Project description:Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that can occur in multiple organ sites and is primarily found in the salivary gland. While the identification of recurrent fusions of the MYB-NFIB genes have begun to shed light on the molecular underpinnings, little else is known about the molecular genetics of this frequently fatal cancer. We have undertaken exome sequencing in a series of 24 ACC to further delineate the genetics of the disease. We identified multiple mutated genes that, combined, implicate chromatin deregulation in half of cases. Further, mutations were identified in known cancer genes, including PIK3CA, ATM, CDKN2A, SF3B1, SUFU, TSC1, and CYLD. Mutations in NOTCH1/2 were identified in 3 cases, and we identify the negative NOTCH signaling regulator, SPEN, as a new cancer gene in ACC with mutations in 5 cases. Finally, the identification of 3 likely activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR2, analogous to those reported in ovarian and endometrial carcinoma, point to potential therapeutic avenues for a subset of cases.
Project description:The CD117 (KIT) protein is overexpressed in many human neoplasms including adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands. To evaluate the function of c-kit-activating mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland, we studied 14 cases (13 primary, 1 cervical lymph node metastasis) from our institution. KIT protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Mutational analyses of c-kit extracellular (exon 9), juxtamembrane (exon 11) and tyrosine kinase domains (exons 13 and 17) were performed by polymerase chain reaction, clonal selection and DNA sequencing. All 14 cases demonstrated strong KIT expression by immunohistochemistry. Molecular analysis was successful in 8 of 14 cases, and c-kit missense point mutations were detected in seven of eight cases (88%) including seven in exon 11, two in exon 9, two in exon 13 and two in exon 17. Eight silent point mutations were detected in five cases. Two cases contained missense mutations in more than one exon. Different mutations were found in the primary tumor and the cervical lymph node metastasis of one patient. Point mutations in domains similar to those described in gastrointestinal stromal tumors were detected, including Pro551Leu and Lys558Glu (5' end of exon 11), Leu576Phe (3' end of exon 11), Val643Ala (exon 13) and Asn822Ser (exon 17). Additional novel point mutations in exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 were also identified. This study is the first to report c-kit gene mutations in primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland. Identification of such potential gain-of-function mutations in exon 11, and less frequently in exons 9, 13 and 17, suggests that KIT may be involved in the pathogenesis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands. Our study raises a prospect of correlation of c-kit mutation and a potential treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (imatinib).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins are crucial to carcinogenesis since their expression results in evasion of apoptosis. Overexpression of inhibitors of apoptosis has repeatedly been associated with resistance to treatment and poor prognosis in various cancers. The role of inhibitors of apoptosis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis and their potential prognostic value in adenoid cystic carcinoma. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Forty-nine patients, diagnosed with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland between 1996 and 2016, were retrospectively included in this study. The expression of cIAP1, cIAP2, XIAP, Birc6, Livin and Survivin was assessed using immunohistochemistry, and their association of survival and prognosis was evaluated during a median follow-up of 6.4 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Cause-specific survival and recurrence-free survival rates. RESULTS:XIAP, cIAP2, Livin and nuclear Survivin showed high expression levels in adenoid cystic carcinoma in most patients. There was no significant association of cIAP1, cIAP2, Livin, Birc6 and Survivin with outcome. However, high XIAP expression was associated with worse cause-specific survival and worse response to radiotherapy and proved to be an independent marker in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION:Our data indicate that high expression of XIAP may be used as a prognosticator for poor survival and poor response to radiotherapy in adenoid cystic carcinoma patients.
Project description:Salivary gland malignancies of the head and neck form a heterogeneous group. Adenoid cystic carcinomas are an aggressive entity of salivary gland malignancies characterized by frequent distant metastases and poor response to radio- and chemotherapy. AF1Q is a MLL fusion partner, which can activate Wnt and STAT3 signaling. Recently, overexpression of AF1q has been identified as a poor prognosticator in patients of different malignancies. A total of 46 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma were immunohistochemically evaluated for expression of AF1q and clinical outcome was analyzed in this context. Additionally, STAT3 and the Wnt downstream target CD44 were investigated and correlated with AF1q. AF1q was overexpressed in 52.2%. Overexpression of AF1q was associated with poorer overall survival (p?=?0.03). Additionally, lymph node metastases and solid tumor parts were more frequently observed in AF1qhigh patients (p?=?0.07 and 0.05, respectively). AF1q did not influence the occurrence of distant metastases. Expression of AF1q was associated with higher levels of STAT3 and CD44 (p?=?0.003 and 0.006, respectively). AF1q is a novel prognostic marker for poor overall survival in adenoid cystic carcinoma patients. The deleterious effects on survival may be a result of promotion of the STAT3 and Wnt pathway.
