ABSTRACT: The cytogenetic analysis of probands was performed with a result of normal male karyotypes (46,XY). The microarray analysis on oligonucleotide 180K CGH+SNP microarray platform was then indicated resulting in a detection of a 8q24.23q24.3 duplication (694 kb) in both probands. The family-based real-time PCR confirmed this CNV in both probands and their unaffected mother. Based on the information obtained from databases mentioned above it was classified as likely benign.
Project description:Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) led to the discovery of genetic abnormalities among patients with complex phenotype and normal karyotype. Also several apparently normal individuals have been found to be carriers of cryptic imbalances, hence the importance to perform parental investigations after the identification of a deletion/duplication in a proband. Here, we report the molecular cytogenetic characterization of two individuals in which the microdeletions/duplications present in their parents could have predisposed and facilitated the formation of de novo pathogenic different copy number variations (CNVs). In family 1, a 4-year-old girl had a de novo pathogenic 10.5 Mb duplication at 15q21.2q22.2, while her mother showed a 2.262 Mb deletion at 15q13.2q13.3; in family 2, a 9-year-old boy had a de novo 1.417 Mb deletion at 22q11.21 and a second paternal deletion of 247 Kb at 22q11.23 on the same chromosome 22. Chromosome 22 at band q11.2 and chromosome 15 at band q11q13 are considered unstable regions. We could hypothesize that 15q13.2q13.3 and 22q11.21 deletions in the two respective parents might have increased the risk of rearrangements in their children. This study highlights the difficulty to make genetic counseling and predict the phenotypic consequences in these situations.
Project description:Comprehensive chromosome analysis techniques such as metaphase-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (CGH) and array-CGH are available for single-cell analysis. However, while metaphase-CGH and BAC array-CGH have been widely used for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, oligonucleotide array-CGH has not been used in an extensive way. A comparison between oligonucleotide array-CGH and metaphase-CGH has been performed analysing 15 single fibroblasts from aneuploid cell-lines and 18 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. Afterwards, oligonucleotide array-CGH and BAC array-CGH were also compared analysing 16 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. All three comprehensive analysis techniques provided broadly similar cytogenetic profiles; however, non-identical profiles appeared when extensive aneuploidies were present in a cell. Both array techniques provided an optimised analysis procedure and a higher resolution than metaphase-CGH. Moreover, oligonucleotide array-CGH was able to define extra segmental imbalances in 14.7% of the blastomeres and it better determined the specific unbalanced chromosome regions due to a higher resolution of the technique (? 20 kb). Applicability of oligonucleotide array-CGH for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been demonstrated in two cases of Robertsonian translocation carriers 45,XY,der(13;14)(q10;q10). Transfer of euploid embryos was performed in both cases and pregnancy was achieved by one of the couples. This is the first time that an oligonucleotide array-CGH approach has been successfully applied to Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for balanced chromosome rearrangement carriers.
Project description:Oligonucleotide microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) offers an attractive possible route for the rapid and cost-effective genome-wide discovery of deletion mutations. CGH typically involves comparison of the hybridization intensities of genomic DNA samples with microarray chip representations of entire genomes, and has widespread potential application in experimental research and medical diagnostics. However, the power to detect small deletions is low.Here we use a graduated series of Arabidopsis thaliana genomic deletion mutations (of sizes ranging from 4 bp to ~5 kb) to optimize CGH-based genomic deletion detection. We show that the power to detect smaller deletions (4, 28 and 104 bp) depends upon oligonucleotide density (essentially the number of genome-representative oligonucleotides on the microarray chip), and determine the oligonucleotide spacings necessary to guarantee detection of deletions of specified size.Our findings will enhance a wide range of research and clinical applications, and in particular will aid in the discovery of genomic deletions in the absence of a priori knowledge of their existence.
