Type I Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide stimulates toll-like receptor 4 and activates mitogen oxidase 1 in gastric pit cells.
ABSTRACT: Guinea pig gastric pit cells express an isozyme of gp91-phox, mitogen oxidase 1 (Mox1), and essential components for the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (p67-, p47-, p40-, and p22-phox). Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Escherichia coli LPS have been shown to function as potent activators for the Mox1 oxidase. These cells spontaneously secreted about 10 nmol of superoxide anion (O(2)(-))/mg of protein/h under LPS-free conditions. They expressed the mRNA and protein of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not those of TLR2. LPS from type I H. pylori at 2.1 endotoxin units/ml or higher stimulated TLR4-mediated phosphorylations of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 and its binding protein 1 induced TLR4 and p67-phox and up-regulated O(2)(-) production 10-fold. In contrast, none of these events occurred with H. pylori LPS from complete or partial deletion mutants of the cag pathogenicity island. Lipid A was confirmed to be a bioactive component for the priming effects, while removal of bisphosphates from lipid A completely eliminated the effects, suggesting the importance of the phosphorylation pattern besides the acylation pattern for the bioactivity. H. pylori LPS is generally accepted as having low toxicity; however, our results suggest that type I H. pylori lipid A may be a potent stimulator for innate immune responses of gastric mucosa by stimulating the TLR4 cascade and Mox1 oxidase in pit cells.
Project description:Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO), confers potent antiinflammatory effects. Here we demonstrate that CO derived from HO-1 inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 5, and 9 signaling, but not TLR3-dependent signaling, in macrophages. Ligand-mediated receptor trafficking to lipid rafts represents an early event in signal initiation of immune cells. Trafficking of TLR4 to lipid rafts in response to LPS was reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent because it was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and in gp91(phox)-deficient macrophages. CO selectively inhibited ligand-induced recruitment of TLR4 to lipid rafts, which was also associated with the inhibition of ligand-induced ROS production in macrophages. TLR3 did not translocate to lipid rafts by polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)). CO had no effect on poly(I:C)-induced ROS production and TLR3 signaling. The inhibitory effect of CO on TLR-induced cytokine production was abolished in gp91(phox)-deficient macrophages, also indicating a role for NADPH oxidase. CO attenuated LPS-induced NADPH oxidase activity in vitro, potentially by binding to gp91(phox). Thus, CO negatively controlled TLR signaling pathways by inhibiting translocation of TLR to lipid rafts through suppression of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation.
Project description:The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is an important mechanism by which neutrophils kill pathogens. The oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome and 4 soluble proteins (p67(phox), p40(phox), p47(phox), and GTP-Rac). These components form an active complex at the correct time and subcellular location through a series of incompletely understood mutual interactions, regulated, in part, by GTP/GDP exchange on Rac, protein phosphorylation, and binding to lipid messengers. We have used a variety of assays to follow the spatiotemporal assembly of the oxidase in genetically engineered primary mouse neutrophils, during phagocytosis of both serum- and immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. The oxidase assembles directly on serum-Staphylococcus aureus-containing phagosomes within seconds of phagosome formation; this process is only partially dependent (? 30%) on PtdIns3P binding to p40(phox), but totally dependent on Rac1/2 binding to p67(phox). In contrast, in response to immunoglobulin G-targets, the oxidase first assembles on a tubulovesicular compartment that develops at sites of granule fusion to the base of the emerging phagosome; oxidase assembly and activation is highly dependent on both PtdIns3P-p40(phox) and Rac2-p67(phox) interactions and delivery to the phagosome is regulated by Rab27a. These results define a novel pathway for oxidase assembly downstream of FcR-activation.
Project description:The assembly of cytosolic p47(phox) and p67(phox) with flavocytochrome b(558) at the membrane is crucial for activating the leukocyte NADPH oxidase that generates superoxide for microbial killing. p47(phox) and p67(phox) are linked via a high-affinity, tail-to-tail interaction involving a proline-rich region (PRR) and a C-terminal SH3 domain (SH3b), respectively, in their C-termini. This interaction mediates p67(phox) translocation in neutrophils, but is not required for oxidase activity in model systems. Here we examined phagocytosis-induced NADPH oxidase assembly, showing the sequential recruitment of YFP-tagged p67(phox) to the phagosomal cup, and, after phagosome internalization, a probe for PI(3)P followed by a YFP-tagged fragment derived from the p47(phox) PRR. This fragment was recruited in a flavocytochrome b(558)-dependent, p67(phox)-specific, and PI(3)P-independent manner. These findings indicate that p47PRR fragment probes the status of the p67(phox) SH3b domain and suggest that the p47(phox)/p67(phox) tail-to-tail interaction is disrupted after oxidase assembly such that the p67(phox)-SH3b domain becomes accessible. Superoxide generation was sustained within phagosomes, indicating that this change does not correlate with loss of enzyme activity. This study defines a sequence of events during phagocytosis-induced NADPH oxidase assembly and provides experimental evidence that intermolecular interactions within this complex are dynamic and modulated after assembly on phagosomes.
