TBCRC003: Phase II Study of Trastuzumab & Lapatinib in Metastatic HER + Breast Cancer
ABSTRACT: Although several large-scale breast cancer sequencing studies have elucidated the spectrum of genomic alterations in primary, treatment-naive breast tumors, the genomic landscape of metastatic HER2+ breast cancer remains under explored. Furthermore, tumor genomic alterations that arise after progression on anti-HER2 therapy remain largely unknown. To explore these two questions, we prospectively collected metastatic tumor biopsies from patients enrolled on TBCRC003 (NCT00470704), a phase II study evaluating the combination of lapatinib and trastuzumab in patients with metastatic HER2+ breast cancer. By design, patients had varying degrees of prior trastuzumab exposure in the metastatic setting (0-2 prior lines). A baseline tumor biopsy was required at time of study entry. We carried out whole exome sequencing of metastatic frozen tumors and matched normal. We were also able to obtain and sequence the matched archival FFPE primary tumors for most of the... (for more see dbGaP study page.)
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with trastuzumab is widely used for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer, but a significant number of patients with the tumor fail to respond, or relapse. The mechanisms of recurrence and biomarkers that indicate the response to the chemotherapy and outcome are not fully investigated. METHODS: Genomic alterations were analyzed using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays in 46 HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) 3+ or 2+/fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)+ breast cancers that were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel, cyclophosphamid, epirubicin, fluorouracil, and trastuzumab. Patients were classified into two groups based on presence or absence of alterations of 65 cancer-associated genes, and the two groups were further classified into four groups based on genomic HER2 copy numbers or hormone receptor status (HR+/-). Pathological complete response (pCR) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were compared between any two of the groups. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The pCR rate was 54% in 37 patients, and the RFS rate at 3 years was 72% (95% CI, 0.55-0.89) in 42 patients. The analysis disclosed 8 tumors with nonamplified HER2 and 38 tumors with HER2 amplification, indicating the presence of discordance in tumors diagnosed using current HER2 testing. The 8 patients showed more difficulty in achieving pCR (P=0.019), more frequent relapse (P=0.018), and more frequent alterations of genes in the PI3K pathway (P=0.009) than the patients with HER2 amplification. The alterations of the PI3K and estrogen receptor (ER) pathway genes generally indicated worse RFS rates. The prognostic significance of the alterations was shown in patients with a HR+ tumor, but not in patients with a HR- tumor when divided. Alterations of the PI3K and ER pathway genes found in patients with a HR+ tumor with poor outcome suggested that crosstalk between the two pathways may be involved in resistance to the current chemotherapy with trastuzumab. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend FISH analysis as a primary HER2 testing because patients with IHC 2+/3+ and nonamplified HER2 had poor outcome. We also support concurrent use of trastuzumab, lapatinib, and cytotoxic and anti-hormonal agents for patients having HR+ tumors with alterations of the PI3K and ER pathway genes.
Project description:Trastuzumab is integral to HER2+ cancer treatment, but its therapeutic index is narrowed by the development of resistance. Phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (eIF2α-P) is the nodal point of the integrated stress response, which promotes survival or death in a context-dependent manner. Here, we show an anti-tumor function of the protein kinase PKR and its substrate eIF2α in a mouse HER2+ breast cancer model. The anti-tumor function depends on the transcription factor ATF4, which upregulates the CDK inhibitor P21CIP1 and activates JNK1/2. The PKR/eIF2α-P arm is induced by Trastuzumab in sensitive but not resistant HER2+ breast tumors. Also, eIF2α-P stimulation by the phosphatase inhibitor SAL003 substantially increases Trastuzumab potency in resistant HER2+ breast and gastric tumors. Increased eIF2α-P prognosticates a better response of HER2+ metastatic breast cancer patients to Trastuzumab therapy. Hence, the PKR/eIF2α-P arm antagonizes HER2 tumorigenesis whereas its pharmacological stimulation improves the efficacy of Trastuzumab therapy.
