Project description:Autophagy is a cellular bulk degradation pathway implicated in various diseases. Inhibition of autophagy has been regarded as a new therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, especially in combination with chemotherapy. In our study, we identified two natural compounds, dauricine (DAC) and daurisoline (DAS), as two potent autophagy blockers through a high-content screening. DAC and DAS are alkaloids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma Menispermi. We systematically examined the effects of DAC and DAS on autophagy function in HeLa cells and found that DAC and DAS induced massive formation of autophagic vacuoles and lipidation of LC3. The accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and LC3 lipidation are due to blockage of autophagosome maturation as evidenced by interrupted colocalization of autophagsosome and lysosome, increased GFP-LC3/RFP-LC3 ratio and accumulation of autophagic substrate p62. Moreover, DAC and DAS impaired lysosomal function, as indicated by reduced lysosomal protease activity and increased lysosomal pH values. Importantly, we showed that DAC and DAS strongly inhibited the lysosome V-type ATPase activity. For the therapeutic potential, we found that DAC and DAS blocked the campothecin (CPT)-induced protective autophagy in HeLa cells, and dramatically sensitized the multiple cancer cells to CPT-induced cell death. In conclusion, our result shows that DAC and DAS are autophagy inhibitors which inhibit the lysosomal degradation of auophagic vacuoles, and sensitize the CPT-induced cancer cell death. The study implies the therapeutic potential of DAC and DAS in the treatment of cancers in combination of chemotherapy by inhibiting autophagy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma (GBM) is a complex disease with extensive molecular and transcriptional heterogeneity. GBM can be subcategorized into four distinct subtypes; tumors that shift towards the mesenchymal phenotype upon recurrence are generally associated with treatment resistance, unfavorable prognosis, and the infiltration of pro-tumorigenic macrophages. RESULTS:We explore the transcriptional regulatory networks of mesenchymal-associated tumor-associated macrophages (MA-TAMs), which drive the malignant phenotypic state of GBM, and identify macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) as the most highly differentially expressed gene. MARCOhigh TAMs induce a phenotypic shift towards mesenchymal cellular state of glioma stem cells, promoting both invasive and proliferative activities, as well as therapeutic resistance to irradiation. MARCOhigh TAMs also significantly accelerate tumor engraftment and growth in vivo. Moreover, both MA-TAM master regulators and their target genes are significantly correlated with poor clinical outcomes and are often associated with genomic aberrations in neurofibromin 1 (NF1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases/mammalian target of rapamycin/Akt pathway (PI3K-mTOR-AKT)-related genes. We further demonstrate the origination of MA-TAMs from peripheral blood, as well as their potential association with tumor-induced polarization states and immunosuppressive environments. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our study characterizes the global transcriptional profile of TAMs driving mesenchymal GBM pathogenesis, providing potential therapeutic targets for improving the effectiveness of GBM immunotherapy.
Project description:Despite recent progress in the identification of genetic and molecular alternations in colorectal carcinoma, the precise molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. NALP1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 1) is a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family of proteins that are key organization proteins in the inflammasome. It is reported that NALP1 plays a central role in cell apoptosis, pyroptosis, inflammatory reactions and autoimmune diseases. DAC (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine) is an antitumor drug useful to lung cancer, myelodysplastic disorders, myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we examined the expression of NALP1 in human normal and cancerous colon tissues using tissue microarray, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR and we measured the expression of NALP1 in three kinds of colon cancer cell lines and animal models before and after treatment with DAC. Furthermore, we examined the treatment effects of DAC on colon cancer in our animal model. Our data indicate that NALP1 is expressed low in human colorectal tumoral tissues relative to paratumoral tissues and was associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients. The expression of NALP1 increased after treatment with DAC both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, DAC suppressed the growth of colon cancer and increased lifespan in mouse model. Therefore, we conclude that NALP1 is expressed low in colon cancer and associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients, and treatment with DAC can restore NALP1 levels to suppress the growth of colon cancer.
Project description:This paper proposes a new DAC BIST (digital-to-analog converter built-in self-test) structure using a resistor loop known as a DDEM ADC (deterministic dynamic element matching analog-to-digital converter). Methods for both switch reduction and switch effect reduction are proposed for solving problems related to area overhead and accuracy of the conventional DAC BIST. The proposed BIST modifies the length of each resistor in the resistor loop via a merging operation and reduces the number of switches and resistors. In addition, the effect of switches is mitigated using the proposed switch effect reduction method. The accuracy of the proposed BIST is demonstrated by the reduction in the switch effect. The experimental results show that the proposed BIST reduces resource usages and the mismatch error caused by the switches.
