Project description:This dataset contains whole genome sequencing data from 21 primary and relapsed IDH-wt glioblastomas and matched blood controls. Tumors were sequenced at a target coverage of 150x, blood controls at 80x.
Project description:This dataset contains gene panel sequencing data from 43 sample pairs of primary and relapsed IDH-wt glioblastomas. The gene panel covers 50 glioma-associated genes. 14 of the sequenced sample pairs were sequenced with whole genome sequencing also and are accessible under EGAD00001004563.
Project description:Background:Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Methods:Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results:TIL and PD-L1 expression were observed in approximately half of WHO grade II/III gliomas. IDH-wt status was associated with significantly higher TIL infiltration and PD-L1 expression among all (grades II-IV) cases (n = 174, P < 0.001) and within the cohort of glioblastomas (n = 131, P < 0.001). In low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma cohorts of TCGA, significantly higher PD-L1 gene expression levels were evident in IDH-wt compared with IDH-mut samples (LGG: N = 516; P = 1.933e-11, GBM: N = 161; P < 0.009). Lower PD-L1 gene expression was associated with increased promoter methylation (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.36; P < 0.01) in the LGG cohort of TCGA. IDH-mut gliomas had higher PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels than IDH-wt gliomas (P < 0.01). Conclusions:The immunological tumor microenvironment of diffuse gliomas differs in association with IDH mutation status. IDH-wt gliomas display a more prominent TIL infiltration and higher PD-L1 expression than IDH-mut cases. Mechanistically this may be at least in part due to differential PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels. Our findings may be relevant for immune modulatory treatment strategies in glioma patients.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that inflammation response biomarkers are prognostic indicators of solid tumor outcomes. Here, we quantify the prognostic value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) in glioblastomas (GBMs), taking into consideration the role of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. We examined 141 primary glioblastomas (pGBMs) and 25 secondary glioblastomas (sGBMs). NLRs, PLRs, and LMRs were calculated before surgery. IDH mutations were detected immunohistochemically after tumor resection, and patients' clinical outcomes were analyzed after classification into GBM, pGBM, and IDH-wild type glioblastoma (IDH-wt GBM) groups. To make comparisons, we set cutoffs for NLR, PLR and LMR of 4.0, 175.0, and 3.7, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, both NLR (HR=1.712, 95% CI 1.026-2.858, p=0.040) and PLR (HR=2.051, 95% CI 1.288-3.267, p=0.002) had independent prognostic value. While a low NLR was associated with a better prognosis only in the IDH-wt GBM group, PLR was predictive of patient survival in the GBM, pGBM, and IDH-wt GBM groups. By contrast, LMR exhibited no prognostic value for any of the 3 types of GBM.
Project description:Glioblastoma is the most common primary adult brain tumour, and despite optimal treatment, the median survival is 12-15 months. Patients with matched recurrent glioblastomas were investigated to try to find actionable mutations. Tumours were profiled using a validated DNA-based gene panel. Copy number variations (CNVs) and single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were examined, and potentially pathogenic variants and clinically actionable mutations were identified. The results revealed that glioblastomas were IDH-wildtype (IDH WT; n?=?38) and IDH-mutant (IDH MUT; n?=?3). SNVs in TSC2, MSH6, TP53, CREBBP, and IDH1 were variants of unknown significance (VUS) that were predicted to be pathogenic in both subtypes. IDH WT tumours had SNVs that impacted RTK/Ras/PI(3)K, p53, WNT, SHH, NOTCH, Rb, and G-protein pathways. Many tumours had BRCA1/2 (18%) variants, including confirmed somatic mutations in haemangioblastoma. IDH WT recurrent tumours had fewer pathways impacted (RTK/Ras/PI(3)K, p53, WNT, and G-protein) and CNV gains (BRCA2, GNAS, and EGFR) and losses (TERT and SMARCA4). IDH MUT tumours had SNVs that impacted RTK/Ras/PI(3)K, p53, and WNT pathways. VUS in KLK1 was possibly pathogenic in IDH MUT. Recurrent tumours also had fewer pathways (p53, WNT, and G-protein) impacted by genetic alterations. Public datasets (TCGA and GDC) confirmed the clinical significance of findings in both subtypes. Overall in this cohort, potentially actionable variation was most often identified in EGFR, PTEN, BRCA1/2, and ATM. This study underlines the need for detailed molecular profiling to identify individual GBM patients who may be eligible for novel treatment approaches. This information is also crucial for patient recruitment to clinical trials.