Project description:HER2-amplified breast cancer is sometimes clinically insensitive to HER2-targeted treatment with trastuzumab. Laboratory models of resistance have causally implicated changes in HER2 expression and activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway. We conducted a prospective tissue acquisition study to determine if there is evidence for these lesions in metastatic tumors that have progressed on trastuzumab-containing therapy.From 2/2007 to 11/2011, 63 patients with HER2-amplified breast cancer with recurrence of disease after adjuvant trastuzumab therapy or World Health Organization-defined progression of metastatic disease on a trastuzumab-containing regimen were prospectively enrolled and underwent tumor biopsy. Specimens were analyzed for activating mutations in PIK3CA and HER2 by Sequenom and analyzed for HER2 and PTEN status by immunohistochemistry.In 53/60 cases (88%, 3 cases not evaluable for HER2), HER2 overexpression persisted in the metastatic tumor following trastuzumab exposure. Among the 7 cases lacking HER2 overexpression, repeat analysis of the pretreatment tumor failed to confirm HER2 overexpression in five cases. Among cases evaluable for PTEN (56) or PI3K mutation (45), absent or significantly diminished PTEN expression was noted in 33 (59%) and activating mutations in PIK3CA in 13 (29%). The combined rate of PTEN loss and PIK3CA mutation in the trastuzumab-refractory tumors was 71% compared with 44% (P = 0.007) in an unexposed cohort of 73 HER2-amplified tumors.In this series of prospectively collected trastuzumab-refractory human breast cancers, loss of HER2 overexpression was rare, whereas activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway through loss of PTEN or PIK3CA mutation was frequently observed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The National Cancer Institute-Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) is a national precision medicine study incorporating centralized genomic testing to direct refractory cancer patients to molecularly targeted treatment subprotocols. This treatment subprotocol was designed to screen for potential signals of efficacy of ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in HER2-amplified histologies other than breast and gastroesophageal tumors. METHODS:Eligible patients had HER2 amplification at a copy number (CN) >7 based on targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) with a custom Oncomine AmpliSeq™ (ThermoFisher Scientific) panel. Patients with prior trastuzumab, pertuzumab or T-DM1 treatment were excluded. Patients received T-DM1 at 3.6?mg/kg i.v. every 3?weeks until toxicity or disease progression. Tumor assessments occurred every three cycles. The primary end point was centrally assessed objective response rate (ORR). Exploratory end points included correlating response with HER2 CN by NGS. The impact of co-occurring genomic alterations and PTEN loss by immunohistochemistry were also assessed. RESULTS:Thirty-eight patients were enrolled and 36 included in efficacy analysis. Median prior therapies in the metastatic setting was 3 (range 0-9; unknown in one patient). Median HER2 CN was 17 (range 7-139). Partial responses were observed in two (5.6%) patients: one mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland and one parotid gland squamous cell cancer. Seventeen patients (47%) had stable disease including 8/10 (80%) with ovarian and uterine carcinomas, with median duration of 4.6?months. The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 23.6% [90% confidence interval 14.2% to 39.2%]. Common toxicities included fatigue, anemia, fever and thrombocytopenia with no new safety signals. There was a trend for tumor shrinkage with higher levels of gene CN as determined by the NGS assay. CONCLUSION:T-DM1 was well tolerated. While this subprotocol did not meet the primary end point for ORR in this heavily pre-treated diverse patient population, clinical activity was seen in salivary gland tumors warranting further study in this tumor type in dedicated trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Combining modalities using dual-labeled antibodies may allow preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization and could be used in image-guided surgery to improve complete tumor resection. Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody against the human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) receptor and dual-labeled trastuzumab with both a fluorophore (IRDye800CW) and a radioactive label (111In) can be used for multimodal imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of HER2-targeted multimodal imaging using [111In]In-DTPA-trastuzumab-IRDye800CW in an orthotopic breast cancer model. METHODS:Trastuzumab was conjugated with p-isothiocyanatobenzyl (ITC)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and IRDye800CW-NHS ester and subsequently labeled with 111In. In a dose escalation study, the biodistribution of 10, 30, and 100??g [111In]In-DTPA-trastuzumab-IRDye800CW was determined 48?h after injection in BALB/c nude mice with orthotopic high HER2-expressing tumors. Also, a biodistribution study was performed in a low HER2-expressing breast cancer model. In addition, multimodal image-guided surgery was performed in each group. Autoradiography, fluorescence microscopy, and immunohistochemically stained slices of the tumors were compared for co-localization of tumor tissue, HER2 expression, fluorescence, and radiosignal. RESULTS:Based on the biodistribution data, a 30??g dose of dual-labeled trastuzumab (tumor-to-blood ratio 13 ± 2) was chosen for all subsequent studies. [111In]In-DTPA-trastuzumab-IRDye800CW specifically accumulated in orthotopic HER2-positive BT474 tumors (101 ± 7 %IA/g), whereas uptake in orthotopic low HER2-expressing MCF7 tumor was significantly lower (1.2 ± 0.2 %IA/g, p = 0.007). BT474 tumors could clearly be visualized with both micro-SPECT/CT, fluorescence imaging and subsequently, image-guided resection was performed. Immunohistochemical analyses of BT474 tumors demonstrated correspondence in fluorescence, radiosignal, and high HER2 expression. CONCLUSIONS:Dual-labeled trastuzumab showed specific accumulation in orthotopic HER2-positive BT474 breast tumors with micro-SPECT/CT and fluorescence imaging and enabled image-guided tumor resection. In the clinical setting, [111In]In-DTPA-trastuzumab-IRDye800CW could be valuable for preoperative detection of (metastatic) tumors by SPECT/CT imaging, and intraoperative localization by using a gamma probe and fluorescence image-guided surgery to improve radical resection of tumor tissue in patients with HER2-positive tumors.
