Histone H2A phosphorylation recruits topoisomerase II? to centromeres to safeguard genomic stability
ABSTRACT: Chromosome segregation in mitosis requires the removal of catenation between sister chromatids. Timely decatenation of sister DNAs at mitotic centromeres by topoisomerase II? (TOP2A) is crucial to maintain genomic stability. The chromatin factors that recruit TOP2A to centromeres during mitosis remain unknown. Here, we show that histone H2A Thr-120 phosphorylation (H2ApT120), a modification generated by the mitotic kinase Bub1, is necessary and sufficient for the centromeric localization of TOP2A. Phosphorylation at residue-120 enhances histone H2A binding to TOP2A in vitro. The C-gate and the extreme C-terminal region are important for H2ApT120-dependent localization of TOP2A at centromeres. Preventing H2ApT120-mediated accumulation of TOP2A at mitotic centromeres interferes with sister chromatid disjunction, as evidenced by increased frequency of anaphase ultra-fine bridges (UFBs) that contain catenated DNA. Tethering TOP2A to centromeres bypasses the requirement for H2ApT120 in suppressing anaphase UFBs. These results demonstrate that H2ApT120 acts as a landmark that recruits TOP2A to mitotic centromeres to decatenate sister DNAs. Our study reveals a fundamental role for histone phosphorylation in resolving centromere DNA entanglements and safeguarding genomic stability during mitosis.
Project description:During mitosis, sister chromatids must be faithfully segregated to ensure that daughter cells receive one copy of each chromosome. However, following replication they often remain entangled. Topoisomerase II? (TOP2A) has been proposed to resolve such entanglements, but the mechanisms governing TOP2A recruitment to these structures remain poorly understood. Here, we identify TOPBP1 as a novel interactor of TOP2A, and reveal that it is required for TOP2A recruitment to ultra-fine anaphase bridges (UFBs) in mitosis. The C-terminal region of TOPBP1 interacts with TOP2A, and TOPBP1 recruitment to UFBs requires its BRCT domain 5. Depletion of TOPBP1 leads to accumulation of UFBs, the majority of which arise from centromeric loci. Accordingly, expression of a TOPBP1 mutant that is defective in TOP2A binding phenocopies TOP2A depletion. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into how TOP2A promotes resolution of UFBs during mitosis, and highlights a pivotal role for TOPBP1 in this process.
Project description:The spatial and temporal control of histone modifications is crucial for precise regulation of chromatin structure and function. Here we report that phosphorylation of H2A at threonine 119 (T119) is enriched at centromere regions in Drosophila mitosis. We found that the Aurora B kinase complex is essential for this phosphorylation at centromeres, while Polo kinase is required to down-regulate H2A phosphorylation on chromosome arms in mitosis. Cyclin B degradation triggers loss of centromeric H2A phosphorylation at anaphase onset. Epistasis analysis indicated that Polo functions upstream of the H2A kinase NHK-1 but parallel to Aurora B. Therefore, multiple mitotic kinases work together to specify the spatial and temporal pattern of H2A T119 phosphorylation.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers regulate the nucleosome barrier during transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. The chromatin remodeler RSF1 is enriched at mitotic centromeres, but the functional consequences of this enrichment are not completely understood. Shugoshin (Sgo1) protects centromeric cohesion during mitosis and requires BuB1-dependent histone H2A phosphorylation (H2A-pT120) for localization. Loss of Sgo1 at centromeres causes chromosome missegregation. Here, we show that RSF1 regulates Sgo1 localization to centromeres through coordinating a crosstalk between histone acetylation and phosphorylation. RSF1 interacts with and recruits HDAC1 to centromeres, where it counteracts TIP60-mediated acetylation of H2A at K118. This deacetylation is required for the accumulation of H2A-pT120 and Sgo1 deposition, as H2A-K118 acetylation suppresses H2A-T120 phosphorylation by Bub1. Centromeric tethering of HDAC1 prevents premature chromatid separation in RSF1 knockout cells. Our results indicate that RSF1 regulates the dynamics of H2A histone modifications at mitotic centromeres and contributes to the maintenance of chromosome stability.
