ABSTRACT: Around 10% of patients who present in melanoma clinics have a first degree relative with a previous diagnosis of melanoma. While around 3% have three or more relatives who have been diagnosed with the disease. In this project we will whole genome sequence patients from large Dutch familial melanoma pedigrees to identify mutations in genes that drive melanomagenesis. The identification of these genes will facilitate the management of familial melanoma patients and their families.
Project description:Around 10% of patients who present in melanoma clinics have a first degree relative with a previous diagnosis of melanoma. While around 3% have three or more relatives who have been diagnosed with the disease. In this project we will whole genome sequence patients from large Dutch familial melanoma pedigrees to identify mutations in genes that drive melanomagenesis. The identification of these genes will facilitate the management of familial melanoma patients and their families.
Project description:Background:Statistically significant linkage of melanoma to chromosome 9q21 was previously reported in a Danish pedigree resource and independently confirmed in Utah high-risk pedigrees, indicating strong evidence that this region contains a melanoma predisposition gene. Methods:Whole-exome sequencing of pairs of related melanoma case subjects from two pedigrees with evidence of 9q21 linkage was performed to identify the responsible predisposition gene. Candidate variants were tested for association with melanoma in an independent set of 454 unrelated familial melanoma case subjects and 396 unrelated cancer-free control subjects from Utah, and 1534 melanoma case subjects and 1146 noncancer control subjects from Texas (MD Anderson) via a two-sided Fisher exact test. Results:A rare nonsynonymous variant in Golgi Membrane Protein 1 (GOLM1), rs149739829, shared in two hypothesized predisposition carriers in one linked pedigree was observed. Segregation of this variant in additional affected relatives of the index carriers was confirmed. A statistically significant excess of carriers of the variant was observed among Utah case subjects and control subjects (odds ratio [OR] = 9.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.35 to 11.26, P < .001) and statistically significantly confirmed in Texas case subjects and control subjects (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.65 to 3.25, P = .02). Conclusion:These findings support GOLM1 as a candidate melanoma predisposition gene.
Project description:With the recent discovery of mutations in the STAT3 gene in the majority of patients with classic Hyper-IgE syndrome, it is now possible to make a molecular diagnosis in most of these cases. We have developed a PCR-based high-resolution DNA-melting assay to scan selected exons of the STAT3 gene for mutations responsible for Hyper-IgE syndrome, which is then followed by targeted sequencing. We scanned for mutations in 10 unrelated pedigrees, which include 16 patients with classic Hyper-IgE syndrome. These pedigrees include both sporadic and familial cases and their relatives, and we have found STAT3 mutations in all affected individuals. High-resolution melting analysis allows a single day turn-around time for mutation scanning and targeted sequencing of the STAT3 gene, which will greatly facilitate the rapid diagnosis of the Hyper-IgE syndrome, allowing prompt and appropriate therapy, prophylaxis, improved clinical outcome, and accurate genetic counseling.
Project description:Deleterious germline variants in CDKN2A account for around 40% of familial melanoma cases, and rare variants in CDK4, BRCA2, BAP1 and the promoter of TERT have also been linked to the disease. Here we set out to identify new high-penetrance susceptibility genes by sequencing 184 melanoma cases from 105 pedigrees recruited in the UK, The Netherlands and Australia that were negative for variants in known predisposition genes. We identified families where melanoma cosegregates with loss-of-function variants in the protection of telomeres 1 gene (POT1), with a proportion of family members presenting with an early age of onset and multiple primary tumors. We show that these variants either affect POT1 mRNA splicing or alter key residues in the highly conserved oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) domains of POT1, disrupting protein-telomere binding and leading to increased telomere length. These findings suggest that POT1 variants predispose to melanoma formation via a direct effect on telomeres.