Project description:To identify genomic mutations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (LGACC) samples from patients.Genomic DNA was extracted from LGACC specimens. Whole exome sequencing (exome-seq) was conducted to screen for mutations. Capillary sequencing was performed to verify mutations in genes shared by multiple samples. Luciferase assays were used to evaluate functional consequences of NOTCH1 mutations.The mutation profile of LGACC was complicated. The most frequently mutated gene observed (28.6%) was bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF). No mutation was identified in common cancer genes such as TP53, KRAS, and BRAF. However, mutations predicted to be functionally severe were accumulated in the Notch signaling pathway including NOTCH1 and NOTCH2, of which mutations have been reported in head/neck adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Of 14 LGACC samples, five samples carry mutations in Notch pathway genes. Capillary sequencing verified all the mutations in the two NOTCH genes identified by exome-seq. Compared to the wild-type NOTCH1, three frame shifting mutations and two missense mutations (C387W and L1600Q) increased luciferase activity approximately 10- to 25-fold.Major genomic mutation profiles in LGACC were uncovered by exome-seq. Although preliminary in nature, the Notch pathway could be a potential therapeutic target for LGACC.
Project description:Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare histological type of triple-negative breast cancer with an indolent clinical behavior, often driven by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. Here we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in two adenoid cystic carcinomas associated with high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. The different components of each case were subjected to copy number profiling and massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons and selected regulatory and intronic regions of 488 genes. Reverse transcription PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization were employed to investigate the presence of the MYB-NFIB translocation. The MYB-NFIB fusion gene was detected in both adenoid cystic carcinomas and their associated high-grade triple-negative breast cancer components. Although the distinct components of both cases displayed similar patterns of gene copy number alterations, massively parallel sequencing analysis revealed intratumor genetic heterogeneity. In case 1, progression from the trabecular adenoid cystic carcinoma to the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer was found to involve clonal shifts with enrichment of mutations affecting EP300, NOTCH1, ERBB2 and FGFR1 in the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. In case 2, a clonal KMT2C mutation was present in the cribriform adenoid cystic carcinoma, solid adenoid cystic carcinoma and high-grade triple-negative breast cancer components, whereas a mutation affecting MYB was present only in the solid and high-grade triple-negative breast cancer areas and additional three mutations targeting STAG2, KDM6A and CDK12 were restricted to the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. In conclusion, adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast with high-grade transformation are underpinned by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene and, akin to other forms of cancer, may be constituted by a mosaic of cancer cell clones at diagnosis. The progression from adenoid cystic carcinoma to high-grade triple-negative breast cancer of no special type may involve the selection of neoplastic clones and/or the acquisition of additional genetic alterations.
Project description:Oncogenic activation of tyrosine kinases is a common mechanism of carcinogenesis and, given the druggable nature of these enzymes, an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Here, we show that somatic mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) tyrosine kinase gene, FGFR2, are present in 12% of endometrial carcinomas, with additional instances found in lung squamous cell carcinoma and cervical carcinoma. These FGFR2 mutations, many of which are identical to mutations associated with congenital craniofacial developmental disorders, are constitutively activated and oncogenic when ectopically expressed in NIH 3T3 cells. Inhibition of FGFR2 kinase activity in endometrial carcinoma cell lines bearing such FGFR2 mutations inhibits transformation and survival, implicating FGFR2 as a novel therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma.
Project description:Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a common head and neck cancer with the propensity for local spread and distant metastasis. In our previous study, elevated expression of Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) was detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness. However, to date, the expression and function of AGR2 in AdCC has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, human AdCC tissue microarrays including 18 cases of normal salivary gland (NSG), 12 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PMA) and 72 cases of AdCC were employed for immunohistochemical staining analysis. Results indicated that AGR2, which was remarkably correlated with Ki-67, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-?1) and CD147, was significantly elevated in human salivary AdCC tissues. Knockdown of AGR2 significantly repressed the proliferation and migration of human SACC-83 and SACC-LM cell lines. Additionally, AGR2 silencing obviously reversed the EMT phenomena induced by TGF-?1. Taken together, our present study revealed the potential pro-metastasis role of AGR2 in AdCC, indicating that AGR2 might be a novel therapeutic target of AdCC with distant metastasis.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) may function as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism of miRNAs in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is unclear. Here, we provide evidence that miR-24-3p was downreglated and functions as a tumor suppressor in human lacrimal adenoid cystic carcinoma by suppressing proliferation and migration/invasion while promoting apoptosis. miR-24-3p down-regulated protein kinase C eta (PRKCH) by binding to its untranslated region (3'UTR). PRKCH increased the of the cell growth and migration/invasion in ACC cells and suppressed the expression of p53 and p21 in both mRNA and protein level. The overexpression of miR-24-3p decreased its malignant phenotype. Ectopic expression of PRKCH counteracted the suppression of malignancy induced by miR-24-3p, as well as ectopic expression of miR-24-3p rescued the suppression of PRKCH in the p53/p21 pathway. These results suggest that miR-24-3p promotes the p53/p21 pathway by down-regulating PRKCH expression in lacrimal adenoid cystic carcinoma cells.
Project description:This case report shows the high PSMA-uptake in a patient with an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. Due to the intense ligand-uptake additional information for target volume delineation was obtained and the Treatment plan for bimodal radiotherapy with carbon ions was adapted accordingly.