ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) has established the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) to collect and analyze cases of severe liver injury caused by prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and alternative medicines, such as herbal products and supplements.
Project description:Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is still a major reason for drug attrition during clinical trials and market-withdrawal of already approved drugs. DILI is difficult to predict in animal models, hence more suitable screening methods are needed to predict adverse effects in human. Here, transcriptomic data from short- and long-term cultured primary human hepatocytes exposed to the human hepatotoxin Chlorpromazine was analysed.
Project description:we assessed characteristic molecular and proteomic signatures in rat liver treated with drugs (pyrazinamide, ranitidine, enalapril, carbamazepine, and chlorpromazine) that are known to cause DILI in humans. In the present study, we assessed the characteristic gene expression signature for DILI in a rat model. Rats were administered representative drugs that are already known to induce DILI in humans and transcriptomic changes in rat liver were analyzed. The representative drugs, which induce three types (hepatocellular, mixed, and cholestatic) of DILI, that were used in this study were pyrazinamide (PZA, 150~1500 mg/kg), ranitidine (RAN, 209.5~2095 mg/kg), enalapril (ENA, 148.65~1486.5 mg/kg), carbamazepine (CBZ, 97.85~978.5 mg/kg), and chlorpromazine (CPZ, 7.1~71 mg/kg).
Project description:we assessed characteristic molecular and proteomic signatures in rat liver treated with drugs (pyrazinamide, ranitidine, enalapril, carbamazepine, and chlorpromazine) that are known to cause DILI in humans. Overall design: In the present study, we assessed the characteristic gene expression signature for DILI in a rat model. Rats were administered representative drugs that are already known to induce DILI in humans and transcriptomic changes in rat liver were analyzed. The representative drugs, which induce three types (hepatocellular, mixed, and cholestatic) of DILI, that were used in this study were pyrazinamide (PZA, 150~1500 mg/kg), ranitidine (RAN, 209.5~2095 mg/kg), enalapril (ENA, 148.65~1486.5 mg/kg), carbamazepine (CBZ, 97.85~978.5 mg/kg), and chlorpromazine (CPZ, 7.1~71 mg/kg).
Project description:The effect of drugs, disease and other perturbations on mRNA levels are studied using gene expression microarrays or RNA-seq, with the goal of understanding molecular effects arising from the perturbation. Previous comparisons of reproducibility across laboratories have been limited in scale and focused on a single model. The use of model systems, such as cultured primary cells or cancer cell lines, assumes that mechanistic insights derived with would have been observed via in vivo studies. We examined the concordance of compound-induced transcriptional changes using data from several sources: rat liver and rat primary hepatocytes (RPH) from Drug Matrix (DM) and open TG-GATEs (TG), primary human hepatocytes (HPH) from TG, and mouse liver / HepG2 results from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. Gene expression changes for treatments were normalized to controls and analyzed with three methods: 1) gene level for 9071 high expression genes in rat liver, 2) gene set analysis (GSA) using canonical pathways and gene ontology sets, 3) weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Co-expression networks performed better than genes or GSA on a quantitative metric when comparing treatment effects within rat liver and rat vs. mouse liver. Genes and modules performed similarly at Connectivity Map-style analyses, where success at identifying similar treatments among a collection of reference profiles is the goal. Comparisons between rat liver and RPH, and those between RPH, HPH and HepG2 cells reveal low concordance for all methods. We investigate differences in the baseline state of cultured cells in the context of drug-induced perturbations in rat liver and highlight the striking similarity between toxicant-exposed cells in vivo and untreated cells in vitro. Gene expression studies in model systems are widely used for understanding the mechanism of drugs and other perturbations in biological systems. Other researchers have examined the reproducibility of microarray studies between laboratories, or comparing microarrays and/or RNA sequencing. However, no large scale studies have compared results from protocols which differ in minor details, or results generated in vivo vs. in vitro culture system thought to serve as useful models. The rat liver is by far the most extensively studied model evaluating effects of drugs and other perturbations, and existing data allowed us to assess the level of concordance between rat liver and rat primary hepatocytes cultured in collagen-coated plates (i.e. “flat” culture) for hundreds of drugs. We found that the mouse liver serves as a better model of the rat liver than do rat primary hepatocytes, even after allowing for differences due to pharmacokinetics. The low concordance observed between rat liver and rat hepatocytes suggests that validating the utility of ‘omics data generated on emerging cell culture approaches (e.g. “organ-on-a-chip”, 3D-printed tissues) using rat cells and comparison to the rat liver may be necessary in order to gain confidence these approaches substantially improve on traditional culture models of human cells. To identify transcriptional changes in culture, rat primary hepatocytes (RPH) were isolated from three male Sprague Dawley rats. During the isolation and prior to perfusion, a lobe of liver was tied off to serve as the liver in situ reference sample. Cells were isolated and samples from the cell pellet (time zero) and cells cultured for 4, 24 and 48 hours. Three biological replicates were generated for each group (one from each rat). Each biological replicate was analyzed via 3 technical replicates, for a total of 9 array hybridizations per group.