Project description:Glioblastomas (GBMs) are classified into isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant (IDH MT) and wild-type (IDH WT) subtypes, and each is associated with distinct tumor behavior and prognosis. The present study aimed to investigate differentially expressed long non-coding (lnc)RNAs and mRNAs between IDH MT and IDH WT GBMs, as well as to explore the interaction and potential functions of these RNAs. A total of 132 GBM samples with RNA profiling data (10 IDH MT and 122 IDH WT cases) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas, and 62/78 and 142/219 up/downregulated lncRNAs and mRNAs between IDH MT and IDH WT GBMs were identified, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis of the dysregulated lncRNAs/mRNAs identified three-lncRNA and fifteen-mRNA signatures with independent prognostic value, indicating that these RNAs may serve roles in determining distinct tumor behaviors and prognosis of patients with IDH MT/WT GBMs. Functional analysis of the three lncRNAs revealed that they were primarily associated with cell stemness or differentiation. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that the protective lncRNA AC068643.1 was significantly positively correlated with two key bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling-associated mRNAs, Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and Myostatin (MSTN), from the 15 mRNAs. Further in vitro studies demonstrated that BMP2 and MSTN directly stimulated AC068643.1 expression. In conclusion, the present study identified a BMP signaling pathway-regulated lncRNA AC068643.1, which may contribute to the different tumor behaviors observed between IDH MT and IDH WT GBMs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastomas (GBMs) are classified into isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutants and IDH wild-types (IDH-wt). This study aimed at identifying the mutational assets of IDH-wt GBMs in patients aged 18-54 years for which limited data are available. METHODS:Sixteen IDH-wt GBMs from adults < 55 years old were explored for mutations, copy number variations, tumour mutational load (TML), and mutational spectrum by a 409 genes TML panel. RESULTS:Eight (50%) IDH-wt GBMs were hypermutated (TML > 9 mutations/Mb) and two (12.5%) were ultra-mutated (TML > 100 mutations/Mb). One ultra-mutated GBM had microsatellite instability (MSI), a somatic MSH6 mutation, and a germline POLE mutation. The other ultra-mutated GBMs had MSI and two somatic mutations in MSH2. Both ultra-mutated GBMs featured at least 25% giant cells. The overall survival of eight patients with hypermutated GBMs was significantly longer than that of patients with non-hypermutated GBMs (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:We identified a hyper-mutated subgroup among IDH-wt GBMs in adults < 55 years that had improved prognosis. Two cases were ultra-mutated and characterized by the presence of at least 25% giant cells, MMR mutations, and MSI. Since high TML has been associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibition in paediatric gliomas, the identification of a subtype of ultra-mutated IDH-wt GBM may have implications for immunotherapy.
Project description:The "integrated diagnosis" for infiltrating gliomas in the 2016 revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system requires assessment of the tumor for IDH mutations and 1p/19q codeletion. Since TERT promoter mutations and ATRX alterations have been shown to be associated with prognosis, we analyzed whether these tumor markers provide additional prognostic information within each of the five WHO 2016 categories. We used data for 1206 patients from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study, the Mayo Clinic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with infiltrative glioma, grades II-IV for whom tumor status for IDH, 1p/19q codeletion, ATRX, and TERT had been determined. All cases were assigned to one of 5 groups following the WHO 2016 diagnostic criteria based on their morphologic features, and IDH and 1p/19q codeletion status. These groups are: (1) Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted; (2) Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant; (3) Glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; (4) Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype; and (5) Astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype. Within each group, we used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of overall survival with patient age at diagnosis, grade, and ATRX alteration status and/or TERT promoter mutation status. Among Group 1 IDH-mutant 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendrogliomas, the TERT-WT group had significantly worse overall survival than the TERT-MUT group (HR: 2.72, 95% CI 1.05-7.04, p = 0.04). In both Group 2, IDH-mutant astrocytomas and Group 3, IDH-mutant glioblastomas, neither TERT mutations nor ATRX alterations were significantly associated with survival. Among Group 4, IDH-wildtype glioblastomas, ATRX alterations were associated with favorable outcomes (HR: 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.81, p = 0.01). Among Group 5, IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, the TERT-WT group had significantly better overall survival than the TERT-MUT group (HR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.87), p = 0.02). Thus, we present evidence that in certain WHO 2016 diagnostic groups, testing for TERT promoter mutations or ATRX alterations may provide additional useful prognostic information.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and most aggressive form of diffuse glioma. The prognosis is very poor, with a median overall survival of 15 months after maximum safe resection and radiochemotherapy.GBM is one of the most genetically unstable cancers. It is characterized by numerous chromosome (chr) copy number alterations (CNA), such as chr 7 gain, chr 9p loss, and chr 10 loss, along with CDKN2A homozygous deletion (chr 9p21) and EGFR amplification (chr 7p11).Chromosome instability (CIN) may be the cause or the consequence of GBM development. In high-grade diffuse gliomas (HGG), CIN may initiate tumorigenesis. To identify recurrent genomic abnormalities in IDH WT glioblastomas, SNP arrays (Illumina 850K CytoSNP) were analyzed for 123 IDH WT GBM cases.
Project description:The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates the growth of a subset of adult gliomas and better definition of Hh-responsive subtypes could enhance the clinical utility of monitoring and targeting this pathway in patients. Somatic mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes occur frequently in WHO grades II and III gliomas and WHO grade IV secondary glioblastomas. Hh pathway activation in WHO grades II and III gliomas suggests that it might also be operational in glioblastomas that developed from lower-grade lesions. To evaluate this possibility and to better define the molecular and histopathological glioma subtypes that are Hh-responsive, IDH genes were sequenced in adult glioma specimens assayed for an operant Hh pathway. The proportions of grades II-IV specimens with IDH mutations correlated with the proportions that expressed elevated levels of the Hh gene target PTCH1. Indices of an operational Hh pathway were measured in all primary cultures and xenografts derived from IDH-mutant glioma specimens, including IDH-mutant glioblastomas. In contrast, the Hh pathway was not operational in glioblastomas that lacked IDH mutation or history of antecedent lower-grade disease. IDH mutation is not required for an operant pathway however, as significant Hh pathway modulation was also measured in grade III gliomas with wild-type IDH sequences. These results indicate that the Hh pathway is operational in grades II and III gliomas and glioblastomas with molecular or histopathological evidence for evolvement from lower-grade gliomas. Lastly, these findings suggest that gliomas sharing this molecularly defined route of progression arise in Hh-responsive cell types.