Structural study of DNA duplexes containing the (6-4) photoproduct by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
ABSTRACT: Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments have been performed to elucidate the structural features of oligonucleotide duplexes containing the pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct, which is one of the major DNA lesions formed at dipyrimidine sites by UV light. Synthetic 32mer duplexes with and without the (6-4) photoproduct were prepared and fluorescein and tetramethylrhodamine were attached, as a donor and an acceptor, respectively, to the aminohexyl linker at the C5 position of thymine in each strand. Steady-state and time-resolved analyses revealed that both the FRET efficiency and the fluorescence lifetime of the duplex containing the (6-4) photoproduct were almost identical to those of the undamaged duplex, while marked differences were observed for a cisplatin-modified duplex, as a model of kinked DNA. Lifetime measurements of a series of duplexes containing the (6-4) photoproduct, in which the fluorescein position was changed systematically, revealed a small unwinding at the damage site, but did not suggest a kinked structure. These results indicate that formation of the (6-4) photoproduct induces only a small change in the DNA structure, in contrast to the large kink at the (6-4) photoproduct site reported in an NMR study.
Project description:The UV portion of sunlight is mutagenic and can modify DNA by producing various photoproducts. UV photodamage often occurs at dipyrimidine sites, to give cyclobutane, pyrimidine-(6-4)-pyrimidone (6-4), and pyrimidine-(6-4)-Dewar pyrimidone (Dewar) photoproducts, and at TA and AA sites. There is no reported evidence, however, of UV photoproduct formation between C or 5-methylC ((m)C) and A. Irradiation of d(GTAT(m)CATGAGGTGC) with UVB light at physiological pH gives an unexpected photoproduct that undergoes fast thermal deamination but does not revert to its original structure under UVC irradiation. Evidence from nuclease P1 digestion coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS is in accord with product formation between (m)C and A. HPLC analysis indicates that deamination gives a T<>A photoproduct that coelutes on reverse-phase chromatography with the well-known TA* photoproduct, formed from an initial [2 + 2] reaction between C5-C6 and C6-C5 of the adjacent thymine and adenine [as shown by Zhao , X. , et al. ( 1996 ) Nucleic Acids Res. 24 , 1554 - 1560 and Davies , R. J. , et al. ( 2007 ) Nucleic Acids Res. 35 , 1048 - 1053 ]. Furthermore, the deamination product of the unknown (m)C<>A photoproduct and the TA* photoproduct undergo nearly identical fragmentation in tandem MS. The evidence, taken together, indicates that the deamination product of the unknown (m)CA photoproduct has the same chemical structure as the TA* photoproduct. Therefore, the unknown photoproduct is referred to as the (m)CA* photoproduct, which, upon deamination, gives the TA* photoproduct.
Project description:Bent structures are formed in DNA by the binding of small molecules or proteins. We developed a chemical method to detect bent DNA structures. Oligonucleotide duplexes in which two mercaptoalkyl groups were attached to the positions facing each other across the major groove were prepared. When the duplex contained the cisplatin adduct, which was proved to induce static helix bending, interstrand disulfide bond formation under an oxygen atmosphere was detected by HPLC analyses, but not in the non-adducted duplex, when the two thiol-tethered nucleosides were separated by six base pairs. When the insert was five and seven base pairs, the disulfide bond was formed and was not formed, respectively, regardless of the cisplatin adduct formation. The same reaction was observed in the duplexes containing an abasic site analog and the (6-4) photoproduct. Compared with the cisplatin case, the disulfide bond formation was slower in these duplexes, but the reaction rate was nearly independent of the linker length. These results indicate that dynamic structural changes of the abasic site- and (6-4) photoproduct-containing duplexes could be detected by our method. It is strongly suggested that the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein, which specifically binds these duplexes and functions at the first step of global-genome nucleotide excision repair, recognizes the easily bendable nature of damaged DNA.
