MAP4K4 associates with BIK1 to regulate plant innate immunity
ABSTRACT: To perceive pathogens, plants employ pattern recognition receptor (PRR) complexes, which then transmit these signals via the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 to induce defense responses. How BIK1 activity and stability are controlled is still not completely understood. Here we show that the Hippo/STE20 homolog MAP4K4 regulates BIK1-mediated immune responses. MAP4K4 associates and phosphorylates BIK1 at Ser233, Ser236 and Thr242 to ensure BIK1 stability and activity. Furthermore, MAP4K4 phosphorylates PP2C38 at Ser77 to enable flg22-induced BIK1 activation. Our results uncover that a Hippo/STE20 homolog, MAP4K4, maintains the homeostasis of the central immune component BIK1.
Project description:To perceive pathogens, plants employ pattern recognition receptor (PRR) complexes, which then transmit these signals via the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 to induce defense responses. How BIK1 activity and stability are controlled is still not completely understood. Here, we show that the Hippo/STE20 homolog MAP4K4 regulates BIK1-mediated immune responses. MAP4K4 associates and phosphorylates BIK1 at Ser233, Ser236, and Thr242 to ensure BIK1 stability and activity. Furthermore, MAP4K4 phosphorylates PP2C38 at Ser77 to enable flg22-induced BIK1 activation. Our results uncover that a Hippo/STE20 homolog, MAP4K4, maintains the homeostasis of the central immune component BIK1.
Project description:Plants have evolved intricate immune mechanisms to combat pathogen infection. Upon perception of pathogen-derived signals, plants accumulate defense hormones such as ethylene (ET), jasmonate, salicylate, and damage-associated molecular patterns to amplify immune responses. In particular, the Arabidopsis peptide Pep1 and its family members are thought to be damage-associated molecular patterns that trigger immunity through Pep1 receptor kinases PEPR1 and PEPR2. Here we show that PEPR1 specifically interacts with receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases botrytis-induced kinase 1 (BIK1) and PBS1-like 1 (PBL1) to mediate Pep1-induced defenses. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that PEPR1, and likely PEPR2, directly phosphorylates BIK1 in response to Pep1 treatment. Surprisingly, the pepr1/pepr2 double-mutant seedlings displayed reduced in sensitivity to ET, as indicated by the elongated hypocotyls. ET-induced expression of defense genes and resistance to Botrytis cinerea were compromised in pepr1/pepr2 and bik1 mutants, reenforcing an important role of PEPRs and BIK1 in ET-mediated defense signaling. Pep treatment partially mimicked ET-induced seedling growth inhibition in a PEPR- and BIK1-dependent manner. Furthermore, both ET and Pep1 treatments induced BIK1 phosphorylation in a PEPR-dependent manner. However, the Pep1-induced BIK1 phosphorylation, seedling growth inhibition, and defense gene expression were independent of canonical ET signaling components. Together our results illustrate a mechanism by which ET and PEPR signaling pathways act in concert to amplify immune responses.
Project description:Plants employ cell-surface receptor-like kinases to detect extrinsic and intrinsic signals, thus make a trade-off between growth and immunity. The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases on the cytoplasmic side act as downstream components involved in the activation, transmission, and integration of intracellular signals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the RLCK BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) associates with multiple RLKs to regulate pathogen defense responses and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. However, little is known about the biological functions of BIK1 in developmental processes in Arabidopsis. In this study, we established that mutation of ERECTA (ER), an important RLK, counteracts the developmental effects of loss of BIK1 function. BIK1 and ER play opposing roles in leaf morphogenesis and inflorescence architecture. Moreover, we confirmed that BIK1 is required to maintain appropriate auxin response during leaf margin morphogenesis. Finally, we found that BIK1 interacts with ER-family proteins and directly phosphorylates ER. Our findings might provide novel insight into the function of BIK1 in leaf and inflorescence development.
Project description:The sessile plants have evolved a large number of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) to modulate diverse biological processes, including plant innate immunity. Phosphorylation of the RLK/RLCK complex constitutes an essential step to initiate immune signaling. Two Arabidopsis plasma membrane-resident RLKs, flagellin-sensing 2 and brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1), interact with RLCK Botrytis-induced kinase 1 (BIK1) to initiate plant immune responses to bacterial flagellin. BAK1 directly phosphorylates BIK1 and positively regulates plant immunity. Classically defined as a serine/threonine kinase, BIK1 is shown here to possess tyrosine kinase activity with mass spectrometry, immunoblot, and genetic analyses. BIK1 is autophosphorylated at multiple tyrosine (Y) residues in addition to serine/threonine residues. Importantly, BAK1 is able to phosphorylate BIK1 at both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. BIK1Y150 is likely catalytically important as the mutation blocks both tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase activity, whereas Y243 and Y250 are more specifically involved in tyrosine phosphorylation. The BIK1 tyrosine phosphorylation plays a crucial role in BIK1-mediated plant innate immunity as the transgenic plants carrying BIK1Y150F, Y243F, or Y250F (the mutation of tyrosine to phenylalanine) failed to complement the bik1 mutant deficiency in immunity. Our data indicate that plant RLCK BIK1 is a nonreceptor dual-specificity kinase and both tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase activities are required for its functions in plant immune signaling. Together with the previous finding of BAK1 to be autophosphorylated at tyrosine residues, our results unveiled the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade as a common regulatory mechanism that controls membrane-resident receptor signaling in plants and metazoans.