Project description:Familial history of melanoma is a well-known risk factor for the disease, and 7% melanoma patients were reported to have a family history of melanoma. Data relating to the frequency and clinical and pathological characteristics of both familial and non-familial melanoma in Spain have been published, but these only include patients from specific areas of Spain and do not represent the data for the whole of Spain.An observational study conducted by the Spanish Group of Melanoma (GEM) analyzed the family history of patients diagnosed with melanoma between 2011 and 2013 in the dermatology and oncology departments.In all, 1047 patients were analyzed, and 69 (6.6%) fulfilled criteria for classical familial melanoma (two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma). Taking into account other risk factors for familial melanoma, such as multiple melanoma, pancreatic cancer in the family or second-degree relatives with melanoma, the number of patients fulfilling the criteria increased to 165 (15.8%). Using a univariate analysis, we determined that a Breslow index of less than 1 mm, negative mitosis, multiple melanoma, and a history of sunburns in childhood were more frequent in familial melanoma patients, but a multivariate analysis revealed no differences in any pathological or clinical factor between the two groups.Similar to that observed in other countries, familial melanoma accounts for 6.6% of melanoma diagnoses in Spain. Although no differences in the multivariate analysis were found, some better prognosis factors, such as Breslow index, seem more frequent in familial melanoma, which reflect a better early detection marker and/or a different biological behavior.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In the North Central Province of Sri Lanka, chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDue) has increased markedly over the past 15-20 years.<h4>Methods</h4>From around 4,700 patients who were followed up, 106 affected patients who visited two local clinics in the endemic area for CKDue on August 10, 2009 and 10 pedigrees of 10 of these cases with familial clustering of CKDue participated in this study. Urine samples, collected from affected patients (n = 106), unaffected relative controls (n = 81), and Japanese controls (n = 50), were analyzed for two tubular markers: ?1-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D: -glucosaminidase. Urine samples from patients with CKDue stages 1-4 (n = 101) and all the samples from unaffected relatives and Japanese controls were analyzed for urinary cadmium concentration.<h4>Results</h4>Urinary excretion of ?1-microglobulin was elevated even in the earliest stage of CKDue compared with its levels in unaffected relative controls. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-?-D: -glucosaminidase was elevated only in stage 5. In contrast, urinary cadmium excretion was similar in CKDue patients and in the unaffected relative controls, and levels in both these groups were significantly lower than the level in the Japanese controls. All levels were below the threshold level for renal toxicity, indicating the absence of any evidence of cadmium toxicity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study indicates that renal tubular damage occurs in the very early stage of CKDue and demonstrates the existence of familial clustering, suggesting that CKDue is likely to be the outcome of exposure to an unknown nephrotoxin in susceptible subjects in the endemic region.
Project description:The main genetic factors for familial melanoma remain unknown in >75% of families. CDKN2A is mutated in around 20% of melanoma-prone families. Other high-risk melanoma susceptibility genes explain <3% of families studied to date. We performed the first genome-wide linkage analysis in CDKN2A-negative Spanish melanoma-prone families to identify novel melanoma susceptibility loci. We included 68 individuals from 2, 3, and 6 families with 2, 3, and at least 4 melanoma cases. We detected a locus with significant linkage evidence at 11q14.1-q14.3, with a maximum het-TLOD of 3.449 (rs12285365:A>G), using evidence from multiple pedigrees. The genes contained by the subregion with the strongest linkage evidence were: DLG2, PRSS23, FZD4, and TMEM135. We also detected several regions with suggestive linkage evidence (TLOD >1.9) (1q, 6p, 7p, 11q, 12p, 13q) including the region previously detected in melanoma-prone families from Sweden at 3q29. The family-specific analysis revealed three loci with suggestive linkage evidence for family #1: 1q31.1-q32.1 (max. TLOD 2.447), 6p24.3-p22.3 (max. TLOD 2.409), and 11q13.3-q21 (max. TLOD 2.654). Future next-generation sequencing studies of these regions may allow the identification of new melanoma susceptibility genetic factors.