Project description:Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; also known as HER-2/neu), is indicated for the treatment of women with either early stage or metastatic HER2(+) breast cancer. It kills tumor cells by several mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Strategies that enhance the activity of ADCC effectors, including NK cells, may improve the efficacy of trastuzumab. Here, we have shown that upon encountering trastuzumab-coated, HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, human NK cells become activated and express the costimulatory receptor CD137. CD137 activation, which was dependent on NK cell expression of the FcγRIII receptor, occurred both in vitro and in the peripheral blood of women with HER2-expressing breast cancer after trastuzumab treatment. Stimulation of trastuzumab-activated human NK cells with an agonistic mAb specific for CD137 killed breast cancer cells (including an intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant cell line) more efficiently both in vitro and in vivo in xenotransplant models of human breast cancer, including one using a human primary breast tumor. The enhanced cytotoxicity was restricted to antibody-coated tumor cells. This sequential antibody strategy, combining a tumor-targeting antibody with a second antibody that activates the host innate immune system, may improve the therapeutic effects of antibodies against breast cancer and other HER2-expressing tumors.
Project description:Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2), is the poster child for antibody-based targeted therapy in breast cancer. Pertuzumab, another humanized monoclonal antibody, binds to a different domain of HER2 and prevents the formation of HER2:HER3 dimers, which is the most potent heterodimer in the HER family. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab has synergistic activity, and is associated with improved clinical outcomes. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy originally as first-line therapy for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer in 2012, and more recently as neoadjuvant therapy for localized disease in 2013. Pertuzumab is the first neoadjuvant drug to receive accelerated approval by the FDA based on pathological complete response as the primary end point. In this article, we review the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and current role of pertuzumab in the management of breast cancer, as well as ongoing clinical trials and future directions regarding the utility of pertuzumab as a personalized therapeutic option for HER2-positive breast cancer. In the coming years, we anticipate increased utilization of neoadjuvant trials for drug development, biomarker discovery, and validation, and envision conduct of personalized breast cancer clinics in which therapies will be routinely selected based on genetic alterations in the tumor. Regardless of the targeted therapy combinations employed based on tumor genomic profile, trastuzumab and pertuzumab will likely continue to form the backbone of the personalized regimen for HER2-positive breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancers are challenging practice in oncology when they become resistant to anti-HER2 therapies such as trastuzumab. In these clinical situations, HER2-overexpression persists in metastatic localizations, and can thus be used for active targeting using innovative therapeutic approaches. Functionalized gold nanoparticles with anti-HER2 antibody can be stimulated by near-infrared light to induce hyperthermia. METHODS:Here, hybrid anti-HER2 gold nanoshells were engineered for photothermal therapy to overcome trastuzumab resistance in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer xenografts. RESULTS:When gold nanoshells were administered in HER2-tumor xenografts, no toxicity was observed. A detailed pharmacokinetic study showed a time-dependent accumulation of gold nanoshells within the tumors, significantly greater with functionalized gold nanoshells at 72 h. This enabled us to optimize the treatment protocol and irradiate the mice when the anti-HER2 gold nanoshells had accumulated most in the tumors. After weekly injections of anti-HER2 gold nanoshells, and repeated irradiations with a femtosecond-pulsed laser over four weeks, tumor growth was significantly inhibited. Detailed tissue microscopic analyses showed that the tumor growth inhibition was due to an anti-angiogenic effect, coherent with a preferential distribution of the nanoshells in tumor microvessels. We also showed a direct tumor cell effect with apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation, coherent with an immune-mediated targeting of tumor cells by anti-HER2 nanoshells. CONCLUSION:This preclinical study thus supports the use of anti-HER2 gold nanoshells and photothermal therapy to overcome trastuzumab resistance in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.
