SclA, a novel collagen-like surface protein of Streptococcus pyogenes.
ABSTRACT: Surface proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes are important virulence factors. Here we describe a novel collagen-like surface protein, designated SclA (streptococcal collagen-like surface protein). The sclA gene was identified in silico using the Streptococcal Genome Sequencing Project with the recently identified protein GRAB as the probe. SclA has a signal sequence and a cell wall attachment region containing the prototypic LPXTGX motif. The surface-exposed part of SclA contains a unique NH(2)-terminal domain of 73 amino acids, followed by a collagen-like region. The sclA gene was found to be positively regulated by Mga, a transcriptional activator of several S. pyogenes virulence determinants. A mutant lacking cell wall-associated SclA was constructed and was found to be as effective as wild-type bacteria in platelet aggregation, survival in fresh human blood, and adherence to pharyngeal cells. The sclA gene was found in all 12 S. pyogenes strains that were investigated using PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the signal sequence and the cell wall attachment region are highly conserved. The collagen-like domain is variable in its NH(2)-terminal region and has conserved repeated domains in its COOH-terminal part. SclA proteins from most strains have additional proline-rich repeats spacing the collagen-like domain and the cell wall attachment sequence. The unique NH(2)-terminal region is hypervariable, but computer predictions indicate a common secondary structure, with two alpha helices connected by a loop region. Immune selection may explain the hypervariability in the NH(2)-terminal region, whereas the preserved secondary structure implies that this region has a common function. These features and the Mga regulation are shared with the M protein of S. pyogenes. Moreover, as with the gene encoding the M protein, phylogenetic analysis indicates that horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the evolution of sclA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Streptococcus pyogenes is an important pathogen that is associated with a range of infections in humans, and causes common and severe invasive diseases. Currently, antimicrobial therapy is the first choice for the treatment of S. pyogenes; however, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and side effects of antibacterial drugs is increasing. Consequently, there is an increased demand for novel drug targets and vaccine design. OBJECTIVES:To develop an effective vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) , we described a novel collagen-like surface protein of S. pyogenes which is important virulence factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this study, we focused on the SclA protein of S. pyogenes and characterized it using bioinformatic tools to introduce it as a candidate novel drug as a candidate for use in vaccine design. The secondary structure was determined and the 3D structure was modeled using SWISS-MODEL workspace. The immune epitope database analysis (IEDB) resource was used to predict regions of SclA that are likely to be recognized as epitopes. RESULTS:The SclA protein is present on the cell surface of the cell and has interact with a common ligand by its hypervariable NH2-terminal regions. The IEDB showed that the maximum peptide length that is likely to be predicted as an epitope is of 6 amino acids, from amino acid 26 to 31, with a score of 4.791. This epitope can be considered for use in Antibody and drug design. CONCLUSIONS:Data from this study about SclA were not sufficient and further studies are needed; however, the information here suggests that SclA could be a candidate for further research on the design of drugs and vaccines against S. pyogenes infections.
Project description:Streptococcus pyogenes is an exclusively human pathogen. Streptococcal attachment to and entry into epithelial cells is a prerequisite for a successful infection of the human host and requires adhesins. Here, we demonstrate that the multidomain protein Epf from S. pyogenes serotype M49 is a streptococcal adhesin. An epf-deficient mutant showed significantly decreased adhesion to and internalization into human keratinocytes. Cell adhesion is mediated by the N-terminal domain of Epf (EpfN) and increased by the human plasma protein plasminogen. The crystal structure of EpfN, solved at 1.6 Å resolution, shows that it consists of two subdomains: a carbohydrate-binding module and a fibronectin type III domain. Both fold types commonly participate in ligand receptor and protein-protein interactions. EpfN is followed by 18 repeats of a domain classified as DUF1542 (domain of unknown function 1542) and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. The DUF1542 repeats are not involved in adhesion, but biophysical studies show they are predominantly ?-helical and form a fiber-like stalk of tandem DUF1542 domains. Epf thus conforms with the widespread family of adhesins known as MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), in which a cell wall-attached stalk enables long range interactions via its adhesive N-terminal domain.
Project description:Group A Streptococcus (GAS) predominantly exists as a colonizer of the human oropharynx that occasionally breaches epithelial barriers to cause invasive diseases. Despite the frequency of GAS carriage, few investigations into the contributory molecular mechanisms exist. To this end, we identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in the gene encoding the streptococcal collagen-like protein A (SclA) in GAS carrier strains. All previously sequenced invasive serotype M3 GAS possess a premature stop codon in the sclA gene truncating the protein. The carrier polymorphism is predicted to restore SclA function and was infrequently identified by targeted DNA sequencing in invasive strains of the same serotype. We demonstrate that a strain with the carrier sclA allele expressed a full-length SclA protein, while the strain with the invasive sclA allele expressed a truncated variant. An isoallelic mutant invasive strain with the carrier sclA allele exhibited decreased virulence in a mouse model of invasive disease and decreased multiplication in human blood. Further, the isoallelic invasive strain with the carrier sclA allele persisted in the mouse nasopharynx and had increased adherence to cultured epithelial cells. Repair of the premature stop codon in the invasive sclA allele restored the ability to bind the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and cellular fibronectin. These data demonstrate that a mutation in GAS carrier strains increases adherence and decreases virulence and suggest selection against increased adherence in GAS invasive isolates.