Project description:The phagocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to superoxide and is essential for microbial defense. Electron transport through the oxidase flavocytochrome is activated by the Rac effector p67(phox). Previous studies suggest that Vav1 regulates NADPH oxidase activity elicited by the chemoattractant formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). We show that Vav1 associates with p67(phox) and Rac2, but not Rac1, in fMLP-stimulated human neutrophils, correlating with superoxide production. The interaction of p67(phox) with Vav1 is direct and activates nucleotide exchange on Rac, which enhances the interaction between p67(phox) and Vav1. This provides new molecular insights into regulation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, suggesting that chemoattractant-stimulated superoxide production can be amplified by a positive feedback loop in which p67(phox) targets Vav1-mediated Rac activation.
Project description:NAD(P)H oxidase has been shown to be important in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Here, we show that the expression of a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase, p67(phox), was increased in response to a high-salt diet in the outer renal medulla of the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat, an animal model for human salt-sensitive hypertension. The higher expression of p67(phox), not the other subunits observed, was associated with higher NAD(P)H oxidase activity and salt sensitivity in SS rats compared with a salt-resistant strain. Genetic mutations of the SS allele of p67(phox) were found in the promoter region and contributed to higher promoter activity than that of the salt-resistant strain. To verify the importance of p67(phox), we disrupted p67(phox) in SS rats using zinc-finger nucleases. These rats exhibited a significant reduction of salt-sensitive hypertension and renal medullary oxidative stress and injury. p67(phox) could represent a target for salt-sensitive hypertension therapy.
Project description:The phagocyte NADPH oxidase generates superoxide for microbial killing, and includes a membrane-bound flavocytochrome b(558) and cytosolic p67(phox), p47(phox), and p40(phox) subunits that undergo membrane translocation upon cellular activation. The function of p40(phox), which binds p67(phox) in resting cells, is incompletely understood. Recent studies showed that phagocytosis-induced superoxide production is stimulated by p40(phox) and its binding to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P), a phosphoinositide enriched in membranes of internalized phagosomes. To better define the role of p40(phox) in FcgammaR-induced oxidase activation, we used immunofluorescence and real-time imaging of FcgammaR-induced phagocytosis. YFP-tagged p67(phox) and p40(phox) translocated to granulocyte phagosomes before phagosome internalization and accumulation of a probe for PI3P. p67(phox) and p47(phox) accumulation on nascent and internalized phagosomes did not require p40(phox) or PI3 kinase activity, although superoxide production before and after phagosome sealing was decreased by mutation of the p40(phox) PI3P-binding domain or wortmannin. Translocation of p40(phox) to nascent phagosomes required binding to p67(phox) but not PI3P, although the loss of PI3P binding reduced p40(phox) retention after phagosome internalization. We conclude that p40(phox) functions primarily to regulate FcgammaR-induced NADPH oxidase activity rather than assembly, and stimulates superoxide production via a PI3P signal that increases after phagosome internalization.
Project description:In response to bacterial infection, the neutrophil NADPH oxidase assembles on phagolysosomes to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxygen, forming superoxide and downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS). The active oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome together with three cytosolic phox proteins, p40(phox), p47(phox), and p67(phox), and the small GTPase Rac2, and is regulated through a process involving protein kinase C, MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The role of p40(phox) remains less well defined than those of p47(phox) and p67(phox). We investigated the biological role of p40(phox) in differentiated PLB-985 neutrophils, and we show that depletion of endogenous p40(phox) using lentiviral short hairpin RNA reduces ROS production and impairs bacterial killing under conditions where p67(phox) levels remain constant. Biochemical studies using a cytosol-reconstituted permeabilized human neutrophil cores system that recapitulates intracellular oxidase activation revealed that depletion of p40(phox) reduces both the maximal rate and total amount of ROS produced without altering the K(M) value of the oxidase for NADPH. Using a series of mutants, p47PX-p40(phox) chimeras, and deletion constructs, we found that the p40(phox) PX domain has phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P)-dependent and -independent functions. Translocation of p67(phox) requires the PX domain but not 3-phosphoinositide binding. Activation of the oxidase by p40(phox), however, requires both PtdIns(3)P binding and an Src homology 3 (SH3) domain competent to bind to poly-Pro ligands. Mutations that disrupt the closed auto-inhibited form of full-length p40(phox) can increase oxidase activity approximately 2.5-fold above that of wild-type p40(phox) but maintain the requirement for PX and SH3 domain function. We present a model where p40(phox) translocates p67(phox) to the region of the cytochrome and subsequently switches the oxidase to an activated state dependent upon PtdIns(3)P and SH3 domain engagement.