Project description:Background: Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is the most abundant and important uptake transporter involved in the renal excretion of cationic drugs. Abnormal hypermethylation- mediated silencing of OCT2 results in oxaliplatin resistance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The epigenetic activation of OCT2 by decitabine (DAC) reversed this resistance in normoxic conditions. Given the hypoxic characteristic of RCC, it is still unclear whether hypoxia promotes DAC resistance and is involved in the regulation of OCT2. Methods: The mRNA and protein expression of OCT2 was determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. MSRE-qPCR and BSP were used to examine methylation modifications at the OCT2 promoter. The ChIP-qPCR analysis was performed to detect the abundance of histone modification and HIF-1?. The accumulation of DAC and 5-mC were detected using LC-MS, and the amount of 5-hmC was determined by dot blot analysis. To understand the role of hypoxia in the regulation of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) expression, the HIF-1? KO cell model was constructed. The re-emulsion method was used for the construction of H-NPs, an oxygen nanocarrier based on hemoglobin, to alleviate the drug resistance of DAC under hypoxia. Results: DAC was unable to upregulate OCT2 expression in hypoxic conditions because of the hypermethylation and low H3K4me3 modification in its promoter region. Hypoxia-mediated repression of human ENT1, which was markedly suppressed in RCC, resulted in a decrease in the cellular accumulation of DAC. Besides, hypoxia-induced upregulation of histone deacetylase HDAC9, which impaired the enrichment of H3K27ac modification in the OCT2 promoter, led to the transcriptional repression of OCT2. H-NPs could attenuate the hypoxia-induced loss of DAC activity and sensitize RCC cells to the sequential combination therapy of DAC and oxaliplatin. Conclusions: Hypoxia-mediated repression of ENT1 led to the inability of DAC to upregulate the expression of OCT2 under hypoxia. H-NPs could alleviate resistance to oxaliplatin and DAC in RCC cells under hypoxia and may have potential clinical applications.
Project description:High-risk human papillomaviruses (hr HPVs) may cause various human cancers and associated premalignant lesions. Transformation of the host cells is triggered by overexpression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 that deregulate the cell cycle and induce chromosomal instability. This process is accompanied by hypermethylation of distinct CpG sites resulting in silencing of tumor suppressor genes, inhibition of the viral E2 mediated control of E6 and E7 transcription as well as deregulated expression of host cell microRNAs. Therefore, we hypothesized that treatment with demethylating agents might restore those regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) strongly decreases the expression of E6 and E7 in a panel of HPV-transformed cervical cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Reduction of E6 and E7 further resulted in increased target protein levels including p53 and p21 reducing the proliferation rates and colony formation abilities of the treated cell lines. Moreover, DAC treatment led to enhanced expression of tumor the suppressive miRNA-375 that targets and degrades E6 and E7 transcripts. Therefore, we suggest that DAC treatment of HPV-associated cancers and respective precursor lesions may constitute a targeted approach to subvert HPV oncogene functions that deserves testing in clinical trials.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy that resists current treatments. To test epigenetic therapy against this cancer we used the DNA demethylating drug 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (DAC) in a KrasLSL-G12D; p53LSL-R270H/+; Pdx1-cre; Brca1flex2/flex2 (KPC-Brca1) mouse model of aggressive stroma-rich PDAC. In untreated tumors, we found globally decreased 5-methyl-cytosine (5mC) in malignant epithelial cells and in cancer-associated myofibroblasts (CAFs), and increased amounts of 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5HmC) in CAFs, in progression from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) to PDAC. DAC further reduced DNA methylation and slowed PDAC progression, markedly extending survival in an early treatment protocol and significantly though transiently inhibiting tumor growth when initiated later, without adverse side effects. Escaping tumors contained areas of sarcomatoid transformation with disappearance of CAFs. Mixing-allografting experiments and proliferation indices showed that DAC efficacy was due to inhibition of both the malignant epithelial cells and the stromal CAFs. Expression profiling and immunohistochemistry highlighted DAC-induction of STAT1 in the tumors, and DAC plus gamma-interferon produced an additive anti-proliferative effect on PDAC cells. DAC induced strong expression of the testis antigen DAZL in CAFs. These data show that DAC is effective against PDAC in vivo and provide a rationale for future studies combining hypomethylating agents with cytokines and immunotherapy. Treatment of a short-term explant culture of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from a KPC-Brca1 mouse pancreatic carcinoma, with 2 micromolar 5-aza-dC (decitabine; DAC) for 48 hours. The experiment includes 3 replicate plates untreated and 3 replicates treated.