ABSTRACT: PARP-1 holds major functions on chromatin, DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, both of which are relevant in the context of cancer. Here, unbiased transcriptional profiling revealed the downstream transcriptional profile of PARP-1 enzymatic activity. Further investigation of the PARP-1-regulated transcriptome and secondary strategies for assessing PARP-1 activity in patient tissues revealed that PARP-1 activity was unexpectedly enriched as a function of disease progression and was associated with poor outcome independent of DNA double-strand breaks, suggesting that enhanced PARP-1 activity may promote aggressive phenotypes. Mechanistic investigation revealed that active PARP-1 served to enhance E2F1 transcription factor activity, and specifically promoted E2F1-mediated induction of DNA repair factors involved in homologous recombination (HR). Conversely, PARP-1 inhibition reduced HR factor availability and thus acted to induce or enhance "BRCA-ness" These observations bring new understanding of PARP-1 function in cancer and have significant ramifications on predicting PARP-1 inhibitor function in the clinical setting.
Project description:PARP-1 holds major functions on chromatin, DNA damage repair and transcriptional regulation, both of which are relevant in the context of cancer. Here, unbiased transcriptional profiling revealed the downstream transcriptional profile of PARP-1 enzymatic activity. Further investigation of the PARP-1-regulated transcriptome and secondary strategies for assessing PARP-1 activity in patient tissues revealed that PARP-1 activity was unexpectedly enriched as a function of disease progression and was associated with poor outcome independent of DNA double-strand breaks, suggesting that enhanced PARP-1 activity may promote aggressive phenotypes. Mechanistic investigation revealed that active PARP-1 served to enhance E2F1 transcription factor activity, and specifically promoted E2F1-mediated induction of DNA repair factors involved in homologous recombination (HR). Conversely, PARP-1 inhibition reduced HR factor availability and thus acted to induce or enhance "BRCA-ness". These observations bring new understanding of PARP-1 function in cancer and have significant ramifications on predicting PARP-1 inhibitor function in the clinical setting.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Homologous recombination (HR) proficient ovarian cancers, including CCNE1 (cyclin E)-amplified tumors, are resistant to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are effective in overcoming tumor resistance to DNA damaging drugs. Our goal was to determine whether panobinostat, a newly FDA-approved HDACi, can sensitize cyclin E, HR-proficient ovarian cancer cells to the PARPi olaparib. METHODS:Expression levels of CCNE1 (cyclin E), BRCA1, RAD51 and E2F1 in ovarian tumors and cell lines were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Broad-Novartis Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). In HR-proficient ovarian cancer cell line models (OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4, SKOV-3, and UWB1.289+BRCA1 wild-type), cell growth and viability were assessed by sulforhodamine B and xenograft assays. DNA damage and repair (pH2AX and RAD51 co-localization and DRGFP reporter activity) and apoptosis (cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3) were assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blot assays. RESULTS:TCGA and CCLE data revealed positive correlations (Spearman) between cyclin E E2F1, and E2F1 gene targets related to DNA repair (BRCA1 and RAD51). Panobinostat downregulated cyclin E and HR repair pathway genes, and reduced HR efficiency in cyclin E-amplified OVCAR-3 cells. Further, panobinostat synergized with olaparib in reducing cell growth and viability in HR-proficient cells. Similar co-operative effects were observed in xenografts, and on pharmacodynamic markers of HR repair, DNA damage and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:These results provide preclinical rationale for using HDACi to reduce HR in cyclin E-overexpressing and other types of HR-proficient ovarian cancer as a means of enhancing PARPi activity.
Project description:The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor is recognized as a master regulator that controls entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. Its loss leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation and is a hallmark of cancer. RB works by binding to members of the E2F family of transcription factors and recruiting chromatin modifiers to the promoters of E2F target genes. Here we show that RB also localizes to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) dependent on E2F1 and ATM kinase activity and promotes DSB repair through homologous recombination (HR), and its loss results in genome instability. RB is necessary for the recruitment of the BRG1 ATPase to DSBs, which stimulates DNA end resection and HR. A knock-in mutation of the ATM phosphorylation site on E2F1 (S29A) prevents the interaction between E2F1 and TopBP1 and recruitment of RB, E2F1, and BRG1 to DSBs. This knock-in mutation also impairs DNA repair, increases genomic instability, and renders mice hypersensitive to IR. Importantly, depletion of RB in osteosarcoma and breast cancer cell lines results in sensitivity to DNA-damaging drugs, which is further exacerbated by poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. We uncovered a novel, nontranscriptional function for RB in HR, which could contribute to genome instability associated with RB loss.