Project description:Plants and animals rely on innate immunity to prevent infections by detection of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The plant PRR FLS2, a leucine-rich repeat-receptor kinase, recognizes bacterial flagellin and initiates immune signaling by association with another leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinase, BAK1. It remains unknown how the FLS2/BAK1 receptor complex activates intracellular signaling cascades. Here we identified the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 that is rapidly phosphorylated upon flagellin perception, depending on both FLS2 and BAK1. BIK1 associates with FLS2 and BAK1 in vivo and in vitro. BIK1 is phosphorylated by BAK1, and BIK1 also directly phosphorylates BAK1 and FLS2 in vitro. The flagellin phosphorylation site Thr(237) of BIK1 is required for its phosphorylation on BAK1 and FLS2, suggesting that BIK1 is likely first phosphorylated upon flagellin perception and subsequently transphosphorylates FLS2/BAK1 to propagate flagellin signaling. Importantly, bik1 mutants are compromised in diverse flagellin-mediated responses and immunity to the nonpathogenic bacterial infection. Thus, BIK1 is an essential component in MAMP signal transduction, which links the MAMP receptor complex to downstream intracellular signaling.
Project description:Maintaining active growth and effective immune responses is often costly for a living organism to survive. Fine-tuning the shared cross-regulators is crucial for metazoans and plants to make a trade-off between growth and immunity. The Arabidopsis regulatory receptor-like kinase BAK1 complexes with the receptor kinases FLS2 in bacterial flagellin-triggered immunity and BRI1 in brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated growth. BR homeostasis and signaling unidirectionally modulate FLS2-mediated immune responses at multiple levels. We have shown previously that BIK1, a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, is directly phosphorylated by BAK1 and associates with FLS2/BAK1 complex in transducing flagellin signaling. In contrast to its positive role in plant immunity, we report here that BIK1 acts as a negative regulator in BR signaling. The bik1 mutant displays various BR hypersensitive phenotypes accompanied with increased accumulation of de-phosphorylated BES1 proteins and transcriptional regulation of BZR1 and BES1 target genes. BIK1 associates with BRI1, and is released from BRI1 receptor upon BR treatment, which is reminiscent of FLS2-BIK1 complex dynamics in flagellin signaling. The ligand-induced release of BIK1 from receptor complexes is associated with BIK1 phosphorylation. However, in contrast to BAK1-dependent FLS2-BIK1 dissociation, BAK1 is dispensable for BRI1-BIK1 dissociation. Unlike FLS2 signaling which depends on BAK1 to phosphorylate BIK1, BRI1 directly phosphorylates BIK1 to transduce BR signaling. Thus, BIK1 relays the signaling in plant immunity and BR-mediated growth via distinct phosphorylation by BAK1 and BRI1, respectively. Our studies indicate that BIK1 mediates inverse functions in plant immunity and development via dynamic association with specific receptor complexes and differential phosphorylation events.
Project description:The attachment of kinetochores to spindle microtubules (MTs) is essential for maintaining constant ploidy in eukaryotic cells. Here, biochemical and imaging data is presented demonstrating that the budding yeast CLIP-170 orthologue Bik1is a component of the kinetochore-MT binding interface. Strikingly, Bik1 is not required for viability in haploid cells, but becomes essential in polyploids. The ploidy-specific requirement for BIK1 enabled us to characterize BIK1 without eliminating nonhomologous genes, providing a new approach to circumventing the overlapping function that is a common feature of the cytoskeleton. In polyploid cells, Bik1 is required before anaphase to maintain kinetochore separation and therefore contributes to the force that opposes the elastic recoil of attached sister chromatids. The role of Bik1 in kinetochore separation appears to be independent of the role of Bik1 in regulating MT dynamics. The finding that a protein involved in kinetochore-MT attachment is required for the viability of polyploids has potential implications for cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1, and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2, and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40-50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2) and npr1-1 [non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR)] mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms.
Project description:Glioma cell migration correlates with Pyk2 activity, but the intrinsic mechanism that regulates the activity of Pyk2 is not fully understood. Previous studies have supported a role for the N-terminal FERM domain in the regulation of Pyk2 activity as mutations in the FERM domain inhibit Pyk2 phosphorylation. To search for novel protein-protein interactions mediated by the Pyk2 FERM domain, we utilized a yeast two-hybrid genetic selection to identify the mammalian Ste20 homolog MAP4K4 as a binding partner for the Pyk2 FERM domain. MAP4K4 coimmunoprecipitated with Pyk2 and was a substrate for Pyk2 but did not coimmunoprecipitate with the closely related focal adhesion kinase FAK. Knockdown of MAP4K4 expression inhibited glioma cell migration and effectively blocked Pyk2 stimulation of glioma cell. Increased expression of MAP4K4 stimulated glioma cell migration; however, this stimulation was blocked by knockdown of Pyk2 expression. These data support that the interaction of MAP4K4 and Pyk2 is integrated with glioma cell migration and suggest that inhibition of this interaction may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to limit glioblastoma tumor dispersion.
Project description:Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1. PP2C38 regulates PAMP-induced BIK1 phosphorylation and impairs the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by BIK1, leading to reduced oxidative burst and stomatal immunity. Upon PAMP perception, PP2C38 is phosphorylated on serine 77 and dissociates from the FLS2/EFR-BIK1 complexes, enabling full BIK1 activation. Together with our recent work on the control of BIK1 turnover, this study reveals another important regulatory mechanism of this central immune component.