ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) has established the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) to collect and analyze cases of severe liver injury caused by prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and alternative medicines, such as herbal products and supplements.
Project description:we assessed characteristic molecular and proteomic signatures in rat liver treated with drugs (pyrazinamide, ranitidine, enalapril, carbamazepine, and chlorpromazine) that are known to cause DILI in humans. In the present study, we assessed the characteristic gene expression signature for DILI in a rat model. Rats were administered representative drugs that are already known to induce DILI in humans and transcriptomic changes in rat liver were analyzed. The representative drugs, which induce three types (hepatocellular, mixed, and cholestatic) of DILI, that were used in this study were pyrazinamide (PZA, 150~1500 mg/kg), ranitidine (RAN, 209.5~2095 mg/kg), enalapril (ENA, 148.65~1486.5 mg/kg), carbamazepine (CBZ, 97.85~978.5 mg/kg), and chlorpromazine (CPZ, 7.1~71 mg/kg).
Project description:we assessed characteristic molecular and proteomic signatures in rat liver treated with drugs (pyrazinamide, ranitidine, enalapril, carbamazepine, and chlorpromazine) that are known to cause DILI in humans. Overall design: In the present study, we assessed the characteristic gene expression signature for DILI in a rat model. Rats were administered representative drugs that are already known to induce DILI in humans and transcriptomic changes in rat liver were analyzed. The representative drugs, which induce three types (hepatocellular, mixed, and cholestatic) of DILI, that were used in this study were pyrazinamide (PZA, 150~1500 mg/kg), ranitidine (RAN, 209.5~2095 mg/kg), enalapril (ENA, 148.65~1486.5 mg/kg), carbamazepine (CBZ, 97.85~978.5 mg/kg), and chlorpromazine (CPZ, 7.1~71 mg/kg).
Project description:Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is still a major reason for drug attrition during clinical trials and market-withdrawal of already approved drugs. DILI is difficult to predict in animal models, hence more suitable screening methods are needed to predict adverse effects in human. Here, transcriptomic data from short- and long-term cultured primary human hepatocytes exposed to the human hepatotoxin Chlorpromazine was analysed.
Project description:The effect of drugs, disease and other perturbations on mRNA levels are studied using gene expression microarrays or RNA-seq, with the goal of understanding molecular effects arising from the perturbation. Previous comparisons of reproducibility across laboratories have been limited in scale and focused on a single model. The use of model systems, such as cultured primary cells or cancer cell lines, assumes that mechanistic insights derived with would have been observed via in vivo studies. We examined the concordance of compound-induced transcriptional changes using data from several sources: rat liver and rat primary hepatocytes (RPH) from Drug Matrix (DM) and open TG-GATEs (TG), primary human hepatocytes (HPH) from TG, and mouse liver / HepG2 results from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. Gene expression changes for treatments were normalized to controls and analyzed with three methods: 1) gene level for 9071 high expression genes in rat liver, 2) gene set analysis (GSA) using canonical pathways and gene ontology sets, 3) weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Co-expression networks performed better than genes or GSA on a quantitative metric when comparing treatment effects within rat liver and rat vs. mouse liver. Genes and modules performed similarly at Connectivity Map-style analyses, where success at identifying similar treatments among a collection of reference profiles is the goal. Comparisons between rat liver and RPH, and those between RPH, HPH and HepG2 cells reveal low concordance for all methods. We investigate differences in the baseline state of cultured cells in the context of drug-induced perturbations in rat liver and highlight the striking similarity between toxicant-exposed cells in vivo and untreated cells in vitro. Gene expression studies in model systems are widely used for understanding the mechanism of drugs and other perturbations in biological systems. Other researchers have examined the reproducibility of microarray studies between laboratories, or comparing microarrays and/or RNA sequencing. However, no large scale studies have compared results from protocols which differ in minor details, or results generated in vivo vs. in vitro culture system thought to serve as useful models. The rat liver is by far the most extensively studied model evaluating effects of drugs and other perturbations, and existing data allowed us to assess the level of concordance between rat liver and rat primary hepatocytes cultured in collagen-coated plates (i.e. “flat” culture) for hundreds of drugs. We found that the mouse liver serves as a better model of the rat liver than do rat primary hepatocytes, even after allowing for differences due to pharmacokinetics. The low concordance observed between rat liver and rat hepatocytes suggests that validating the utility of ‘omics data generated on emerging cell culture approaches (e.g. “organ-on-a-chip”, 3D-printed tissues) using rat cells and comparison to the rat liver may be necessary in order to gain confidence these approaches substantially improve on traditional culture models of human cells. To identify transcriptional changes in culture, rat primary hepatocytes (RPH) were isolated from three male Sprague Dawley rats. During the isolation and prior to perfusion, a lobe of liver was tied off to serve as the liver in situ reference sample. Cells were isolated and samples from the cell pellet (time zero) and cells cultured for 4, 24 and 48 hours. Three biological replicates were generated for each group (one from each rat). Each biological replicate was analyzed via 3 technical replicates, for a total of 9 array hybridizations per group.