Project description:5-(?-Thyminyl)-5,6-dihydrothymine, also called spore photoproduct or SP, is commonly found in the genomic DNA of UV-irradiated bacterial endospores. Despite the fact that SP was discovered nearly 50 years ago, its biochemical impact is still largely unclear due to the difficulty of preparing SP-containing oligonucleotide in high purity. Here, we report the first synthesis of the phosphoramidite derivative of dinucleotide SP TpT, which enables successful incorporation of SP TpT into oligodeoxyribonucleotides with high efficiency via standard solid-phase synthesis. This result provides the scientific community a reliable means to prepare SP-containing oligonucleotides, laying the foundation for future SP biochemical studies. Thermal denaturation studies of the SP-containing oligonucleotide found that SP destabilizes the duplex by 10-20 kJ/mol, suggesting that its presence in the spore-genomic DNA may alter the DNA local conformation.
Project description:Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is responsible for the removal of a large variety of structurally diverse DNA lesions. Mutations of the involved proteins cause the xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cancer predisposition syndrome. Although the general mechanism of the NER process is well studied, the function of the XPA protein, which is of central importance for successful NER, has remained enigmatic. It is known, that XPA binds kinked DNA structures and that it interacts also with DNA duplexes containing certain lesions, but the mechanism of interactions is unknown. Here we present two crystal structures of the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the yeast XPA homolog Rad14 bound to DNA with either a cisplatin lesion (1,2-GG) or an acetylaminofluorene adduct (AAF-dG). In the structures, we see that two Rad14 molecules bind to the duplex, which induces DNA melting of the duplex remote from the lesion. Each monomer interrogates the duplex with a ?-hairpin, which creates a 13mer duplex recognition motif additionally characterized by a sharp 70° DNA kink at the position of the lesion. Although the 1,2-GG lesion stabilizes the kink due to the covalent fixation of the crosslinked dG bases at a 90° angle, the AAF-dG fully intercalates into the duplex to stabilize the kinked structure.
Project description:Differences in structures and flexibilities of DNA duplexes play important roles on recognition by DNA-binding proteins. We herein describe a novel method for structural analyses of DNA duplexes by using orientation dependence of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We first analyzed canonical B-form duplex and correct structural parameters were obtained. The experimental FRET efficiencies were in excellent agreement with values theoretically calculated by using determined parameters. We then investigated DNA duplexes with nick and gaps, which are key intermediates in DNA repair systems. Effects of gap size on structures and flexibilities were successfully revealed. Since our method is facile and sensitive, it could be widely used to analyze DNA structures containing damages and non-natural molecules.
Project description:We have characterized a novel nuclease from the Kamchatka crab, designated duplex-specific nuclease (DSN). DSN displays a strong preference for cleaving double-stranded DNA and DNA in DNA-RNA hybrid duplexes, compared to single-stranded DNA. Moreover, the cleavage rate of short, perfectly matched DNA duplexes by this enzyme is essentially higher than that for nonperfectly matched duplexes of the same length. Thus, DSN differentiates between one-nucleotide variations in DNA. We developed a novel assay for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection based on this unique property, termed "duplex-specific nuclease preference" (DSNP). In this innovative assay, the DNA region containing the SNP site is amplified and the PCR product mixed with signal probes (FRET-labeled short sequence-specific oligonucleotides) and DSN. During incubation, only perfectly matched duplexes between the DNA template and signal probe are cleaved by DSN to generate sequence-specific fluorescence. The use of FRET-labeled signal probes coupled with the specificity of DSN presents a simple and efficient method for detecting SNPs. We have employed the DSNP assay for the typing of SNPs in methyltetrahydrofolate reductase, prothrombin and p53 genes on homozygous and heterozygous genomic DNA.
Project description:The cis-syn thymine cyclobutane dimer is a DNA photoproduct implicated in skin cancer. We compared the stability of individual base pairs in thymine dimer-containing duplexes to undamaged parent 10-mer duplexes. UV melting thermodynamic measurements, CD spectroscopy, and 2D NOESY NMR spectroscopy confirm that the thymine dimer lesion is locally and moderately destabilizing within an overall B-form duplex conformation. We measured the rates of exchange of individual imino protons by NMR using magnetization transfer from water and determined the equilibrium constant for the opening of each base pair K(op). In the normal duplex K(op) decreases from the frayed ends of the duplex toward the center, such that the central TA pair is the most stable with a K(op) of 8 × 10??. In contrast, base pair opening at the 5'T of the thymine dimer is facile. The 5'T of the dimer has the largest equilibrium constant (K(op) = 3 × 10??) in its duplex, considerably larger than even the frayed penultimate base pairs. Notably, base pairing by the 3'T of the dimer is much more stable than by the 5'T, indicating that the predominant opening mechanism for the thymine dimer lesion is not likely to be flipping out into solution as a single unit. The dimer asymmetrically affects the stability of the duplex in its vicinity, destabilizing base pairing on its 5' side more than on the 3' side. The striking differences in base pair opening between parent and dimer duplexes occur independently of the duplex-single strand melting transitions.
