Project description:Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Because of their slow growth and relative rarity, there is limited evidence for systemic therapy regimens. Recently, molecular profiling studies have begun to reveal the genetic landscape of these poorly understood cancers, and new treatment possibilities are beginning to emerge. The objective is to use whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing and analysis to better understand the genetic alterations underlying the pathology of metastatic and rare ACCs and determine potentially actionable therapeutic targets. We report five cases of metastatic ACC, not originating in the salivary glands, in patients enrolled in the Personalized Oncogenomics (POG) Program at the BC Cancer Agency. Genomic workup included whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing, detailed analysis of tumor alterations, and integration with existing knowledge of drug-target combinations to identify potential therapeutic targets. Analysis reveals low mutational burden in these five ACC cases, and mutation signatures that are commonly observed in multiple cancer types. Notably, the only recurrent structural aberration identified was the well-described MYB-NFIB fusion that was present in four of five cases, and one case exhibited a closely related MYBL1-NFIB fusion. Recurrent mutations were also identified in BAP1 and BCOR, with additional mutations in individual samples affecting NOTCH1 and the epigenetic regulators ARID2, SMARCA2, and SMARCB1. Copy changes were rare, and they included amplification of MYC and homozygous loss of CDKN2A in individual samples. Genomic analysis revealed therapeutic targets in all five cases and served to inform a therapeutic choice in three of the cases to date.
Project description:Effective management of brain and spine tumors relies on a multidisciplinary approach encompassing surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy. In the era of personalized oncology, the latter is complemented by various molecularly targeting agents. Precise identification of cellular targets for these drugs requires comprehensive profiling of the cancer genome coupled with an efficient analytic pipeline, leading to an informed decision on drug selection, prognosis, and confirmation of the original pathological diagnosis. Acquisition of optimal tumor tissue for such analysis is paramount and often presents logistical challenges in neurosurgery. Here, we describe the experience and results of the Personalized OncoGenomics (POG) program with a focus on tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Patients with recurrent CNS tumors were consented and enrolled into the POG program prior to accrual of tumor and matched blood followed by whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing and processing through the POG bioinformatic pipeline. Sixteen patients were enrolled into POG. In each case, POG analyses identified genomic drivers including novel oncogenic fusions, aberrant pathways, and putative therapeutic targets. POG has highlighted that personalized oncology is truly a multidisciplinary field, one in which neurosurgeons must play a vital role if these programs are to succeed and benefit our patients.
Project description:The Personalized Onco-Genomics (POG) program at BC Cancer integrates whole-genome (DNA) and RNA sequencing into practice for metastatic malignancies. We examined the subgroup of patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and report the prevalence of actionable targets, treatments, and outcomes. We identified patients who were enrolled in the POG program between 2012 and 2016 who had a tumor biopsy and blood samples with comprehensive DNA (80×, 40× normal) and RNA sequencing followed by in-depth bioinformatics to identify potential cancer drivers and actionable targets. In NSCLC cases, we compared the progression-free survival (PFS) of "POG-informed therapies" with the PFS of the last regimen prior to POG (PFS ratio). In 29 NSCLC cases, 11 were male (38%), the median age was 60.2 yr (range: 39.4-72.6), and histologies included were adenocarcinoma (93%) and squamous cell carcinoma (7%). Potential molecular targets (i.e., cancer drivers including TP53 mutations) were identified in 26 (90%), and 21 (72%) had actionable targets. Therapies based on standard-of-care mutation analysis, such as EGFR mutations, were not considered POG-informed therapies. Thirteen received POG-informed therapies, of which three had no therapy before POG; therefore a comparator PFS could not be obtained. Of 10 patients with POG-informed therapy, median PFS ratio was 0.94 (IQR 0.2-3.4). Three (30%) had a PFS ratio ?1.3, and three (30%) had a PFS ratio ?0.8 and <1.3. In this small cohort of NSCLC, 30% demonstrated longer PFS with POG-informed therapies. Larger studies will help clarify the role of whole-genome analysis in clinical practice.