Project description:Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) is a major cause of acute liver failure resulting in liver transplantation or death. Prediction and diagnosis of iDILI remain a great challenge, as current models provide unsatisfying results in terms of sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value. The absence of appropriate tools for iDILI detection also impairs the development of reliable biomarkers. Here, we report on a new method for identification of drug-specific biomarkers. We combined the advantages of monocyte-derived hepatocyte-like (MH) cells, able to mimic individual characteristics, with those of a novel mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics technology to assess potential biomarkers for Diclofenac-induced DILI. We found over 2700 proteins differentially regulated in MH cells derived from individual patients. Herefrom, we identified integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) to be specifically upregulated in Diclofenac-treated MH cells from Diclofenac-DILI patients compared to control groups. Finally, we validated ITGB3 by flow cytometry analysis of whole blood and histological staining of liver biopsies derived from patients diagnosed with Diclofenac-DILI. In summary, our results show that biomarker candidates can be identified by proteomics analysis of MH cells. Application of this method to a broader range of drugs in the future will exploit its full potential for the development of drug-specific biomarkers.
Project description:Global gene expression profiling is useful for elucidating a drug?s mechanism of action (MOA) on the liver; however, such profiling in rats is not very sensitive for predicting human druginduced liver injury, while de-differentiated monolayers of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) do not permit chronic drug treatment. In contrast, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) containing PHH colonies and 3T3-J2 fibroblasts maintain a stable liver phenotype for 4-6 weeks. Here, we used MPCCs to test the hypothesis that global gene expression patterns in stable PHHs can be used to distinguish clinical hepatotoxic drugs from their non-liver-toxic analogs and understand the MOA prior to the onset of overt hepatotoxicity. We found that MPCCs treated with the clinical hepatotoxic/non-liver-toxic pair, troglitazone/rosiglitazone, at each drug?s reported and non-toxic Cmax (maximum concentration in human plasma) level for 1, 7, and 14 days displayed a total of 12, 269, and 628 differentially expressed genes, respectively, relative to the vehicle-treated control. Troglitazone modulated >75% of transcripts across pathways such as fatty acid and drug metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and complement/coagulation cascades. Escalating rosiglitazone?s dose to that of troglitazone?s Cmax increased modulated transcripts relative to the lower dose; however, over half the identified transcripts were still exclusively modulated by troglitazone. Lastly, other hepatotoxins (nefazodone, ibufenac, and tolcapone) also induced a greater number of differentially expressed genes in MPCCs than their non-liver-toxic analogs (buspirone, ibuprofen, and entacapone) following 7 days of treatment. In conclusion, MPCCs allow evaluation of time- and dose-dependent gene expression patterns in PHHs treated chronically with analog drugs. Overall design: [a] We used Affymetrix microarrays to profile the global gene expression of MPCCs treated with either rosiglitazone or troglitazone relative to DMSO-only controls for 24 hours, 7 days, or 14 days. Global gene expression changes were evaluated as drug-treated conditions against DMSO-only controls. [b] We used Affymetrix microarrays to profile the global gene expression of MPCCs treated with a known hepatotoxin or its non-toxic structural analog relative to a DMSO-only control for 7 days.