Project description:Porokeratosis is a rare disease of epidermal keratinization characterized by the histopathological feature of the cornoid lamella, a column of tightly fitted parakeratocytic cells, whose etiology is still unclear. Porokeratosis of Mibelli is a subtype of porokeratosis presenting a single plaque or a small number of plaques of variable size located unilaterally on limbs. It frequently appears in childhood and occurs with a higher incidence in males. Cytogenetic analyses were performed in all members of the family on lesioned and uninvolved skin. An array-CGH analysis was also performed utilizing the Human Genome CGH Microarray Kit G3 400 with 5.3 KB overall median probe spacing. Gene expression was performed on skin fibroblasts. In this study, we describe a Caucasian healthy 4-year-old child and his father showing features of porokeratosis of Mibelli. Array-CGH analysis revealed an interstitial 429.5 Kb duplication of chromosome 18p11.32-p11.3 containing four genes, namely: SMCHD1, EMILIN2, LPIN2, and MYOM1 both in patient and his father. EMILIN2 resulted overexpressed on skin fibroblasts. Also other members of this family, without evident signs of porokeratosis, carried the same duplication. Among these genes, we focused our attention on elastin microfibril interfacer 2 (EMILIN2) gene. Apoptosis plays a fundamental role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis, balancing keratinocytes proliferation, and forming the stratum corneum. EMILIN2 is known to trigger the apoptosis of different cell lines negatively affecting cell survival. It is expressed in the skin. We could speculate that the duplication and overexpression of EMILIN2 cause an abnormal apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes and alter the process of keratinization, even if other epigenetic and genetic factors could also be involved. Our results could contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of porokeratosis of Mibelli.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We and others have previously reported that familial cytogenetic studies in apparently de novo genomic imbalances may reveal complex or uncommon inheritance mechanisms. METHODS: A familial, combined genomic and cytogenetic approach was systematically applied to the parents of all patients with unbalanced genome copy number changes. RESULTS: Discordant array-CGH and FISH results in the mother of a child with a prenatally detected 16p13.11 interstitial microduplication disclosed a balanced uncommon rearrangement in this chromosomal region. Further dosage and haplotype familial studies revealed that both the maternal grandfather and uncle had also the same 16p duplication as the proband. Genomic compensation observed in the mother probably occurred as a consequence of interchromosomal postzygotic nonallelic homologous recombination. CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize that such a dualistic strategy is essential for the full characterization of genomic rearrangements as well as for appropriate genetic counseling.
Project description:With the exception of the X chromosome, genomic deletions appear to be more prevalent than duplications. Because of a lack of accurate diagnostic methods, submicroscopic duplications have been under-ascertained for a long period. The development of array CGH has enabled the detection of chromosomal microduplications with nearly the same sensitivity as deletions, leading to the discovery of previously unrecognized syndromes. Using a clinical targeted oligonucleotide array (CMA-V6.3 OLIGO), we identified an approximately 360-kb duplication in 9q22.32 in a 21-month-old boy with developmental delay, failure to thrive, and microcephaly. The same duplication was identified in the patient's mother who is also microcephalic and mildly delayed. We have sequenced the chromosomal breakpoints and determined the duplication as tandem in orientation and 363 599 bp in size. The duplicated segment harbors the entire PTCH1 gene. Deletions or loss-of-function mutations of PTCH1 result in basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), whereas gain-of-function mutations were proposed to lead to holoprosencephaly 7. We propose that patients with microcephaly or holoprosencephaly of unknown origin should also be screened for PTCH1 duplication.
Project description:Introduction. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is an X-linked recessive hypomyelinating leukodystrophy characterized by nystagmus, spastic quadriplegia, ataxia, and developmental delay. It is caused by mutation in the PLP1 gene. Case Description. We report a 9-year-old boy referred for oligoarray comparative genomic hybridization (OA-CGH) because of intellectual delay, seizures, microcephaly, nystagmus, and spastic paraplegia. Similar clinical findings were reported in his older brother and maternal uncle. Both parents had normal phenotypes. OA-CGH was performed and a 436?Kb duplication was detected and the diagnosis of PMD was made. The mother was carrier of this 436?Kb duplication. Conclusion. Clinical presentation has been accepted as being the mainstay of diagnosis for most conditions. However, recent developments in genetic diagnosis have shown that, in many congenital and sporadic disorders lacking specific phenotypic manifestations, a genotype-to-phenotype approach can be conclusive. In this case, a diagnosis was reached by universal genomic testing, namely, whole genomic array.