Project description:Approximately 10% of melanoma cases are familial, but only 25-40% of familial melanoma cases can be attributed to germ-line mutations in the CDKN2A - the most significant high-risk melanoma susceptibility locus identified to date. The pathogenic mutation(s) in most of the remaining familial melanoma pedigrees have not yet been identified. The most common mutations in nevi and sporadic melanoma are found in BRAF and NRAS, both of which result in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. However, these mutations are not found in uveal melanomas or the intradermal melanocytic proliferations known as blue nevi. Rather, multiple studies report a strong association between these lesions and somatic mutations in Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha (GNAQ), Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha-11 (GNA11), and BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1). Recently, germ-line mutations in BAP1, the gene encoding a tumor suppressing deubiquitinating enzyme, have been associated with predisposition to a variety of cancers including uveal melanoma, but no studies have examined the association of germ-line mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 with uveal melanoma and blue nevi. We have now done so by sequencing exon 5 of both of these genes in 13 unique familial melanoma pedigrees, members of which have had either uveal or cutaneous melanoma and/or blue nevi. Germ-line DNA from a total of 22 individuals was used for sequencing; however no deleterious mutations were detected. Nevertheless, such candidate gene studies and the discovery of novel germ-line mutations associated with an increased MM susceptibility can lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved in melanocyte transformation, formulation of risk assessment, and the development of specific drug therapies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the feasibility of detecting new cases of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia by using a nurse led genetic register. DESIGN:Case finding among relatives of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. SETTING:Two lipid clinics in central and south Manchester. SUBJECTS:259 (137 men and 122 women) probands and 285 first degree relatives. RESULTS:Of the 200 first degree relatives tested, 121 (60%) had inherited familial hypercholesterolaemia. The newly diagnosed patients were younger than the probands and were generally detected before they had clinically overt atherosclerosis. Concentrations of serum cholesterol were, respectively, 8.4 (1.7 SD) mmol/l and 8.1 (1.9 SD) mmol/l in affected men and women and 5.6 (1.0 SD) mmol/l and 5.6 (1.1 SD) mmol/l in unaffected men and women. Screening for risk factors as recommended in recent guidelines for coronary heart disease prevention would have failed to identify most of the affected relatives in whom hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and obesity were uncommon. CONCLUSIONS:By performing cholesterol tests on 200 relatives, 121 new patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia were discovered. Because 1 in 500 people in the United Kingdom are affected by this condition, to detect a similar number by population screening over 60 000 tests would be required, and only a few of these patients would have been detected had cholesterol testing been restricted to those with other risk factors for coronary heart disease. A case exists for organising a genetic register approach, linking lipid clinics nationally.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Two high-risk genes have been implicated in the development of CM (cutaneous melanoma). Germline mutations of the CDKN2A gene are found in < 25% of melanoma-prone families and there are only seven families with mutation of the CDK4 gene reported to date. Beside those high penetrance genes, certain allelic variants of the MC1R gene modify the risk of developing the disease. THE AIMS OF OUR STUDY WERE: to determine the prevalence of germline CDKN2A mutations and variants in members of families with familial CM and in patients with multiple primary CM; to search for possible CDK4 mutations, and to determine the frequency of variations in the MC1R gene. METHODS: From January 2001 until January 2007, 64 individuals were included in the study. The group included 28 patients and 7 healthy relatives belonging to 25 families, 26 patients with multiple primary tumors and 3 children with CM. Additionally 54 healthy individuals were included as a control group. Mutations and variants of the melanoma susceptibility genes were identified by direct sequencing. RESULTS: Seven families with CDKN2A mutations were discovered (7/25 or 28.0%). The L94Q mutation found in one family had not been previously reported in other populations. The D84N variant, with possible biological impact, was discovered in the case of patient without family history but with multiple primary CM. Only one mutation carrier was found in the control group. Further analysis revealed that c.540C>T heterozygous carriers were more common in the group of CM patients and their healthy relatives (11/64 vs. 2/54). One p14ARF variant was discovered in the control group and no mutations of the CDK4 gene were found. Most frequently found variants of the MC1R gene were T314T, V60L, V92M, R151C, R160W and R163Q with frequencies slightly higher in the group of patients and their relatives than in the group of controls, but the difference was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown high prevalence of p16INK4A mutations in Slovenian population of familial melanoma patients (37%) and an absence of p14ARF or CDK4 mutations.