ABSTRACT: Sequence Data of total RNA, miRNA, WGB, mRNA, NOMe, Chip (H3K27ac,H3K27me, H3K36me3, H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K9me3, Input)
Short Desrciption: Epigenetic profiling of human CD4+ memory T cells reveals their proliferative history and argues in favor of a progressive differentiation model driven by epigenetically controlled master regulators.
Project description:Specific chromatin marks keep master regulators of differentiation silent yet poised for activation by extracellular signals. We report that nodal TGF-? signals use the poised histone mark H3K9me3 to trigger differentiation of mammalian embryonic stem cells. Nodal receptors induce the formation of companion Smad4-Smad2/3 and TRIM33-Smad2/3 complexes. The PHD-Bromo cassette of TRIM33 facilitates binding of TRIM33-Smad2/3 to H3K9me3 and H3K18ac on the promoters of mesendoderm regulators Gsc and Mixl1. The crystal structure of this cassette, bound to histone H3 peptides, illustrates that PHD recognizes K9me3, and Bromo binds an adjacent K18ac. The interaction between TRIM33-Smad2/3 and H3K9me3 displaces the chromatin-compacting factor HP1?, making nodal response elements accessible to Smad4-Smad2/3 for Pol II recruitment. In turn, Smad4 increases K18 acetylation to augment TRIM33-Smad2/3 binding. Thus, nodal effectors use the H3K9me3 mark as a platform to switch master regulators of stem cell differentiation from the poised to the active state.
Project description:A key element of adaptive immunity is the development of long-lived memory cells, which protect against recurring infection by providing a highly enriched pool of antigen-specific cells ready to react to the pathogen. Different classes of memory T cells occur upon primary activation of naive T cells, however, their detailed differentiation pathway is not entirely clear. As part of the IHEC consortium, we generated genome-wide epigenetic maps of a number of CD4+ T cell memory (Tmem) stages including rare subsets such as terminally differentiated (TEMRA) and bone marrow-resident Tmem. We found that CD4+ T cells show progressive global DNA demethylation with differentiation into memory stages, which reflects their proliferative history and likely indicates their decline in differentiation and proliferation potential. Furthermore, transcriptomic profiling combined with co-regulation network analyses arranged different Tmem subsets into a successive differentiation pathway. In addition, we identified a number of epigenetically controlled candidate master regulators for Tmem formation, of which we functionally validated a new methylation-sensitive promoter for the known 'naive-keeper' transcription factor Foxp1. Our study highlights the power of epigenomic datasets in the elucidation of the cellular history but also of the functional potential of T cell populations including the identification of epigenetically controlled master regulators.
Project description:How epigenetic information is transmitted from generation to generation remains largely unknown. Deletion of the C. elegans histone H3 lysine 4 dimethyl (H3K4me2) demethylase spr-5 leads to inherited accumulation of the euchromatic H3K4me2 mark and progressive decline in fertility. Here, we identified multiple chromatin-modifying factors, including H3K4me1/me2 and H3K9me3 methyltransferases, an H3K9me3 demethylase, and an H3K9me reader, which either suppress or accelerate the progressive transgenerational phenotypes of spr-5 mutant worms. Our findings uncover a network of chromatin regulators that control the transgenerational flow of epigenetic information and suggest that the balance between euchromatic H3K4 and heterochromatic H3K9 methylation regulates transgenerational effects on fertility.
Project description:Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with multilineage differentiation potentials including osteogenesis and adipogenesis. While significant progress has been made in understanding transcriptional controls of MSC fate, little is known about how MSC differentiation is epigenetically regulated. Here we show that the histone demethylases KDM4B and KDM6B play critical roles in osteogenic commitment of MSCs by removing H3K9me3 and H3K27me3. Depletion of KDM4B or KDM6B significantly reduced osteogenic differentiation and increased adipogenic differentiation. Mechanistically, while KDM6B controlled HOX expression by removing H3K27me3, KDM4B promoted DLX expression by removing H3K9me3. Importantly, H3K27me3- and H3K9me3-positive MSCs of bone marrow were significantly elevated in ovariectomized and aging mice in which adipogenesis was highly active. Since histone demethylases are chemically modifiable, KDM4B and KDM6B may present as therapeutic targets for controlling MSC fate choices and lead to clues for new treatment in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis.
Project description:Alternative splicing (AS) programs are primarily controlled by regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). It has been proposed that a small number of master splicing regulators might control cell-specific splicing networks and that these RBPs could be identified by proximity of their genes to transcriptional super-enhancers. Using this approach we identified RBPMS as a critical splicing regulator in differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). RBPMS is highly down-regulated during phenotypic switching of SMCs from a contractile to a motile and proliferative phenotype and is responsible for 20% of the AS changes during this transition. RBPMS directly regulates AS of numerous components of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion machineries whose activity is critical for SMC function in both phenotypes. RBPMS also regulates splicing of other splicing, post-transcriptional and transcription regulators including the key SMC transcription factor Myocardin, thereby matching many of the criteria of a master regulator of AS in SMCs.