Project description:Transcriptional regulation of DNA repair is of outmost importance for the restoration of DNA integrity upon genotoxic stress. Here we report that the potent environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) activates a cellular DNA damage response resulting in transcriptional repression of mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MSH2, MSH6, EXO1) and of RAD51, the central homologous recombination repair (HR) component, ultimately leading to downregulation of MMR and HR. B[a]P-induced gene repression is caused by abrogated E2F1 signalling. This occurs through proteasomal degradation of E2F1 in G2-arrested cells and downregulation of E2F1 mRNA expression in G1-arrested cells. Repression of E2F1-mediated transcription and silencing of repair genes is further mediated by the p21-dependent E2F4/DREAM complex. Notably, repression of DNA repair is also observed following exposure to the active B[a]P metabolite BPDE and upon ionizing radiation and occurs in response to a p53/p21-triggered, irreversible cell cycle arrest marking the onset of cellular senescence. Overall, our results suggest that repression of MMR and HR is an early event during genotoxic-stress induced senescence. We propose that persistent downregulation of DNA repair might play a role in the maintenance of the senescence phenotype, which is associated with an accumulation of unrepairable DNA lesions.
Project description:In recent years, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been evaluated for treating homologous recombination-deficient tumours, taking advantage of synthetic lethality. However, increasing evidence indicates that PARP1 exert several cellular functions unrelated with their role on DNA repair, including function as a co-activator of transcription through protein-protein interaction with E2F1. Since the RB/E2F1 pathway is among the most frequently mutated in many tumour types, we investigated whether the absence of PARP activity could counteract the consequences of E2F1 hyperactivation. Our results demonstrate that genetic ablation of Parp1 extends the survival of Rb-null embryos, while genetic inactivation of Parp1 results in reduced development of pRb-dependent tumours. Our results demonstrate that PARP1 plays a key role as a transcriptional co-activator of the transcription factor E2F1, an important component of the cell cycle regulation. Considering that most oncogenic processes are associated with cell cycle deregulation, the disruption of this PARP1-E2F1 interaction could provide a new therapeutic target of great interest and a wide spectrum of indications.
Project description:Several experimental strategies in the treatment of cancer include drug alteration of cell cycle regulatory pathways as a useful strategy. Extra-ribosomal functions of human ribosomal protein L3 (uL3) may affect DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrated that uL3 is required for the activation of G1/S transition genes. Luciferase assays established that uL3 negatively regulates the activity of E2F1 promoter. Induced ribosome-free uL3 reduces Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein levels. Using protein/protein immunoprecipitation methods, we demonstrated that uL3 physically interacts with PARP-1 affecting E2F1 transcriptional activity. Our findings led to the identification of a new pathway mediated by uL3 involving E2F1 and Cyclin D1 in the regulation of cell cycle progression.
Project description:The human genome is constantly exposed to both endogenous and exogenous stresses, which can lead to errors in DNA replication and the accumulation of DNA mutations, thereby increasing the risk of cancer development. The transcription factor E2F1 is a key regulator of DNA repair. E2F1 also has defined roles in the replication of many cell cycle-related genes and is highly expressed in cancer cells, and its abundance is strongly associated with poor prognosis in cancers. Studies on colon cancer have demonstrated that the depletion of E2F1 leads to reduced levels of homologous recombination (HR), resulting in interrupted DNA replication and the subsequent accumulation of DNA lesions. Our results demonstrate that the depletion of E2F1 also causes reduced RAD51-mediated DNA repair and diminished cell viability resulting from DNA damage. Furthermore, the extent of RAD51 and RPA colocalization is reduced in response to DNA damage; however, RPA single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) nucleofilament formation is not affected following the depletion of E2F1, implying that ssDNA gaps accumulate when RAD51-mediated DNA gap filling or repair is diminished. Surprisingly, we also demonstrate that E2F1 forms foci with RAD51 or RPA at DNA break sites on damaged DNA. These findings provide evidence of a molecular mechanism underlying the E2F1-mediated regulation of HR activity and predict a fundamental shift in the function of E2F1 from regulating cell division to accelerating tumor development.