Project description:Mutations in ERBB2, the gene encoding epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member HER2, are common in and drive the growth of "HER2-negative" (not ERBB2 amplified) tumors but are rare in "HER2-positive" (ERBB2 amplified) breast cancer. We analyzed DNA-sequencing data from HER2-positive patients and used cell lines and a patient-derived xenograft model to test the consequence of HER2 mutations on the efficacy of anti-HER2 agents such as trastuzumab, lapatinib, and neratinib, an irreversible pan-EGFR inhibitor. HER2 mutations were present in ~7% of HER2-positive tumors, all of which were metastatic but not all were previously treated. Compared to HER2 amplification alone, in both patients and cultured cell lines, the co-occurrence of HER2 mutation and amplification was associated with poor response to trastuzumab and lapatinib, the standard-of-care anti-HER2 agents. In mice, xenografts established from a patient whose HER2-positive tumor acquired a D769Y mutation in HER2 after progression on trastuzumab-based therapy were resistant to trastuzumab or lapatinib but were sensitive to neratinib. Clinical data revealed that six heavily pretreated patients with tumors bearing coincident HER2 amplification and mutation subsequently exhibited a statistically significant response to neratinib monotherapy. Thus, these findings indicate that coincident HER2 mutation reduces the efficacy of therapies commonly used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer, particularly in metastatic and previously HER2 inhibitor-treated patients, as well as potentially in patients scheduled for first-line treatment. Therefore, we propose that clinical studies testing the efficacy of neratinib are warranted selectively in breast cancer patients whose tumors carry both amplification and mutation of ERBB2/HER2.
Project description:Trastuzumab is the first-line targeted therapeutic drug for HER2-positive breast cancer, leading to improved overall survival. However, acquired resistance inevitably occurs. We aimed to identify, quantify, and assess the mechanisms of acquired resistance to trastuzumab. We established an acquired trastuzumab-resistant model in vitro from BT-474, a trastuzumab-sensitive, HER2-amplified breast-cancer cell line. A multi-omic strategy was implemented to obtain gene, proteome, and phosphoproteome signatures associated with acquired resistance to trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer, followed by validation in human clinical samples. YAP1 dephosphorylation and TEAD2 overexpression were detected as significant alterations in the Hippo pathway in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer. Because of the emerging role of these proteins as mediators of normal growth and tumorigenesis, we assessed the exogenous modulation of their activity, either by in vitro gene silencing or by pharmacological inhibition of the YAP1/TEAD complexes, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified increased signaling through the Hippo pathway in human samples after progression following trastuzumab treatment. Finally, YAP1/TAZ nuclear accumulation in malignant cells in HER2 breast tumor was significantly associated with worse progression-free and overall survival in metastatic HER2-positive breast-cancer patients. Our results suggest the involvement of Hippo signaling in acquired trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer. Additionally, we provide novel evidence for a potential breast-cancer treatment strategy based on dual targeting of HER2 and Hippo pathway effectors, which may improve the antitumor activity of trastuzumab and help overcome resistance.