein, which was previously labelled PgAg1, will now be called GDH. Recombinant GDH was purified to homogeneity, and native GDH was partially purified from P. gingivalis. Both preparations exhibited NAD-dependent GDH activity. Intact P. gingivalis and an extract of cell surface components also demonstrated NAD-dependent GDH activity. To help elucidate the role of this protein, an isogenic mutant of P. gingivalis lacking the GDH protein was generated by deletion disruption. Biological characterization of the mutant strain, P. gingivalis E51, demonstrated complete loss of GDH activity. Immunogold bead labelling of intact cells showed that GDH was no longer present on the surface of the bacterial cell. The GDH-negative mutant displayed impaired cell growth, as demonstrated by an increased generation time and an inability to grow to the same cell density as the parent.
Project description:Amino acid catabolism in Thermococcales is presumed to proceed via three steps: oxidative deamination of amino acids by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or aminotransferases, oxidative decarboxylation by 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (KOR), and hydrolysis of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) by ADP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS). Here, we performed a genetic examination of enzymes involved in Glu catabolism in Thermococcus kodakarensis. Examination of amino acid dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts of T. kodakarensis KUW1 (?pyrF ?trpE) revealed high NADP-dependent GDH activity, along with lower levels of NAD-dependent activity. NADP-dependent activities toward Gln/Ala/Val/Cys and an NAD-dependent threonine dehydrogenase activity were also detected. In KGDH1, a gene disruption strain of T. kodakarensis GDH (Tk-GDH), only threonine dehydrogenase activity was detected, indicating that all other activities were dependent on Tk-GDH. KGDH1 could not grow in a medium in which growth was dependent on amino acid catabolism, implying that Tk-GDH is the only enzyme that can discharge the electrons (to NADP(+)/NAD(+)) released from amino acids in their oxidation to 2-oxoacids. In a medium containing excess pyruvate, KGDH1 displayed normal growth, but higher degrees of amino acid catabolism were observed compared to those for KUW1, suggesting that Tk-GDH functions to suppress amino acid oxidation and plays an anabolic role under this condition. We further constructed disruption strains of 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and succinyl-CoA synthetase. The two strains displayed growth defects in both media compared to KUW1. Succinate generation was not observed in these strains, indicating that the two enzymes are solely responsible for Glu catabolism among the multiple KOR and ACS enzymes in T. kodakarensis.
Project description:Maize plants overexpressing NADH-GOGAT were produced in order to determine if boosting 2-Oxoglurate production used as a carbon skeleton for the biosynthesis of amino acids will improve plant biomass and kernel production. The NADH-GOGAT enzyme recycles glutamate and incorporates carbon skeletons into the ammonium assimilation pathway using the organic acid 2-Oxoglutarate as a substrate. Gene pyramiding was then conducted with NAD-IDH and NADH-GDH, two enzymes also involved in the synthesis of 2-Oxoglurate. NADH-GOGAT overexpression was detrimental for shoot biomass production but did not markedly affect kernel yield. Additional NAD-IDH and NADH-GDH activity did not improve plant performance. A decrease in kernel production was observed when NADH-GDH was pyramided to NADH-GOGAT and NAD-IDH. This decrease could not be restored even when additional cytosolic GS activity was present in the plants overexpressing the three enzymes producing 2-Oxoglutarate. Detailed leaf metabolic profiling of the different transgenic plants revealed that the NADH-GOGAT over-expressors were characterized by an accumulation of amino acids derived from glutamate and a decrease in the amount of carbohydrates further used to provide carbon skeletons for its synthesis. The study suggests that 2-Oxoglutarate synthesis is a key element acting at the interface of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and that its accumulation induces an imbalance of primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism that is detrimental for maize productivity.
Project description:Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate using NAD(P)(+) as coenzyme. Unlike its counterparts from other animal kingdoms, mammalian GDH is regulated by a host of ligands. The recently discovered hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia disorder showed that the loss of allosteric inhibition of GDH by GTP causes excessive secretion of insulin. Subsequent studies demonstrated that wild-type and hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia forms of GDH are inhibited by the green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. This was followed by high throughput studies that identified more stable inhibitors, including hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol. Shown here are the structures of GDH complexed with these three compounds. Hexachlorophene forms a ring around the internal cavity in GDH through aromatic stacking interactions between the drug and GDH as well as between the drug molecules themselves. In contrast, GW5074 and bithionol both bind as pairs of stacked compounds at hexameric 2-fold axes between the dimers of subunits. The internal core of GDH contracts when the catalytic cleft closes during enzymatic turnover. None of the drugs cause conformational changes in the contact residues, but all bind to key interfaces involved in this contraction process. Therefore, it seems likely that the drugs inhibit enzymatic turnover by inhibiting this transition. Indeed, this expansion/contraction process may play a major role in the inter-subunit communication and allosteric regulation observed in GDH.