Project description:The interactions between pathogenic bacteria and the host need to be resolved at the molecular level in order to develop novel antiadhesive drugs and vaccines. We have previously identified strepadhesin, a novel glycoprotein-binding activity in Streptococcus pyogenes binding to thyroglobulin, submaxillar mucin, fetuin, and asialofetuin. The activity is known to be regulated by Mga, a regulator of streptococcal virulence factors, and is carried by the surface-associated streptococcal cysteine protease, SpeB. In the present study, we focused on the high strepadhesin activity in an S. pyogenes strain (NZ131rgg) lacking SpeB expression. By extracting surface proteins from the bacteria, a new strepadhesin protein was identified, and mass spectrometric analysis and database search identified it as a putative pullulanase. The gene was cloned, and the recombinant pullulanase (PulA) exhibited pullulanase and starch hydrolyzing activity, as well as strepadhesin activity. Sequencing of the pulA gene revealed an open reading frame with 3,498 bp encoding a protein of 1,165 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 129 kDa. PulA exhibited properties typical for a gram-positive surface protein with a putative signal sequence and LPKTGE cell wall anchoring motif and contained the four highly conserved regions common to pullulanases. Mutant bacteria deficient in PulA expression showed diminished strepadhesin activity on bacterial dot blot assay and reduced adherence to thyroglobulin immobilized on microtiter plates. Thus, S. pyogenes strepadhesin activity is carried by a surface-bound pullulanase, which combines glycoprotein-binding and carbohydrate-degrading activities in the same molecule.
Project description:The streptococcal antigen I/II (AgI/II)-family polypeptides are cell wall-anchored adhesins expressed by most indigenous oral streptococci. Proteins sharing 30-40% overall amino acid sequence similarities with AgI/II-family proteins are also expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes. The S. pyogenes M28_Spy1325 polypeptide (designated AspA) displays an AgI/II primary structure, with alanine-rich (A) and proline-rich (P) repeats flanking a V region that is projected distal from the cell. In this study it is shown that AspA from serotype M28 S. pyogenes, when expressed on surrogate host Lactococcus lactis, confers binding to immobilized salivary agglutinin gp-340. This binding was blocked by antibodies to the AspA-VP region. In contrast, the N-terminal region of AspA was deficient in binding fluid-phase gp-340, and L. lactis cells expressing AspA were not agglutinated by gp-340. Deletion of the aspA gene from two different M28 strains of S. pyogenes abrogated their abilities to form biofilms on saliva-coated surfaces. In each mutant strain, biofilm formation was restored by trans complementation of the aspA deletion. In addition, expression of AspA protein on the surface of L. lactis conferred biofilm-forming ability. Taken collectively, the results provide evidence that AspA is a biofilm-associated adhesin that may function in host colonization by S. pyogenes.
Project description:Understanding the role surface proteins play in the interaction of group A streptococci with epithelial cells is an important step toward the development of new strategies to fight infections. Fibronectin-binding proteins in streptococci and staphylococci have been described as important mediators for adherence to eukaryotic cells. In the present study we describe a new Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding protein (PFBP). The gene encoding the PFBP protein (pfbp) was identified from an M12 strain genomic library. It encodes a protein of 127.4 kDa which contains the LPXTGX motif characteristic of cell wall-associated proteins in gram-positive organisms and is among the largest surface molecules described for group A streptococci. The pfbp gene is transcribed during cell growth and was present in several class I and II streptococcal strains tested. The deduced amino acid sequence of PFBP exhibits a variable N-terminal region and a conserved C-terminal region when compared to most fibronectin-binding proteins identified from other gram-positive bacteria. The N-terminal region presents a stretch of 105 amino acids with no homology with N-terminal regions of previously described fibronectin-binding molecules, while the C-terminal region contains three repeat domains that share significant similarity with the repeat regions of fibronectin-binding proteins from S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. equisimilis. The PFBP repeated region, when expressed on the surface of S. gordonii, a commensal organism, binds to soluble and immobilized fibronectin. This study also shows that, in addition to pfbp, a second gene homologous with that of protein F1 (which also codes for a fibronectin-binding protein) is transcribed during cell growth in the same S. pyogenes strain.