Project description:High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGS-OvCa) has the lowest survival rate among all gynecologic cancers and is hallmarked by a high degree of heterogeneity. The Cancer Genome Atlas network has described a gene expression-based molecular classification of HGS-OvCa into Differentiated, Mesenchymal, Immunoreactive and Proliferative subtypes. However, the biological underpinnings and regulatory mechanisms underlying the distinct molecular subtypes are largely unknown. Here we showed that tumor-infiltrating stromal cells significantly contributed to the assignments of Mesenchymal and Immunoreactive clusters. Using reverse engineering and an unbiased interrogation of subtype regulatory networks, we identified the transcriptional modules containing master regulators that drive gene expression of Mesenchymal and Immunoreactive HGS-OvCa. Mesenchymal master regulators were associated with poor prognosis, while Immunoreactive master regulators positively correlated with overall survival. Meta-analysis of 749 HGS-OvCa expression profiles confirmed that master regulators as a prognostic signature were able to predict patient outcome. Our data unraveled master regulatory programs of HGS-OvCa subtypes with prognostic and potentially therapeutic relevance, and suggested that the unique transcriptional and clinical characteristics of ovarian Mesenchymal and Immunoreactive subtypes could be, at least partially, ascribed to tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Kleefstra syndrome, a disease with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and other developmental defects is caused in humans by haploinsufficiency of EHMT1. Although EHMT1 and its paralog EHMT2 were shown to be histone methyltransferases responsible for deposition of the di-methylated H3K9 (H3K9me2), the exact nature of epigenetic dysfunctions in Kleefstra syndrome remains unknown. Here, we found that the epigenome of Ehmt1+/- adult mouse brain displays a marked increase of H3K9me2/3 which correlates with impaired expression of protocadherins, master regulators of neuronal diversity. Increased H3K9me3 was present already at birth, indicating that aberrant methylation patterns are established during embryogenesis. Interestingly, we found that Ehmt2+/- mice do not present neither the marked increase of H3K9me2/3 nor the cognitive deficits found in Ehmt1+/- mice, indicating an evolutionary diversification of functions. Our finding of increased H3K9me3 in Ehmt1+/- mice is the first one supporting the notion that EHMT1 can quench the deposition of tri-methylation by other Histone methyltransferases, ultimately leading to impaired neurocognitive functioning. Our insights into the epigenetic pathophysiology of Kleefstra syndrome may offer guidance for future developments of therapeutic strategies for this disease.
Project description:Recent technical advances highlight that to understand mammalian development and human disease we need to consider transcriptional and epigenetic cell-to-cell differences within cell populations. This is particularly important in key areas of biomedicine like stem cell differentiation and intratumor heterogeneity. The recently developed nucleosome occupancy and methylome (NOMe) assay facilitates the simultaneous study of DNA methylation and nucleosome positioning on the same DNA strand. NOMe-treated DNA can be sequenced by sanger (NOMe-PCR) or high throughput approaches (NOMe-seq). NOMe-PCR provides information for a single locus at the single molecule while NOMe-seq delivers genome-wide data that is usually interrogated to obtain population-averaged measures. Here, we have developed a bioinformatic tool that allow us to easily obtain locus-specific information at the single molecule using genome-wide NOMe-seq datasets obtained from bulk populations. We have used NOMePlot to study mouse embryonic stem cells and found that polycomb-repressed bivalent gene promoters coexist in two different epigenetic states, as defined by the nucleosome binding pattern detected around their transcriptional start site.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation of the replication program during mammalian cell differentiation remains poorly understood. We performed an integrative analysis of eleven genome-wide epigenetic profiles at 100 kb resolution of Mean Replication Timing (MRT) data in six human cell lines. Compared to the organization in four chromatin states shared by the five somatic cell lines, embryonic stem cell (ESC) line H1 displays (i) a gene-poor but highly dynamic chromatin state (EC4) associated to histone variant H2AZ rather than a HP1-associated heterochromatin state (C4) and (ii) a mid-S accessible chromatin state with bivalent gene marks instead of a polycomb-repressed heterochromatin state. Plastic MRT regions (? 20% of the genome) are predominantly localized at the borders of U-shaped timing domains. Whereas somatic-specific U-domain borders are gene-dense GC-rich regions, 31.6% of H1-specific U-domain borders are early EC4 regions enriched in pluripotency transcription factors NANOG and OCT4 despite being GC poor and gene deserts. Silencing of these ESC-specific "master" replication initiation zones during differentiation corresponds to a loss of H2AZ and an enrichment in H3K9me3 mark characteristic of late replicating C4 heterochromatin. These results shed a new light on the epigenetically regulated global chromatin reorganization that underlies the loss of pluripotency and lineage commitment.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) is characterized by enhanced chronic inflammation in the airways, lung parenchyma, and circulation. We investigated whether SUV39H1, a histone methyltransferase, is causatively implicated in the abnormal inflammation observed in COPD. The SUV39H1 and H3K9me3 levels were reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs), primary human small airway epithelial cells(HSAEpCs) and lung tissues from COPD patients, which were correlated with poor lung function and the serum IL-8 and IL-6 levels. A specific SUV39H1 inhibitor, chaetocin, induced a distinct COPD panel of inflammatory cytokines in normal PBMCs. Mechanistically, chaetocin reduced the SUV39H1 and H3K9me3 levels in the native IL-8 promoter in normal HSAEpCs, which mimicked unstimulated COPD HSAEpCs and led to decreased HP-1? levels and increased RNA polymerase II levels. SUV39H1 knockdown reproduced the pattern of COPD inflammation, whereas SUV39H1 overexpression in COPD HSAEpCs rescued the H3K9me3 levels and suppressed inflammation. In COPD mice, chaetocin further repressed the SUV39H1/H3K9me3 levels and enhanced inflammation. SUV39H1 epigenetically controls a distinct panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Its reduction in COPD leads to a loss of the repressive chromatin mark H3K9me3 and confers an abnormal inflammatory response to stimulators. SUV39H1 and its regulatory pathways are potential therapeutic targets for COPD.