Project description:Animal models of parenchymal liver injury by bile duct ligation (BDL) and all forms of liver diseases including neonatal hepatitis and clinical obstructive cholangiopathies such as biliary atresia have the pathological features of cholestasis and liver dysfunction. Hepatocyte nuclear factors 6 (HNF6) is important to the transcriptional regulation, expression and function of essential hepatic genes involved in the differentiated as well as the adaptive response to liver injury. Using HNF6 conditional knock out mice where HNF6 is functionally deleted in the liver, we established that HNF6 is required for proper liver function of cholesterol clearance, improvement of cholestasis and hepatocyte regeneration. Enhancing HNF6 expression in wild type mice also diminished hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis. In this proposal, we propose to further characterize the biological function of HNF6 by testing the HYPOTHESIS that HNF6 direct transcriptional regulation of antiapoptotic and antifibrotic pathways contributes to hepatoprotection during bile duct injury. This hypothesis will be tested in two specific aims. Overall design: Livers were isolated from wild-type (WT) and HNF6 knockout (KO) mice respectively. Liver samples were processed via ChIP protocol using monoclonal HNF6 or IgG antibodies (control). ChIP-DNA was further processed by Affymetrix Procedure H. The following samples are PCR products: (1) wild-type liver 1 & HNF6 antibody; (2) wild-type liver 2 & HNF6 antibody; (3) wild-type liver 1 & IgG antibody; (4) wild-type liver 2 & IgG antibody; (5) HNF6-knockout liver 1 & HNF6 antibody; (6) HNF6-knockout liver 1 & HNF6 antibody.
Project description:Tuberculosis is one of top causes of death among curable infectious diseases; it is an airborne infectious disease that kills 2 million people worldwide. Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury is the primary cause of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Rifampicin is one of the most common anti-tuberculosis therapies and has well-known hepatotoxicity. To understand the mechanism of rifampicin-induced liver injury, we performed a global proteomic analysis of liver proteins by LC-MS/MS in a mouse model after the oral administration of 177 and 442.5 mg/kg rifampicin (LD10 and LD25) for 14 days. Based on the biochemical parameters in the plasma after rifampicin treatment, the hepatotoxic effect of rifampicin in the mouse liver was defined as a mixed liver injury. In the present study, we identified 1,101 proteins and quantified 1,038 proteins. A total of 29 and 40 proteins were up-regulated and 27 and 118 proteins were down-regulated in response to 177 and 442.5 mg/kg rifampicin, respectively.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS: c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1 and JNK2 are expressed in hepatocytes and have overlapping and distinct functions. JNK proteins are activated, via phosphorylation, in response to acetaminophen- or CCl4-induced liver damage; the level of activation correlates with the degree of injury. SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, has been reported to block acetaminophen-induced liver injury. We investigated the role of JNK in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in liver tissues from patients and in mice with genetic deletion of JNK in hepatocytes. METHODS: We studied liver sections from patients with DILI (due to acetaminophen, phenprocoumon, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or autoimmune hepatitis), or patients without acute liver failure (controls), collected from a DILI Biobank in Germany. Levels of total and activated (phosphorylated) JNK were measured by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Jnk1 (Jnk1Δhepa) or combination of Jnk1 and Jnk2 (JnkΔhepa), as well as Jnk1-floxed C57BL/6 (control) mice, were given injections of CCl4 (to induce fibrosis) or acetaminophen (to induce toxic liver injury). We performed gene expression microarray, and phosphoproteomic analyses to determine mechanisms of JNK activity in hepatocytes. RESULTS: Liver samples from DILI patients contained more activated JNK, predominantly in nuclei of hepatocytes and in immune cells, than healthy tissue. Administration of acetaminophen to JnkΔhepa mice produced a greater level of liver injury than that observed in Jnk1Δhepa or control mice, based on levels of serum markers and microscopic and histologic analysis of liver tissues. Administration of CCl4 also induced stronger hepatic injury in JnkΔhepa mice, based on increased inflammation, cell proliferation, and fibrosis progression, compared to Jnk1Δhepa or control mice. Hepatocytes from JnkΔhepa mice given acetaminophen had an increased oxidative stress response, leading to decreased activation of AMPK, total protein AMPK levels, and pJunD and subsequent necrosis. Administration of SP600125 before or with acetaminophen protected JnkΔhepa and control mice from liver injury. CONCLUSIONS: In hepatocytes, JNK1 and JNK2 appear to have combined effects in protecting mice from CCl4- and acetaminophen-induced liver injury. It is important to study the tissue-specific functions of both proteins, rather than just JNK1, in the onset of toxic liver injury. JNK inhibition with SP600125 shows off-target effects. Livers and primary hepatocytes were isolated from wild type and JNKΔhepa (Jnk1Δhepa/global Jnk2-/-) double-knockout mice and subjected to gene expression profiling.