Project description:Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) is a major cause of acute liver failure resulting in liver transplantation or death. Prediction and diagnosis of iDILI remain a great challenge, as current models provide unsatisfying results in terms of sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value. The absence of appropriate tools for iDILI detection also impairs the development of reliable biomarkers. Here, we report on a new method for identification of drug-specific biomarkers. We combined the advantages of monocyte-derived hepatocyte-like (MH) cells, able to mimic individual characteristics, with those of a novel mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics technology to assess potential biomarkers for Diclofenac-induced DILI. We found over 2700 proteins differentially regulated in MH cells derived from individual patients. Herefrom, we identified integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) to be specifically upregulated in Diclofenac-treated MH cells from Diclofenac-DILI patients compared to control groups. Finally, we validated ITGB3 by flow cytometry analysis of whole blood and histological staining of liver biopsies derived from patients diagnosed with Diclofenac-DILI. In summary, our results show that biomarker candidates can be identified by proteomics analysis of MH cells. Application of this method to a broader range of drugs in the future will exploit its full potential for the development of drug-specific biomarkers.
Project description:Global gene expression profiling is useful for elucidating a drug?s mechanism of action (MOA) on the liver; however, such profiling in rats is not very sensitive for predicting human druginduced liver injury, while de-differentiated monolayers of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) do not permit chronic drug treatment. In contrast, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) containing PHH colonies and 3T3-J2 fibroblasts maintain a stable liver phenotype for 4-6 weeks. Here, we used MPCCs to test the hypothesis that global gene expression patterns in stable PHHs can be used to distinguish clinical hepatotoxic drugs from their non-liver-toxic analogs and understand the MOA prior to the onset of overt hepatotoxicity. We found that MPCCs treated with the clinical hepatotoxic/non-liver-toxic pair, troglitazone/rosiglitazone, at each drug?s reported and non-toxic Cmax (maximum concentration in human plasma) level for 1, 7, and 14 days displayed a total of 12, 269, and 628 differentially expressed genes, respectively, relative to the vehicle-treated control. Troglitazone modulated >75% of transcripts across pathways such as fatty acid and drug metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and complement/coagulation cascades. Escalating rosiglitazone?s dose to that of troglitazone?s Cmax increased modulated transcripts relative to the lower dose; however, over half the identified transcripts were still exclusively modulated by troglitazone. Lastly, other hepatotoxins (nefazodone, ibufenac, and tolcapone) also induced a greater number of differentially expressed genes in MPCCs than their non-liver-toxic analogs (buspirone, ibuprofen, and entacapone) following 7 days of treatment. In conclusion, MPCCs allow evaluation of time- and dose-dependent gene expression patterns in PHHs treated chronically with analog drugs. Overall design: [a] We used Affymetrix microarrays to profile the global gene expression of MPCCs treated with either rosiglitazone or troglitazone relative to DMSO-only controls for 24 hours, 7 days, or 14 days. Global gene expression changes were evaluated as drug-treated conditions against DMSO-only controls. [b] We used Affymetrix microarrays to profile the global gene expression of MPCCs treated with a known hepatotoxin or its non-toxic structural analog relative to a DMSO-only control for 7 days.