Project description:In yeast, the Rad6-Rad18 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme plays a critical role in promoting replication although DNA lesions by translesion synthesis (TLS). In striking contrast, a number of studies have indicated that TLS can occur in the absence of Rad18 in human and other mammalian cells, and also in chicken cells. In this study, we determine the role of Rad18 in TLS that occurs during replication in human and mouse cells, and show that in the absence of Rad18, replication of duplex plasmids containing a cis-syn TT dimer or a (6-4) TT photoproduct is severely inhibited in human cells and that mutagenesis resulting from TLS opposite cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts formed at the TT, TC, and CC dipyrimidine sites in the chromosomal cII gene in UV-irradiated mouse cells is abolished. From these and other observations with Rad18, we conclude that the Rad6-Rad18 enzyme plays an essential role in promoting replication through DNA lesions by TLS in mammalian cells. In contrast, the dispensability of Rad18 for TLS in chicken DT40 cells would suggest that the role of the Rad6-Rad18 enzyme complex has diverged considerably between chicken and mammals, raising the possibility that TLS mechanisms differ among them.
Project description:The bright fluorescent cytosine analogue tCO stands out among fluorescent bases due to its virtually unquenched fluorescence emission in duplex DNA. However, like most reported base analogues, it has not been thoroughly characterized in RNA. We here report on the first synthesis and RNA-incorporation of tCO, and characterize its base-mimicking and fluorescence properties in RNA. As in DNA, we find a high quantum yield inside RNA duplexes (<?F>?=?0.22) that is virtually unaffected by the neighbouring bases (?F?=?0.20-0.25), resulting in an average brightness of 1900?M-1 cm-1. The average fluorescence lifetime in RNA duplexes is 4.3?ns and generally two lifetimes are required to fit the exponential decays. Fluorescence properties in ssRNA are defined by a small increase in average quantum yield (<?F?>?=?0.24) compared to dsRNA, with a broader distribution (?F?=?0.17-0.34) and slightly shorter average lifetimes. Using circular dichroism, we find that the tCO-modified RNA duplexes form regular A-form helices and in UV-melting experiments the stability of the duplexes is only slightly higher than that of the corresponding natural RNA (<?T m>?=?+?2.3?°C). These properties make tCO a highly interesting fluorescent RNA base analogue for detailed FRET-based structural measurements, as a bright internal label in microscopy, and for fluorescence anisotropy measurements of RNA dynamics.
Project description:In contrast to the highly mutagenic pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct, its Dewar valence isomer (Dewar product) has low mutagenic potential and produces a broad range of mutations [LeClerc, J. E., Borden, A. & Lawrence, C. W. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9685-9689]. To determine the origin of the mutagenic property of the Dewar product, we used experimental NMR restraints and molecular dynamics to determine the solution structure of a Dewar-lesion DNA decamer duplex. This DNA decamer duplex (DW/GA duplex) contains a mismatched base pair between the 3' T residue of the Dewar lesion (T6) and an opposed G residue (G15). The 3' T (T6) of the Dewar lesion formed stable hydrogen bonds with the opposing G15 residue. However, the helical bending and unwinding angles of the DW/GA duplex were much larger than those of a second duplex that contains the Dewar lesion and opposing A15 and A16 residues (DW/AA duplex). The DW/GA duplex showed poorer stacking interactions at the two bases of the Dewar product and at the adjacent A7 small middle dotT14 base pair than did the DW/AA duplex. These structural features imply that no thermal stability or conformational benefit is obtained by incorporating a G instead of an A opposite the 3' T of the Dewar lesion. These properties may thus facilitate the preferential incorporation of an A in accordance with the A rule during translesion replication and lead to the low frequency of 3' T-->C mutations observed at this site.