Project description:The Mga regulator of Streptococcus pyogenes directly activates the transcription of a core regulon that encodes virulence factors such as M protein (emm), C5a peptidase (scpA), and streptococcal inhibitor of complement (sic) by directly binding to a 45-bp binding site as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNase I protection. However, by comparing the nucleotide sequences of all established Mga binding sites, we found that they exhibit only 13.4% identity with no discernible symmetry. To determine the core nucleotides involved in functional Mga-DNA interactions, the M1T1 Pemm1 binding site was altered and screened for nucleotides important for DNA binding in vitro and for transcriptional activation using a plasmid-based luciferase reporter in vivo. Following this analysis, 34 nucleotides within the Pemm1 binding site that had an effect on Mga binding, Mga-dependent transcriptional activation, or both were identified. Of these critical nucleotides, guanines and cytosines within the major groove were disproportionately identified clustered at the 5' and 3' ends of the binding site and with runs of nonessential adenines between the critical nucleotides. On the basis of these results, a Pemm1 minimal binding site of 35 bp bound Mga at a level comparable to the level of binding of the larger 45-bp site. Comparison of Pemm with directed mutagenesis performed in the M1T1 Mga-regulated PscpA and Psic promoters, as well as methylation interference analysis of PscpA, establish that Mga binds to DNA in a promoter-specific manner.
Project description:Fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes mediate invasion of human endothelial and epithelial cells in a process likely to aid the persistence and/or dissemination of infection. In addition to binding sites for the N-terminal domain (NTD) of fibronectin (Fn), a number of streptococcal FnBPs also contain an upstream region (UR) that is closely associated with an NTD-binding region; UR binds to the adjacent gelatin-binding domain (GBD) of Fn. Previously, UR was shown to be required for efficient streptococcal invasion of epithelial cells. Here we show, using a Streptococcus zooepidemicus FnBP, that the UR-binding site in GBD resides largely in the (8)F1(9)F1 module pair. We also show that UR inhibits binding of a peptide from the ?1 chain of type I collagen to (8)F1(9)F1 and that UR binding to (8)F1 is likely to occur through anti-parallel ?-zipper formation. Thus, we propose that streptococcal proteins that contain adjacent NTD- and GBD-binding sites form a highly unusual extended tandem ?-zipper that spans the two domains and mediates high affinity binding to Fn through a large intermolecular interface. The proximity of the UR- and NTD-binding sequences in streptococcal FnBPs is consistent with a non-linear arrangement of modules in the tertiary structure of the GBD of Fn.
Project description:The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes produces pili that are essential for adhesion to host surface receptors. Cpa, the adhesin at the pilus tip, was recently shown to have a thioester-containing domain. The thioester bond is believed to be important in adhesion, implying a mechanism of covalent attachment analogous to that used by human complement factors. Here, we have characterized a second active thioester-containing domain on Cpa, the N-terminal domain of Cpa (CpaN). Expression of CpaN in Escherichia coli gave covalently linked dimers. These were shown by x-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry to comprise two CpaN molecules cross-linked by the polyamine spermidine following reaction with the thioester bonds. This cross-linked CpaN dimer provides a model for the covalent attachment of Cpa to target receptors and thus the streptococcal pilus to host cells. Similar thioester domains were identified in cell wall proteins of other Gram-positive pathogens, suggesting that thioester domains are more widely used and provide a mechanism of adhesion by covalent bonding to target molecules on host cells that mimics that used by the human complement system to eliminate pathogens.
Project description:Streptococcus pyogenes causes a wide variety of human diseases and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Attempts to develop a vaccine were hampered by the genetic diversity of S. pyogenes across different regions of the world. This study sought to identify streptococcal antigens suitable for a region-specific vaccine in India. We used a two-step approach, first performing epidemiological analysis to identify the conserved antigens among Indian isolates. The second step consisted of validating the identified antigens by serological analysis. The 201 streptococcal clinical isolates from India used in this study represented 69 different emm types, with emm12 being the most prevalent. Virulence profiling of the North and South Indian S. pyogenes isolates with a custom-designed streptococcal virulence microarray identified seven conserved putative vaccine candidates. Collagen-like surface protein (SCI), putative secreted 5'-nucleotidase (PSNT), and C5a peptidase were found in 100% of the isolates, while R28, a putative surface antigen (PSA), and a hypothetical protein (HYP) were found in 90% of the isolates. A fibronectin binding protein, SfbI, was present in only 78% of the isolates. In order to validate the identified potential vaccine candidates, 185 serum samples obtained from patients with different clinical manifestations were tested for antibodies. Irrespective of clinical manifestations, serum samples showed high antibody titers to all proteins except for SCI and R28. Thus, the data indicate that PSNT, C5a peptidase, PSA, HYP, and SfbI are promising candidates for a region-specific streptococcal vaccine for the different parts of India.