Project description:Cohesin maintains sister chromatid cohesion until its Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 is cleaved by separase during anaphase. DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) maintains the proper topology of chromatid DNAs and is essential for chromosome segregation. Here we report direct observations of mitotic progression in individual HeLa cells after functional disruptions of hRad21, NIPBL, a loading factor for hRad21, and topo II alpha,beta by RNAi and a topo II inhibitor, ICRF-193. Mitosis is delayed in a Mad2-dependent manner after disruption of either or both cohesin and topo II. In hRad21 depletion, interphase pericentric architecture becomes aberrant, and anaphase is virtually permanently delayed as preseparated chromosomes are misaligned on the metaphase spindle. Topo II disruption perturbs centromere organization leading to intense Bub1, but no Mad2, on kinetochores and sustains a Mad2-dependent delay in anaphase onset with persisting securin. Thus topo II impinges upon centromere/kinetochore function. Disruption of topo II by RNAi or ICRF-193 overrides the mitotic delay induced by cohesin depletion: sister centromeres are aligned and anaphase spindle movements occur. The ensuing accumulation of catenations in preseparated sister chromatids may overcome the reduced tension arising from cohesin depletion, causing the override. Cohesin and topo II have distinct, yet coordinated functions in metaphase alignment.
Project description:The Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH) protein localizes to ultrafine anaphase bridges (UFBs) in mitosis alongside a complex of DNA repair proteins, including the Bloom's syndrome protein (BLM). However, very little is known about the function of PICH or how it is recruited to UFBs. Using a combination of microfluidics, fluorescence microscopy, and optical tweezers, we have defined the properties of PICH in an in vitro model of an anaphase bridge. We show that PICH binds with a remarkably high affinity to duplex DNA, resulting in ATP-dependent protein translocation and extension of the DNA. Most strikingly, the affinity of PICH for binding DNA increases with tension-induced DNA stretching, which mimics the effect of the mitotic spindle on a UFB. PICH binding also appears to diminish force-induced DNA melting. We propose a model in which PICH recognizes and stabilizes DNA under tension during anaphase, thereby facilitating the resolution of entangled sister chromatids.
Project description:Cohesion between sister chromatids is essential for their bi-orientation on mitotic spindles. It is mediated by a multisubunit complex called cohesin. In yeast, proteolytic cleavage of cohesin's alpha kleisin subunit at the onset of anaphase removes cohesin from both centromeres and chromosome arms and thus triggers sister chromatid separation. In animal cells, most cohesin is removed from chromosome arms during prophase via a separase-independent pathway involving phosphorylation of its Scc3-SA1/2 subunits. Cohesin at centromeres is refractory to this process and persists until metaphase, whereupon its alpha kleisin subunit is cleaved by separase, which is thought to trigger anaphase. What protects centromeric cohesin from the prophase pathway? Potential candidates are proteins, known as shugoshins, that are homologous to Drosophila MEI-S332 and yeast Sgo1 proteins, which prevent removal of meiotic cohesin complexes from centromeres at the first meiotic division. A vertebrate shugoshin-like protein associates with centromeres during prophase and disappears at the onset of anaphase. Its depletion by RNA interference causes HeLa cells to arrest in mitosis. Most chromosomes bi-orient on a metaphase plate, but precocious loss of centromeric cohesin from chromosomes is accompanied by loss of all sister chromatid cohesion, the departure of individual chromatids from the metaphase plate, and a permanent cell cycle arrest, presumably due to activation of the spindle checkpoint. Remarkably, expression of a version of Scc3-SA2 whose mitotic phosphorylation sites have been mutated to alanine alleviates the precocious loss of sister chromatid cohesion and the mitotic arrest of cells lacking shugoshin. These data suggest that shugoshin prevents phosphorylation of cohesin's Scc3-SA2 subunit at centromeres during mitosis. This ensures that cohesin persists at centromeres until activation of separase causes cleavage of its alpha kleisin subunit. Centromeric cohesion is one of the hallmarks of mitotic chromosomes. Our results imply that it is not an intrinsically stable property, because it can easily be destroyed by mitotic kinases, which are kept in check by shugoshin.
