YAP antagonizes TEAD-mediated AR signaling and prostate cancer growth
ABSTRACT: Hippo signaling restricts tumor growth by inhibiting the oncogenic potential of YAP/TAZ-TEAD transcriptional complex. Here, we uncover a context-dependent tumor suppressor function of YAP in androgen receptor (AR) positive prostate cancer (PCa) and show that YAP impedes AR+ PCa growth by antagonizing TEAD-mediated AR signaling. TEAD forms a complex with AR to enhance its promoter/enhancer occupancy and transcriptional activity. YAP and AR compete for TEAD binding and consequently, elevated YAP in the nucleus disrupts AR-TEAD interaction and prevents TEAD from promoting AR signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of MST1/2 or LATS1/2, or transgenic activation of YAP suppressed the growth of PCa expressing therapy resistant AR splicing variants. Our study uncovers an unanticipated crosstalk between Hippo and AR signaling pathways, reveals an antagonistic relationship between YAP and TEAD in AR+ PCa, and suggests that targeting the Hippo signaling pathway may provide a therapeutical opportunity to treat PCa driven by therapy resistant AR variants.
Project description:The Hippo pathway controls organ size and tissue homeostasis, with deregulation leading to cancer. The core Hippo components in mammals are composed of the upstream serine/threonine kinases Mst1/2, MAPK4Ks and Lats1/2. Inactivation of these upstream kinases leads to dephosphorylation, stabilization, nuclear translocation and thus activation of the major functional transducers of the Hippo pathway, YAP and its paralogue TAZ. YAP/TAZ are transcription co-activators that regulate gene expression primarily through interaction with the TEA domain DNA-binding family of transcription factors (TEAD). The current paradigm for regulation of this pathway centres on phosphorylation-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of YAP/TAZ through a complex network of upstream components. However, unlike other transcription factors, such as SMAD, NF-?B, NFAT and STAT, the regulation of TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling has been largely overlooked. In the present study, we show that environmental stress promotes TEAD cytoplasmic translocation via p38 MAPK in a Hippo-independent manner. Importantly, stress-induced TEAD inhibition predominates YAP-activating signals and selectively suppresses YAP-driven cancer cell growth. Our data reveal a mechanism governing TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and show that TEAD localization is a critical determinant of Hippo signalling output.
Project description:The Hippo pathway is a critical transcriptional signaling pathway that regulates cell growth, proliferation and organ development. The transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) protein family consists of four paralogous transcription factors that function to modulate gene expression in response to the Hippo signaling pathway. Transcriptional activation of these proteins occurs upon binding to the co-activator YAP/TAZ whose entry into the nucleus is regulated by Lats1/2 kinase. In recent years, it has become apparent that the dysregulation and/or overexpression of Hippo pathway effectors is implicated in a wide range of cancers, including prostate, gastric and liver cancer. A large body of work has been dedicated to understanding the therapeutic potential of modulating the phosphorylation and localization of YAP/TAZ. However, YAP/TAZ are considered to be natively unfolded and may be intractable as drug targets. Therefore, TEAD proteins present themselves as an excellent therapeutic target for intervention of the Hippo pathway. This review summarizes the functional role of TEAD proteins in cancer and assesses the therapeutic potential of antagonizing TEAD function in vivo.
Project description:The Hippo pathway controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival by regulating the Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator in response to various stimuli, including the mechanical environment. The major YAP regulators are the LATS1/2 kinases, which phosphorylate and inhibit YAP. LATS1/2 are activated by phosphorylation on a hydrophobic motif (HM) outside of the kinase domain by MST1/2 and other kinases. Phosphorylation of the HM motif then triggers autophosphorylation of the kinase in the activation loop to fully activate the kinase, a process facilitated by MOB1. The angiomotin family of proteins (AMOT, AMOTL1, and AMOTL2) bind LATS1/2 and promote its kinase activity and YAP phosphorylation through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that angiomotins increase Hippo signaling through multiple mechanisms. We found that, by binding LATS1/2, SAV1, and YAP, angiomotins function as a scaffold that connects LATS1/2 to both its activator SAV1-MST1 and its target YAP. Deletion of all three angiomotins reduced the association of LATS1 with SAV1-MST1 and decreased MST1/2-mediated LATS1/2-HM phosphorylation. Angiomotin deletion also reduced LATS1/2's ability to associate with and phosphorylate YAP. In addition, we found that angiomotins have an unexpected function along with MOB1 to promote autophosphorylation of LATS1/2 on the activation loop motif independent of HM phosphorylation. These results indicate that angiomotins enhance Hippo signaling by stimulating LATS1/2 autophosphorylation and by connecting LATS1/2 with both its activator SAV1-MST1/2 and its substrate YAP.