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is predominantly a disease of older patients with a poor long-term survival. Approval of decitabine (DAC) in the European Union (EU) in 2012 for the treatment of patients with AML ≥65 years marks the potential for hypomethylating agents in elderly AML. Nevertheless the situation is dissatisfactory and the quest for novel treatment approaches, including combination epigenetic therapy is actively ongoing. The given randomized trial should be helpful in investigating the question whether combinations of DAC with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) and/or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which in vitro show a very promising synergism, are superior to the DAC monotherapy. The accompanying translational research project will contribute to find surrogate molecular end points for drug efficacy and better tailor epigenetic therapy. An additional aim of the study is to investigate the prognostic value of geriatric assessments for elderly AML patients treated non-intensively.DECIDER is a prospective, randomized, observer blind, parallel group, multicenter, Phase II study with a 2x2 factorial design. The primary endpoint is objective best overall response (complete remission (CR) and partial remission (PR)). The target population is AML patients aged 60 years or older and unfit for standard induction chemotherapy. Patients are randomized to one of the four treatment groups: DAC alone or in combination with VPA or ATRA or with both add-on drugs. One interim safety analysis was planned and carried out with the objective to stop early one or more of the treatment arms in case of an unacceptable death rate. This analysis showed that in all treatment arms the critical stopping rule was not reached. No important safety issues were observed. The Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) recommended continuing the study as planned. The first patient was included in December 2011. A total of 189 out of 200 planned patients were randomized since then (status 31.12.2014).ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00867672 (registration date 23.03.2009); German clinical trials registry number: DRKS00000733 (registration date 19.04.2011).
Project description:Aberrant expression of microRNA (miRNA) has been reported in various cancers. To clarify the role of miRNA in gastric carcinogenesis, we performed miRNA microarray analysis and investigated expressional changes of miRNAs in a 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC)-treated gastric cancer cell line, KATO-ІІІ. Overall design: A gastric cancer cell line KATO-III was daily treated with DAC for 72 h. MiRNAs up- or down-regulated by DAC was compared with unteated KATO-III. The list of all up-regulated miRNAs in KATO-III by drug treatment can be found in supplementary file, GSE16006_miRNA_list.txt, below.
Project description:Reversal of gene promoter DNA hypermethylation and associated abnormal gene silencing is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. The DNA methylation inhibitor, decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine), is proving efficacious for hematological neoplasms especially at lower, less toxic, doses. Experimentally, high doses induce rapid DNA damage and cytotoxicity, but these may not explain the prolonged time to response seen in patients. Transient exposure of leukemic and solid tumor cells to clinically-relevant nanomolar doses, without causing immediate cytotoxicity or apoptosis, produces sustained reduced tumorigenicity, and for leukemia cells, diminished long-term self-renewal. These effects appear triggered by cellular reprogramming and include sustained decreases in promoter DNA methylation with associated gene re-expression, and anti-tumor changes in multiple key cellular regulatory pathways, most of which are high priority targets for pharmacologic anti-cancer strategies. Thus, low dose decitabine regimens appear to have broad applicability for cancer management. Overall design: [Gene expression profiling] Leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and KG1A are treated with 10nM DAC during 72 hours and gene expression was assayed at day 3, 7 and 14 after the start of the treatment. Appropriate mock treated samples were used as control in each case. In addition, Kasumi-1 cells were also treated with a higher dose of DAC (500nM), 100nM ARA-C and 300 nM TSA, again controlled against mock treated Kasumi-1 cells, to separate dose and agent dependent effects. MCF7 was studied as an example of a solid tumor cell line. Therefore MCF7 cells were treated with 100nM DAC and results were assayed at day 1, day 3 and day 10. [Methylation profiling] The effects of the demethylating agent DAC were studied in the leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 over a 28 day time course. Intermediate time points were studied at days 3, 7, 14 and 21. These results were verfied in KG1A and KG1 leukemia cell lines, at one selected time point. The effects on one primary sample were also studied. Four normal leukemia samples (PL1, 2, 4 and 5) were used as general controls. The effect of DAC was compared to ARA-C, TSA. Both mock treated and day 3 DAC treated Kasumi-1 cells were repeated. These results were verified at one selected time point for the DAC treated MCF7 breast cancer cell line.