Project description:Aurora B localization to mitotic centromeres, which is required for proper chromosome alignment during mitosis, relies on Haspin-dependent histone H3 phosphorylation and on Bub1-dependent histone H2A phosphorylation--which interacts with Borealin through a Shugoshin (Sgo) intermediate. We demonstrate that Mps1 stimulates the latter recruitment axis. Mps1 activity enhances H2A-T120ph and is critical for Sgo1 recruitment to centromeres, thereby promoting Aurora B centromere recruitment in early mitosis. Importantly, chromosome biorientation defects caused by Mps1 inhibition are improved by restoring Aurora B centromere recruitment. As Mps1 kinetochore localization reciprocally depends on Aurora B, we propose that this Aurora B-Mps1 recruitment circuitry cooperates with the Aurora B-Haspin feedback loop to ensure rapid centromere accumulation of Aurora B at the onset of mitosis.
Project description:The inner centromere region of a mitotic chromosome critically regulates sister chromatid cohesion and kinetochore-microtubule attachments. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inner centromere assembly remains elusive. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing in HeLa cells, we disrupted the interaction of Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) with histone H2A phosphorylated on Thr-120 (H2ApT120) to selectively release Sgo1 from mitotic centromeres. Interestingly, cells expressing the H2ApT120-binding defective mutant of Sgo1 have an elevated rate of chromosome missegregation accompanied by weakened centromeric cohesion and decreased centromere accumulation of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), an integral part of the inner centromere and a key player in the correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments. When artificially tethered to centromeres, a Sgo1 mutant defective in binding protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is not able to support proper centromeric cohesion and CPC accumulation, indicating that the Sgo1-PP2A interaction is essential for the integrity of mitotic centromeres. We further provide evidence indicating that Sgo1 protects centromeric cohesin to create a binding site for the histone H3-associated protein kinase Haspin, which not only inhibits the cohesin release factor Wapl and thereby strengthens centromeric cohesion but also phosphorylates histone H3 at Thr-3 to position CPC at inner centromeres. Taken together, our findings reveal a positive feedback-based mechanism that ensures proper assembly of the functional inner centromere during mitosis. They further suggest a causal link between centromeric cohesion defects and chromosomal instability in cancer cells.
Project description:The ring-shaped cohesin complex links sister chromatids until their timely segregation during mitosis. Cohesin is enriched at centromeres where it provides the cohesive counterforce to bipolar tension produced by the mitotic spindle. As a consequence of spindle tension, centromeric sequences transiently split in pre-anaphase cells, in some organisms up to several micrometers. This 'centromere breathing' presents a paradox, how sister sequences separate where cohesin is most enriched. We now show that in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cohesin binding diminishes over centromeric sequences that split during breathing. We see no evidence for cohesin translocation to surrounding sequences, suggesting that cohesin is removed from centromeres during breathing. Two pools of cohesin can be distinguished. Cohesin loaded before DNA replication, which has established sister chromatid cohesion, disappears during breathing. In contrast, cohesin loaded after DNA replication is partly retained. As sister centromeres re-associate after transient separation, cohesin is reloaded in a manner independent of the canonical cohesin loader Scc2/Scc4. Efficient centromere re-association requires the cohesion establishment factor Eco1, suggesting that re-establishment of sister chromatid cohesion contributes to the dynamic behaviour of centromeres in mitosis. These findings provide new insights into cohesin behaviour at centromeres.
Project description:During mitosis, Bub1 kinase phosphorylates histone H2A-T120 to promote centromere sister chromatid cohesion through recruitment of shugoshin (Sgo) proteins. The regulation and dynamics of H2A-T120 phosphorylation are poorly understood. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics we show that Bub1 is autophosphorylated at numerous sites. We confirm mitosis-specific autophosphorylation of a several residues and show that Bub1 activation is primed in interphase but fully achieved only in mitosis. Mutation of a single autophosphorylation site T589 alters kinetochore turnover of Bub1 and results in uniform H2A-T120 phosphorylation and Sgo recruitment along chromosome arms. Consequently, improper sister chromatid resolution and chromosome segregation errors are observed. Kinetochore tethering of Bub1-T589A refocuses H2A-T120 phosphorylation and Sgo1 to centromeres. Recruitment of the Bub1-Bub3-BubR1 axis to kinetochores has recently been extensively studied. Our data provide novel insight into the regulation and kinetochore residency of Bub1 and indicate that its localization is dynamic and tightly controlled through feedback autophosphorylation.