Project description:Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway controls tissue growth by regulating the subcellular localization of Yorkie (Yki)/Yap via a cytoplasmic kinase cassette containing an upstream kinase Hpo/MST1/2 and a downstream kinase Warts (Wts)/Lats1/2. Here we show that PRP4K, a kinase involved in mRNA splicing, phosphorylates Yki/Yap in the nucleus to prevent its nuclear accumulation and restrict Hpo pathway target gene expression. PRP4K inactivation accelerates whereas excessive PRP4K inhibits Yki-driven tissue overgrowth. PRP4K phosphorylates a subset of Wts/Lats1/2 sites on Yki/Yap to inhibit the binding of Yki/Yap to the Scalloped (Sd)/TEAD transcription factor and exclude Yki/Yap nuclear localization depending on nuclear export. Furthermore, PRP4K inhibits proliferation and invasiveness of cultured breast cancer cells and its high expression correlates with good prognosis in breast cancer patients. Our study unravels an unanticipated layer of Hpo pathway regulation and suggests that PRP4K-mediated Yki/Yap phosphorylation in the nucleus provides a fail-safe mechanism to restrict aberrant pathway activation.
Project description:Discs Large Homolog 5 (DLG5) plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. Recent research showed that DLG5 is decreased in Yes-associated protein (YAP)-overexpressing cells. However, the exact relationship between DLG5 and YAP is not clear. In this study, we showed that loss of DLG5 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting the Hippo signaling pathway and increasing nuclear YAP expression. Furthermore, depletion of DLG5 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and disrupted epithelial cell polarity, which was associated with altered expression of Scribble, ZO1, E-cadherin and N-cadherin and their mislocalization. Interestingly, we first reported that loss of DLG5 inhibited the interaction of Mst1 and Lats1 with Scribble, which was crucial for YAP activation and the transcription of TEA domain (TEAD) family members. In summary, loss of DLG5 expression promoted breast cancer malignancy by inactivating the Hippo signaling pathway and increasing nuclear YAP.
Project description:The Hippo pathway plays a central role in tissue homoeostasis, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Core components of the Hippo pathway include a kinase cascade of MST1/2 and LATS1/2 and the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ. In response to stimulation, LATS1/2 phosphorylate and inhibit YAP/TAZ, the main effectors of the Hippo pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that MST1/2 are not required for the regulation of YAP/TAZ. Here we show that deletion of LATS1/2 but not MST1/2 abolishes YAP/TAZ phosphorylation. We have identified MAP4K family members--Drosophila Happyhour homologues MAP4K1/2/3 and Misshapen homologues MAP4K4/6/7-as direct LATS1/2-activating kinases. Combined deletion of MAP4Ks and MST1/2, but neither alone, suppresses phosphorylation of LATS1/2 and YAP/TAZ in response to a wide range of signals. Our results demonstrate that MAP4Ks act in parallel to and are partially redundant with MST1/2 in the regulation of LATS1/2 and YAP/TAZ, and establish MAP4Ks as components of the expanded Hippo pathway.