Project description:Idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. In an animal model of IDRs, 50-80% of Brown Norway rats exposed to D-penicillamine develop an autoimmune syndrome after several weeks of treatment. The symptoms of the IDR are similar to that observed in humans who take D-penicillamine. The mechanism of this reaction is unknown, and no effective biomarkers have been identified to predict susceptibility. We postulate that cell stress caused by drugs is required to initiate the response. We used a highthroughput approach to identify factors that might represent danger signals by profiling hepatic gene expression 6 h after dosing with D-penicillamine (150 mg/kg). Our results show that the drug-treated animals cluster into two distinct groups. One group exhibits substantial expression changes relative to control animals. The most significantly altered transcripts have a role in stress, energy metabolism, acute phase response, and inflammation. We used quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to measure transcript levels in liver biopsies of 33 rats and found that resistant animals cluster together. This 'resistant' cluster of animals contains 87.5% (7/8) resistant animals but only 48% (12/25) 'sensitive' animals. This separation is statistically significant at the p 0.01 level. Keywords: Response to Drug Overall design: Single-channel Affy arrays used to profile 4 control Brown Norway rats and 8 D-Penicillamine treated Brown Norway rats.
Project description:Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure and the major reason for withdrawal of drugs from the market. Preclinical evaluation of drug candidates has failed to detect about 40% of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in humans. At the onset of liver injury in humans, currently used biomarkers have difficulty differentiating severe DILI from mild, and/or predict the outcome of injury for individual subjects. Therefore, new biomarker approaches for predicting and diagnosing DILI in humans are urgently needed. Recently, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) such as miR-122 and miR-192 have emerged as promising biomarkers of liver injury in preclinical species and in DILI patients. In this study, we focused on examining global circulating miRNA profiles in serum samples from subjects with liver injury caused by accidental acetaminophen (APAP) overdose. Upon applying next generation high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries, we identified 36 miRNAs, including 3 novel miRNA-like small nuclear RNAs, which were enriched in the serum of APAP overdosed subjects. The set comprised miRNAs that are functionally associated with liver-specific biological processes and relevant to APAP toxic mechanisms. Although more patients need to be investigated, our study suggests that profiles of circulating miRNAs in human serum might provide additional biomarker candidates and possibly mechanistic information relevant to liver injury. Overall design: small RNA profiles of serum form 6 acetaminphen overdosed subjects and 6 controls
Project description:Rare monogenic diseases affect millions worldwide; although over 4,500 rare disease genotypes are known, disease-modifying drugs are available for only 5% of them. The sheer number of these conditions combined with their rarity precludes traditional costly drug discovery programs. An economically viable alternative is to repurpose established drugs for rare diseases. Many genetic diseases result from increased or decreased protein activity and identification of clinically approved drugs which moderate this pathogenic dosage holds therapeutic potential. To identify such agents for neurogenetic diseases, we have generated genome-wide transcriptome profiles of mouse primary cerebrocortical cultures grown in the presence of 218 blood brain barrier penetrant clinic-tested drugs. RNAseq and differential expression analyses were used to generate transcriptomic profiles; therapeutically relevant drug-gene interactions related to rare neurogenetic diseases identified in this fashion were further analyzed by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. We have created a transcriptome-wide searchable database for easy access to the gene expression data resulting from the cerebrocortical drug screen (Neuron Screen) and have mined this data to identify a novel link between thyroid hormone and expression of the peripheral neuropathy associated gene Pmp22. Our results demonstrate the utility of cerebrocortical cultures for transcriptomic drug screening, and the database we have created will foster further discovery of novel links between over 200 clinic-tested blood brain barrier penetrant drugs and genes related to diverse neurologic conditions. Overall design: mRNA differential expression profiles of mouse primary cortical cultures treated individually with 218 clinic-tested drugs and 9 vehicle treated samples, 1 replicate performed per drug.