Project description:Sepsis syndrome is characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to infection. NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) play significant roles in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We previously showed that disruption of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defenses, caused a dysregulation of innate immune response that resulted in greater mortality in a polymicrobial sepsis and LPS shock model; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, compared with wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) macrophages, we observed greater protein kinase C-induced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in Nrf2-disrupted (Nrf2(-/-)) macrophages that was modulated by glutathione levels. To address the NADPH oxidase-mediated hyperinflammatory response and sepsis-induced lung injury and mortality in Nrf2(-/-) mice, we used double knockout mice lacking Nrf2 and NADPH oxidase subunit, gp91(phox) (Nrf2(-/-)//gp91(phox-/-)). Compared with Nrf2(+/+) macrophages, LPS induced greater activation of TLR4 as evident by TLR4 surface trafficking and downstream recruitment of MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor in Nrf2(-/-) macrophages that was diminished by ablation of gp91(phox). Similarly, phosphorylation of IkappaB and IFN regulatory factor 3 as well as cytokine expression was markedly higher in Nrf2(-/-) macrophages; whereas, it was similar in Nrf2(+/+) and Nrf2(-/-)//gp91(phox-/-). In vivo studies showed greater LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation in Nrf2(-/-) mice that was significantly reduced by ablation of gp91(phox). Furthermore, LPS shock and polymicrobial sepsis induced early and greater mortality in Nrf2(-/-) mice; whereas, Nrf2(-/-)//gp91(phox-/-) showed prolonged survival. Together, these results demonstrate that Nrf2 is essential for the regulation of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS-mediated TLR4 activation and lethal innate immune response in sepsis.
Project description:The superoxide (O(·-) 2)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b 558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22 (phox) ), and four cytosolic components, p47 (phox) , p67 (phox) , p40 (phox) , and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O(·-) 2 generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67 (phox) . Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a (369)CysGlyCys(371) triad (CGC) bound p67 (phox) with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67 (phox) only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67 (phox) via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: (1) Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; (2) Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; (3) Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; (4) Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; (5) A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; (6) p67 (phox) , in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67 (phox) to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.
Project description:Rotenone, a widely used pesticide, reproduces parkinsonism in rodents and associates with increased risk for Parkinson disease. We previously reported that rotenone increased superoxide production by stimulating the microglial phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX). This study identified a novel mechanism by which rotenone activates PHOX. Ligand-binding assay revealed that rotenone directly bound to membrane gp91(phox), the catalytic subunit of PHOX; such binding was inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a PHOX inhibitor with a binding site on gp91(phox). Functional studies showed that both membrane and cytosolic subunits were required for rotenone-induced superoxide production in cell-free systems, intact phagocytes, and COS7 cells transfected with membrane subunits (gp91(phox)/p22(phox)) and cytosolic subunits (p67(phox) and p47(phox)). Rotenone-elicited extracellular superoxide release in p47(phox)-deficient macrophages suggested that rotenone enabled activation of PHOX through a p47(phox)-independent mechanism. Increased membrane translocation of p67(phox), elevated binding of p67(phox) to rotenone-treated membrane fractions, and coimmunoprecipitation of p67(phox) and gp91(phox) in rotenone-treated wild-type and p47(phox)-deficient macrophages indicated that p67(phox) played a critical role in rotenone-induced PHOX activation via its direct interaction with gp91(phox). Rac1, a Rho-like small GTPase, enhanced p67(phox)-gp91(phox) interaction; Rac1 inhibition decreased rotenone-elicited superoxide release. In conclusion, rotenone directly interacted with gp91(phox); such an interaction triggered membrane translocation of p67(phox), leading to PHOX activation and superoxide production.