Project description:The Hippo pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size in animals via the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. It consists of a kinase cascade, in which MST1/2 and MAP4Ks phosphorylate and activate LATS1/2, which in turn phosphorylate and inhibit YAP/TAZ activity. A variety of signals can modulate LATS1/2 kinase activity to regulate Hippo pathway. However, the full mechanistic details of kinase-mediated regulation of Hippo pathway signaling remain elusive. Here, we report that TNF activates LATS1/2 and inhibits YAP/TAZ activity through MEKK2/3. Furthermore, MEKK2/3 act in parallel to MST1/2 and MAP4Ks to regulate LATS1/2 and YAP/TAZ in response to various signals, such as serum and actin dynamics. Mechanistically, we show that MEKK2/3 interact with LATS1/2 and YAP/TAZ and phosphorylate them. In addition, Striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex associates with MEKK3 via CCM2 and CCM3 to inactivate MEKK3 kinase activity. Upstream signals of Hippo pathway trigger the dissociation of MEKK3 from STRIPAK complex to release MEKK3 activity. Our work has uncovered a previous unrecognized regulation of Hippo pathway via MEKK2/3 and provides new insights into molecular mechanisms for the interplay between Hippo-YAP and NF-κB signaling and the pathogenesis of cerebral cavernous malformations.
Project description:One of the hallmarks of cancers is the silencing of tumour suppressor genes and pathways. The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway is inactivated in many types of cancers, leading to tumour progression and metastasis. However, the mechanisms of pathway inactivation in tumours remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) plays a critical role in the suppression of the Hippo pathway via phospho-inhibition of MYPT1-PP1, leading to inactivation of Merlin. Inhibition of ILK in breast, prostate and colon tumour cells results in the activation of the Hippo pathway components MST1 and LATS1 with concomitant inactivation of YAP/TAZ (Yes-associated protein/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif) transcriptional co-activators and TEAD-mediated transcription. Genetic deletion of ILK suppresses ErbB2-driven YAP/TAZ activation in mammary tumours, and its pharmacological inhibition suppresses YAP activation and tumour growth in vivo. Our data demonstrate a role for ILK as a multiple receptor proximal regulator of Hippo tumour suppressor pathway and as a cancer therapeutic target.
Project description:The Hippo pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that regulates a broad range of biological functions, and dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is a feature of a variety of cancers. Given this, some have suggested that disrupting the interaction of the Hippo core component YAP and its paralog TAZ with transcriptional factor TEAD may be an effective strategy for cancer therapy. However, there are currently no clinically available drugs targeting the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction for cancer treatment. To facilitate screens for small molecule compounds that disrupt the YAP-TEAD interaction, we have developed the first ultra-bright NanoLuc biosensor to quantify YAP/TAZ-TEAD protein-protein interaction (PPI) both in living cells and also in vitro using biosensor fusion proteins purified from bacteria. Using this biosensor, we have performed an in vitro high throughput screen (HTS) of small molecule compounds and have identified and validated the drug Celastrol as a novel inhibitor of YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction. We have also demonstrated that Celastrol can inhibit cancer cell proliferation, transformation, and cell migration. In this study, we describe a new inhibitor of the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction warranting further investigation and offer a novel biosensor tool for the discovery of other new Hippo-targeting drugs in future work.
Project description:The Hippo pathway regulates the down-stream target Yes-associated protein (YAP) to maintain organ homeostasis, which is commonly inactivated in many types of cancers. However, how cell adhesion dysregulates the Hippo pathway activating YAP oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our findings demonstrate that ?2?1 integrin (but not other ?1 integrins) expressed in HCC cells, after binding to collagen extracellular matrix, could inhibit MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activate YAP pro-oncogenic activities. Knockdown of integrin ?2 gene (ITGA2) suppressed YAP targeted gene expression in vitro. ?2?1 and collagen binding resulted in suppressing Hippo signaling of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) and Large tumor suppressor homolog 1 (LATS1) with concomitant activation of YAP-mediated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression. In vitro kinase assay showed that MST1 is an immediate downstream target of integrin ?2 with S1180 residue as the critical phosphorylation site. Clinical correlational analysis using a gene expression dataset of 228 HCC tumors revealed that ITGA2 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression, and co-expression with YAP targeted genes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, CTGF, cyclin D1, glypican 3, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, and SRY-box 4) correlated with survivals of HCC patients. In conclusion, ?2?1 integrin activation through cellular adhesion impacts the Hippo pathway in solid tumors and modulates MST1-YAP signaling cascade. Targeting integrin ?2 holds promises for treating YAP-positive HCC.