Project description:Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy distinct from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in its metastatic potential and treatment response. Using an integrative proteomic and transcriptomic analysis, we investigated molecular differences contributing to the distinct clinical behavior of SCLCs and NSCLCs. SCLCs showed lower levels of several receptor tyrosine kinases and decreased activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) pathways but significantly increased levels of E2F1-regulated factors including enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), thymidylate synthase, apoptosis mediators, and DNA repair proteins. In addition, PARP1, a DNA repair protein and E2F1 co-activator, was highly expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in SCLCs. SCLC growth was inhibited by PARP1 and EZH2 knockdown. Furthermore, SCLC was significantly more sensitive to PARP inhibitors than were NSCLCs, and PARP inhibition downregulated key components of the DNA repair machinery and enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapy.SCLC is a highly lethal cancer with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have prolonged survival in patients with SCLCs. As a step toward identifying new targets, we systematically profiled SCLCs with a focus on therapeutically relevant signaling pathways. Our data reveal fundamental differences in the patterns of pathway activation in SCLCs and NSCLCs and identify several potential therapeutic targets for SCLCs, including PARP1 and EZH2. On the basis of these results, clinical studies evaluating PARP and EZH2 inhibition, together with chemotherapy or other agents, warrant further investigation.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are involved in many aspects of the cellular response to various forms of damage. PARP-1 and PARP-2, the most abundant PARPs, are central to the response to specific types of DNA damage, especially single-strand breaks. Inhibition of PARP activity may sensitize the cell to exogenous agents such as chemotherapy and radiation. In circumstances where rescue pathways are deficient, particularly the homologous recombination (HR)-directed DNA repair pathway, inhibition of PARP may result in "synthetic lethality." BRCA mutation-associated breast cancers are a paradigm of HR-directed repair deficient tumors. Early clinical trials have demonstrated significant activity of single-agent PARP inhibitors in BRCA-deficient breast and ovarian cancer. Because of phenotypic similarities between some "triple-negative" breast cancers (TNBC) and the most prevalent type of breast cancer seen in BRCA1 mutation carriers, some have hypothesized that TNBC might also be specifically sensitive to PARP inhibition. The activity of single-agent PARP inhibitors in TNBC has not been reported. One trial did suggest significant enhancement of the activity of platinum-based combination chemotherapy, without incremental toxicity. These studies indicate that PARP inhibition is an exciting new approach to the treatment of breast cancers in women with underlying BRCA mutations and possibly in sporadic cancers with defects in HR-directed repair. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether the effectiveness of PARP inhibitors in nonhereditary cancer requires an underlying HR defect or whether these agents may improve the activity of conventional chemotherapy by other means. In addition, studies will be required to determine whether PARP inhibitors may induce synthetic lethality in tumors with defects in pathways other than the BRCA-dependent DNA repair pathway. If either or both of these prove to be the case, then PARP inhibition may benefit a wide spectrum of cancer patients.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are the first clinically approved drugs designed to exploit synthetic lethality, and were first introduced as a cancer-targeting strategy in 2005. They have led to a major change in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer, and altered the natural history of a disease with extreme genetic complexity and defective DNA repair via homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Furthermore, additional mechanisms apart from breast related cancer antigens 1 and 2 (BRCA1/2) mutations can also result in HR pathway alterations and consequently lead to a clinical benefit from PARP inhibitors. Novel combinations of PARP inhibitors with other anticancer therapies are challenging, and better understanding of PARP biology, DNA repair mechanisms, and PARP inhibitor mechanisms of action is crucial. It seems that PARP inhibitor and biologic agent combinations appear well tolerated and clinically effective in both BRCA-mutated and wild-type cancers. They target differing aberrant and exploitable pathways in ovarian cancer, and may induce greater DNA damage and HR deficiency. The input of immunotherapy in ovarian cancer is based on the observation that immunosuppressive microenvironments can affect tumour growth, metastasis, and even treatment resistance. Several biologic agents have been studied in combination with PARP inhibitors, including inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; bevacizumab, cediranib), and PD-1 or PD-L1 (durvalumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies (tremelimumab), mTOR-(vistusertib), AKT-(capivasertib), and PI3K inhibitors (buparlisib, alpelisib), as well as MEK 1/2, and WEE1 inhibitors (selumetinib and adavosertib, respectively). Olaparib and veliparib have also been combined with chemotherapy with the rationale of disrupting base excision repair via PARP inhibition. Olaparib has been investigated with carboplatin and paclitaxel, whereas veliparib has been tested additionally in combination with temozolomide vs. pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, as well as with oral cyclophosphamide, and topoisomerase inhibitors. However, overlapping myelosuppression observed with PARP inhibitor and chemotherapy combinations requires further investigation with dose escalation studies. In this review, we discuss multiple clinical trials that are underway examining the antitumor activity of such combination strategies.