Project description:AIM:The aim of our study was to identify chromosomal imbalances by whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in DNA samples of children in which karyotype results cannot be obtained. The present paper describes the first Albanian experience of an array CGH application. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The cohort included seven children with developmental delay or intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism and congenital anomalies according to clinical criteria, suggestive of chromosomal anomalies. The age range was from newborn to five years old. The cytogenetic analysis determined by a standard method of G-banding according to the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN 2005) was performed for all our patients, while array CGH was performed on genomic DNA isolated from the blood of 7 cases. RESULTS:Among the seven patients analysed with array CGH, three patients resulted in duplication and one deletion, one patient with a microdeletion and three patients with duplication. Array CGH facilitated the recognition of submicroscopic deletions and duplications as risk factors for genetic diagnosis in all our patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our case series with congenital chromosomal anomalies confirms the high diagnostic value of the method, as suggested by previous studies. The technique must be available also in less developed countries, to significantly improve the genetic diagnosis of paediatric patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability, congenital anomalies and dysmorphic features. The identification of chromosomal abnormalities in these patients and the genetic counselling will provide family members with an explanation for their child's developmental disability or birth defect, allowing better information about recurrence risks, and permit the anticipation of certain medical problems that require intervention.
Project description:Duplication at the Xq28 band including the MECP2 gene is one of the most common genomic rearrangements identified in neurodevelopmentally delayed males. Such duplications are non-recurrent and can be generated by a non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mechanism. We investigated the potential mechanisms for MECP2 duplication and examined whether genomic architectural features may play a role in their origin using a custom designed 4-Mb tiling-path oligonucleotide array CGH assay. Each of the 30 patients analyzed showed a unique duplication varying in size from approximately 250 kb to approximately 2.6 Mb. Interestingly, in 77% of these non-recurrent duplications, the distal breakpoints grouped within a 215 kb genomic interval, located 47 kb telomeric to the MECP2 gene. The genomic architecture of this region contains both direct and inverted low-copy repeat (LCR) sequences; this same region undergoes polymorphic structural variation in the general population. Array CGH revealed complex rearrangements in eight patients; in six patients the duplication contained an embedded triplicated segment, and in the other two, stretches of non-duplicated sequences occurred within the duplicated region. Breakpoint junction sequencing was achieved in four duplications and identified an inversion in one patient, demonstrating further complexity. We propose that the presence of LCRs in the vicinity of the MECP2 gene may generate an unstable DNA structure that can induce DNA strand lesions, such as a collapsed fork, and facilitate a Fork Stalling and Template Switching event producing the complex rearrangements involving MECP2.
Project description:We report on the effectiveness of a custom-designed oligonucleotide-based comparative genomic hybridization microarray (array-CGH) to interrogate copy number across the entire 2.2-Mb genomic region of the DMD gene and its applicability in diagnosis. The high-resolution array-CGH, we developed, successfully detected a series of 42 previously characterized large rearrangements of various size, localization and type (simple or complex deletions, duplications, triplications) and known intronic CNVs/Indels. Moreover, the technique succeeded in identifying a small duplication of only 191?bp in one patient previously negative for DMD mutation. Accurate intronic breakpoints localization by the technique enabled subsequent junction fragments identification by sequencing in 86% of cases (all deletion cases and 62.5% of duplication cases). Sequence examination of the junctions supports a role of microhomology-mediated processes in the occurrence of DMD large rearrangements. In addition, the precise knowledge of the sequence context at the breakpoints and analysis of the resulting consequences on maturation of pre-mRNA contribute to elucidating the cause of discrepancies in phenotype/genotype correlations in some patients. Thereby, the array-CGH proved to be a highly efficient and reliable diagnostic tool, and the new data it provides will have many potential implications in both, clinics and research.